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NATURAL 
HISTORY 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 



VOLUME LXXXII 
1973 



Published by 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

NEW YORK, N.Y. 



Janiiahy No. 1 

AuTiioiis 2 

Lkiteks 6 

A Natuhauist at Large: The People Crunch 0)mes 

TO East Africa Norman Myers 10 

Thk Human Strategy: What Goes Ui', May Stay Up 

Marvin Harris 18 

Bios: The Language of the Leaves Arthur W. Galston 26 

Land Sharing in Rural India Curtis P. Harlman 32 

Photographs by Gary S. Wolinsky 

The Cod: A Case of Supervised Neglect Albert C. Jensen 44 

Return of the Fisher 

Robert B. Brander and David J. Books 52 

Medieval Beasties Frank J. Anderson 58 

Arctic Renaissance George Swinton 64 

Man's Adaptable Predator Edwin D. Kilbourne 72 

Sky Reporter: Black Holes and Galaxies 

John P. Wiley, Jr. 84 

Celestl\l Events Thomas D. Nicholson 86 

The Prophet Speaks Review by Luther P. Geriach 88 

Suggested Additional Reading .". 100 



February No. 2 

Authors 2 

Letters 6 

A New Age for Aging Bernard L. Strehler 8 

The Human Strategy: Riddle of the Pig, H 

Marvin Harris 

Bios: A Basic Unity of Life Arthur W. Galston 

The Silent Ordeal of a South Atlantic Archipelago 

Ian J. Strange 

From Mother Goddess to Dishwasher Dena Justin 

Phineas T. Barnum's Charming Beast Harvey A. Ardman 

Secrets of the Coelacanth Keith S. Thomson 

Unveiling the Black Widow John A. L. Cooke 

Moments in the Mud Photographs by Maureen Bisilliat 

Social Systems, Sex, and Survival 

Review by Daniel H. Janzen 

Sky Reporter: Back to the Backyard John P. Wiley, Jr. 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 100 

Suggested Additional Reading 102 



20 
26 

30 
40 
46 
58 
66 
76 



99 



March No. 3 

Authors 2 

Letters 4 

The Misnamed, Mistreated, and Misunderstood Irish Elk 

Stephen Jay Gould 10 
The Human Strategy: The Withering Green Revolution 

Marvin Harris 20 

Bios: Plant Cancer Arthur W. Galston 24 

Lonely Lives Under the Big Sky WilHam A. Douglass 28 

Flowers of the Sea Meredith L. Jones 40 

Photographs by Carl Roessler 

Letters from Golden Sardis George M. A. Hanfmann 46 

Cemetery Ecology 

Jack Ward Thomas and Ronald A. Dixon 60 
The Greater Rhea Chick and Egg Delivery Route 

Donald F. Bruning 68 

Sad Saga of the Oceana Susan Schlee 76 

Where Humanity Ends Review by Robert Coles 84 

Suggested Additional Reading 97 

Celestul Events Thomas D. Nicholson 98 



April No. 4 

Authors 2 

At Random Alan Ternes 4 

A Naturalist at Large: Smokey Bear Meets Satan's Wife 

Raymond B. Cowles 6 

Letters 20 

Bios: China's Far-flung Children Arthur W. Galston 24 

Metamorphosis of the Monarch Jecon Gregory 28 

An Indian Journey to Life's Source Peter T. Furst 34 

Last Dance on the Mating Ground 

Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Philippe Diole 44 

The Cones of Cappadocia Roberta Strauss Feuerlichi 50 

The Black Rhinoceros John Goddard 58 

A Botanist at Sea Nicholas T. Mirov 68 

People and Their Music Review by Alan P. Merriam 78 

Celestl^l Events Thomas D. Nicholson 92 

Suggested Additional Reading 95 



May No. 5 

Authors 2 

Letters 4 

Where Did You Go? Out. What Did You Find? Fossils 

Robert Sommer 9 

Bios: Education under Fire Arthur W. Galston 18 

Refugees of the Ice Age Thomas C. Barr, Jr. 26 

The Lost Vikings of Greenland Jcirgen Meldgaard 36 

The Squalor That Was Rome Theodore Crane 44 

The Bison Is Beleaguered -A.gain Henry G. DeYoung 48 

Folk Art in the Barrios Eric KroU 56 

Foiling the Falconers Alan Pistorius 66 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 78 

The Greening of Indoor America Richard M. Klein 80 

Suggested Additional Reading 87 

At Random Alan Ternes 88 



June-July No. 6 

Authors 4 

Letters 8 

A Naturalist at Large: Genesis Salvador E. Luria 10 

Bios: Health Care in North Vietnam Arthur W. Galston 20 

Old Glory and the New Yap David Labby 26 

Photographs by Dorreen Labby 

Seeds: The Carriers of Life Willard K. Martin 38 

So Fair and Foul a Bird Charles Vaurie 60 

Photographs by Hans Silvester 

A Most Peaceable Rodent Garrett C. Clough 66 

The Myths in Men's Mtnds Review by Terence Turner 80 

CeijEstul Events Thomas D. Nicholson 90 

Sigr Reporter: The Ancient and Legendary Gods of Old 

Carl Sagan 92 

Suggested Additional Reading 94 

At Random Mihon Rugoff 96 



August-September No. 7 

Authors 4 

Letters 11 

A Dog's World View Kenneth D. Roeder 12 

The Human Strategy: The Rites of Summer. ..Marvin Harris 20 

Bios: Hard Times for American Science ..Arthur W. Galston 24 

To Kill a Honeycreeper Richard E. Warner 30 

Sickness and Death in Florida's Coral Reefs 

Gilbert L. Voss 40 



Twilight of the Cree Hunting Nation Harvey A. Feit 48 

Man and Marijuana Richard E. Schultes 58 

The Adaptable Raccoon Dean Schneider 64 

Food, Glorious Food! Review by Raymond Sokolov 86 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 96 

Suggested Additional Reading 98 

Sky Reporter: The Ice Age and the Caldron Carl Sagan 100 



October No. 8 

Authors 2 

Letters 8 

Secrets of the Great Plant Wizard Ken and Pat Kraft 10 

Bios: New Ways to Increase Man's Food 

Arthur W. Galston 28 
A Tribe of Ancient Mariners Comes Ashore 

H. Arlo Nimmo 34 

Disaster from the Tropics R. Cecil Gentry 46 

The Turning of the Leaves Patricia W. Spencer 56 

The Day the Mountain Fell Daniel and Jean Shepard 64 

Showdown in Ngorongoro Crater Richard D. Estes 70 

Man's Age-old Struggle for Power Andrew Hardy 82 

Not All Roads Lead to Wounded Knee 

Review bv Peter Farb 88 
Sky Reporter: Beglnnings and Ends of the Earth 

Carl Sagan 101 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 102 

Suggested Additional Reading 104 



November No. 9 

.'VUTHORS ........i 5 

Letters 6 

Twilight Seen from Space 

K. Ya. Kondratvev and 0. I. Smoktv 12 

Bios: Turning Plants Off a.nd On Arthur W. Galston 26 

A Naturalist at Large: Cabinets of Curiosities 

Frank J. Anderson 41 

The Metro Forest A Natural History Special Supplement 45 

Turkey Renaissance 

Gerald A. Wunz and .A.rnold H. Hayden 86 

Bedouins of the Oil Fields Donald P. Cole 94 

Back to the Bow and Arrow Review by C. Loring Brace 110 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 126 



December No. 10 

Authors 4 

Letters 11 

Living off the Fuels of the L^nd Eric Hirst 20 

Seaweed Invasion Robert Wassman and Joseph Ramus 24 

The Glory That Was Jerusalem Christopher L. Hallowell 38 

The Japanese Art of Tattooing Donald Richie 50 

Photographs by George and Claire Louden 
Natural and Unn.wural Selection in a Wild Goose 

Paul A. Johnsgard 60 

Giant Pandas in the Wild Wang Sung and Lu Chang-kun 

. . . AND IN A Biochemical Laboratory Vincent Sarich 70 

A New Weapon Stirs Up Old Ghosts William E. Mitchell 74 

Bios: Botanist Charles Darwin Arthur W. Galston 85 

Political Storm Signals Over the Sea Patrick A. Mulloy 87 

Pots and Robbers Review bv Ian Graham 94 

Sky Reporter: The Hospitable Planet Earth 

Gregory Benford 102 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 104 

Suggested Additional Reading 108 



INDEX TO 
VOLUME LXXXII 

AUTHORS AND TITLES 



Anderson, F.J., Medieval Beasties, Jan., 
p.58; Cabinets of Curiosities, Nov., p.41 

Arbib, R.. Life and Death of the Lord's 
Woods. Nov.. p.63 

Ardman. H.A., Phineas T. Barnum's Charm- 
ing Beast, Feb., p.44j 
B 

Bardach, J.E., Review, Oct., p.92 

Barr, T.C, Jr., Refugees of the Ice Age, 
May, p.26 

Benford, C, The Ho; 
Dec., p.l02 

BisiUiat, M., Moments i 
p.76 

Books. D.j., Return of 
p.52 

lirace, C.L., Review, No' 

Brander. R.B., Return c 



3.52 



, Mai 



Briggs, J., Revie 
llruning, D.F., The Greater Rhea Chick a 
Egg Delivery Route, Mar., p.68 



Cauley, D.L.. The Cincinnati Raccoons. 

Nov., p.58 
Chang-kun, L., Gwnt Pandas in the Wild, 

Dec, p.70 
Clougb. G.C, A Most Peaceable Rodent, 

June, p.66 
Cole, D.P., Bedouins of the Oil Fields, 

Nov., p.94 
Coles, R., Review, Mar., p.84 
Cooke, J.A.L., Unveiling the Bl,\ck Widow, 

Feb., p.66 
Cousteau, J.-Y., Lj\st Dance on the Mating 

Ground, Apr., p.44 
Cowles, R.B., Smokey Bear Meets Satan's 

Wife, Apr., p.6 
Crane, T., The Squalor That Was Rome, 

May, p.44 



D 



DcY 



H.G., The Bison Is Beleaguered 

Again, May, p.48 
Diole, P., Last Dance on the Mating 

Ground, Apr., p.44 
Dixon, R.A., Cemetery Ecology, Mar., p.60 
Dole, G.E., Review, June, p.84 
Douglass, W.A., Lonely Lives Under the 

Big Sky, Mar., p.28 



Eisner, T, Review, Jan., p.94 
Esles. R.D., Review, Apr., p.83; Showdi 
IN Ngorongoro Crater, OcL, p.70 



Feuerlichi, R.S., The Cones of Cappadocia, 



Furst, P.T., An Indian Journey 
Source, Apr., p.34 



Galslon, A.W., The Language of the Leaves, 
Jan., p.26; A Basic Unity of Life, Feb., 
p.26; Plant Cancer, Mar., p.24; China's 
Far-flung Children, Apr., p.24; Educa- 
tion under Fire, May, p.l8; Health Care 
IN North Vietnam, June, p.20; Hard 
Times for American Science, Aug., p.24; 
New Ways to Increase Man's Food, Oct., 
p.28; Turning Plants Off and On, Nov., 
p.26; Botanist Charles Darwin, Dec, 



3.85 



; Tropics, 



Gentry, R.C., DisMTER 
Oct., p.'kj 

Gerlach, L.P., Review, Jan., p.88 

Classic, H., Review, Jan., p.97 

Goddard, J., The Black Rhinoceros, Apr., 
p.58 

Gordon, B., The Battle of Lynn Woods, 
Nov., p.76 

Gould, S.J., The Misnamed, Mistreated, and 
Misunderstood Irish Elk. Mar.. p.lO 

Grabam. I., Review, Dec, p.94 

Gregory, J., Metamorphosis of the Mon- 
arch, Apr., p.28 

H 

Hall, E.C., Review, Nov., p.l23 
Hallowell, C.L, The Glory That Was Jeru- 
salem, Dec, p.38 
Hanfmann, G.M.A., Letters from Golden 



Sar 



, Mai 



Hardy, A., Man's Age-old Struggle for 
Power, Oct., p.82 

Harris. M., What Goes Up, May Stay Up, 
Jan., p.l8; Riddle of the Pig, II, Feb., 
p.20; The Withering Green Revolution, 
Mar., p.20; The Rites of Summer, Aug., 
p.20 

Hart, R., Adventures in a Wooded Wonder- 
land, Nov., p.67 

Harlman, C.P., Land Sharing in Rural In- 
dia, Jan., p.32 

Hartmann, F., ed.. The Metro Forest, Nov., 
p.4S 



vised Neglect, Jan., p.44 
Jobnsgard, P.A., Natural and Unnatural 

Selection in a Wild Goose, Dec, p.60 
Jones, M.L., Flowers of the Sea, Mar., p.40 
Justin, D., From Mother Goddess to Dish- 
washer, Feb., p.40 



Kilbourne, E.D., Man's Adaptable Preda- 
tor, Jan., p.72 

Klein, R.M., Review, May, p.80 

Kondratyev, K.Ya., Twilight Seen from 
Space, Nov., p.l2 

Kraft, K, and P., Secrets of the Great 
Plant Wizard, Oct., p.lO 

KroU, E., Folk Art in the Barrios, May, 
p.56 



Labby, D., Old Glory and the New Yap, 

June, p.26 
Lambrix, T.G., The Battle of Lynn Woods, 

Nov., p.76 
Levi, H.W., Review, Aug., p.92 
Luria, S.E., Genesis, June, p.lO 

M 

Martin, W.K., Seeds: The Carriers of Life, 

June, p.38 
Meldgaard, J., The Lost Vikings of Green- 
land, May, p. 36 
Mcrriam, A.P., Review, Apr., p. 78 
Middleton, J., Review, Feb., p.91 
Mirov, N.T., A Botanist at Sea, Apr., p.68 
Mitcbell, W.E., A New Weapon Stirs Up 

Old Ghosts, Dec, p.74 
Montagu, A., Review, Nov., p.l20 
Mulloy, P.A., Political Storm Signals Over 

the Sea, Dec, p.87 
Myers, N., The People Crunch Comes to 
East Africa, Jan., p.lO 

N 
Nicholson, T.D., Celestul Events, Jan., 

p.86; Feb., p. 100; Mar., p.98; Apr., p.92; 

May, p.78; June, p.90; Aug., p.96; Oct., 

p.l02; Nov., p.l26; Dec, p.l04 
Nimmo, H.A., A Tribe of Ancient Mariners 

Comes Ashore. Oct., p.34 



arlmann, F., The Chicago Forestry 


P 


Scheme, Nov., p.72 


athaway, M.B., Ecology of City Squir- 


Payne, B.R., The Twenty-nine Tree Home 


rels, Nov., p.61 


Improvement Plan, Nov., p.74 


ayden, A.H., Turkey Renaissance, Nov., 


Pistorius, A.. Foiling the Falconers, May 



Heminway, J.H., Jr., Review, Apr., p.88 
Hirsl, E., Living Off the Fuels of the Land, 

Dec, p.20 
Holscher, C.E., City Forf-sts of Europe, 

Nov., p.52 
Hope, J., Review, Feb., p.96 

I 

Imperato, P.J., Following the Footprints 
OF Influenza in New York City, Jan., 
p.76 



Ramus, J., Seaweed Invasion, Dec, p.24 
Rich, S., Trees and Urban Clihutes, Nov., 



Richie. D., The Japanese Art of Tat 

Dec, p.50 
Roeder, K.D., A Dog's World View, Aug., 

p.l2 
Roessler, C, Flowers of the Sea, Mar., p.40 
RugofT, M., At Random, June, p.96 



Sagan, C, Sky Reporter, Jui 
p. 100; Oct., p. 101 



Sarich, v.. Giant Pandas in a Biochemical 

Laroratory. Dec, p.70 
Schinner, J.R., The Cincinnati Raccoons, 

Nov., p.58 
Schlee, S., Sad Saga of the Oceana, Mar., 

p.76 
Schneider, D., The Adaptable Raccoon, 

Aug., p.64 
Scbultes, R.E.. Man and Marijuana. Aug.. 

p.58 
Shepard, D. and J., The Day the Mountain 

Fell, Oct., p.64 
Shepard. P., Review, June, p.87 
Smokly, O.I., Twilight Seen from Space, 



No 



).12 



Sokolov, R., Review, Aug., p.86 

Sommer, R., Where Did You Go? Out. 

What Did You Find? Fossils, May, p.9 
Spencer, P.W., The Turning of the Leaves, 

Oct., p.56 
Stephens, G.R., Return of the Forest, 



No 



p.82 



Strange, !.J., The Silent Ordeal of a South 
Atlantic Archipelago, Feb., p.30 

Strehler, B.L., A New Ace for Aging, Feb., 
p.8 

Sung, W., Giant Pandas in the Wild, Dec, 
p.70 

Swinlon, G., Arctic Renaissance, Jan., p.64 

T 

Ternes, A., At R,\ndom, Apr., p.4; May, p.88 
Thomas, J.W., Cemetery Ecology, Mar., 

p.60 
Thomson, K.S.. Secrets of the Coelacanth, 

Feb., p.58 
Turner, T., Review, June, p.80 



Van Brunt, H.L., Review, May, p.82 
Vaurie, C. So Fair and Foul a Bird, June, 

p.60 
Voss, G.L., Sickness and Death in Florida's 

Coral Reefs, Aug., p.40 



Waggoner, P.E.. Return of the Forest, 
Nov., p.82 

Wallace, B., Review, Feb., p.93 

Warner, R.E., To Kill a Honeycreeper, 
Aug., p.30 

Wassman, R., Seaweed Invasion, Dec, p.24 

Wax, R.H., Review, Mar., p.90 

Wiley, J.P., Jr., Sky Reporter, Jan., p.84; 
Feb., p.99 

Williamson, R.D., BiRD-AND People- 
Neighborhoods, Nov., p. 55 

Wunz, G.A., Turkey Renaissance, Nov., 
p.86 

z 

Zube, E.H., The Natural History of Urran 
Trees, Nov., p.48 

SUBJECT MATTER 

Africa, East African wildlife, Jan., p.lO 
Aging, Feb., p.8 

Farming in India, Jan., p.32 
Miracle seeds, Mar., p.20 
Plants, Oct., p.lO; Nov., p.26 



Alga, Dec. p.24 

American Indians 

Cree. Aug., p.48 

Huichol, Apr., p.34 

Animal Behavior 

Bison, May, p.48 

Black rhinoceros, Apr., p.58 

Black widow spider, Feb., p.66 

Cave animals. May, p.26 

Dog, Aug., p.l2 

Elk, Irish, Mar., p.lO 

Falcon, May, p.66 

Fisher, Jan., p.52 

Gazelle, Oct., p.70 

Giant Panda, Dec, p.70 

Goose, Dec, p.60 

Honeycreeper, Aug., p.30 

Hoopoe, June, p.60 

Bulla, Bahamian, June, p.66 

Monarch, butterfly, Apr., p.28 

Raccoon, Aug., p.64 

Rhea, Mar., p.68 

Squid, mating, Apr., p.44 

Squirrel, Nov., p.61 

Turkey, Nov., p.86 
Anthropology 

Bajau, Philippines, Oct., p.34 

Basque shepherds. Mar., p.28 

Bedouins, Nov., p.94 

Cappadocia, Apr., p.50 

Eskimo, Jan., p.64 

Indians, Cree, Aug., p.48; Huichol. Apr. 
p.34 

Japanese, tattooing, Dec, p.50 

Sardis, archeology,* Mar., p.46 

Vikings, May, p.36 

Wape people. New Guinea, Dec, p.74 

Yap Island, June, p.26 
Archeological digs, Dec, p.38 
Art 

, May, p.56 



,0, Jai 



3.64 



and Natural history, Jaiv., p.58 
Astronomy 

Backyard astronomer, Feb., p.99 

Black holes, Jan., p.84 

Celestial events, Jan., p.86; Feb., p.lOO; 

Mar., p.98; Apr., p.92; May, p.78; 

June, p.90; Aug., p.96; Oct., p.l02; 

Nov., p. 126; Dec, p. 104 
Climatic changes, Aug., p. 100 
Comet Kohoutck, Nov., p. 126; Dc 

p.l04 



Gala; 



Lunar eclipse, partial, Nov., p. 126 


Meteor observation 


, Jan., p.84 


Planets, Nov., p.l26 


Sky Reporter, Jun 


e, p.92; Aug., p.lOO 


Oct., p.lOl; Dec 


, p. 102 


Southern sky, Jan., 


p.84 


Sun and moon. No 


.■., p. 126 


Backyard astronomer. 


Feb., p.99 


Bahamian hulias, Jun 


, p.66 


Bajau, Philippines, 


1., p.34 


Barnum, P.T., Jumbo 


Feb., p.46 


Basque shepherds, M 


r., p.28 


Bedouins, Middle Eas 
Biology 

Cancerous cells in 


1, Nov., p.94 


plants. Mar., p.24 


Cell division, Feb., 


p.8 


Food, Oct., p.28 





Leaf movcmenW, Feb.. p.26 
Leaves, Jan., p.26; Oct., p.56 
Molecules, June, p.lO 
Plains, Oct., p.lO 
Trees, Ocl., p.56; Nov., p.4« 

;an science, Aug., p.24 
China's children, Apr., p.24 
Darwin, Charles, Dec, p.85 
Educalion, May, p.l8 
Food, Oct., p.28 
Health care, June, p.20 
leaves, Jan., p.26; Feb., p.26 
Plant cancer. Mar.. p24 
Plants, Nov., p.26 

p.55 



Bio: 



Bm 



Habitat, No' 

Honeyrreeper, Aug.. p.30 

Hoopoe, crested, June, p.60 

Prairie falcon. May, p.66 

Hhca, Mar., p.68 

Turkey. Nov.. p.86 

Wild goose. Dee., p.60 
Bison, May, p.« 
Black holes, Jan., p.84 
Black rhinoceros, Apr., p.SB 
Black widow spider, Feb., p.66 
Botany 

Leaves, Jan., p.26; Feb., p.26; Oct., p.56 

Marijuana, Aug., p.SB 

Miracle seeds. Mar., p.20 

Peyote, Apr., p.34 

Plants, cancer in, Mar., p.24; feeling 
toward, Oct., p. 10; physiology of, Apr., 
p.68; lime clocks, Nov., p.26 

Seaweed, Dec, p24 

Seed pods, Juno, p.38 

Siberian, Apr., p.68 

Trees, Oct., p.56; Nov., p.4fi 
Brazil mud flats. Feb., p.80 
Brucellosis, May. p.48 
Butterfly, monarch, Apr., p.28 
Callcjon dc Huaylas, Peru, Oct., p.64 
Cappadocia, Asia Minor, Apr.. p.50 
Caves, May, p.26 
Celestial Events see Astronomy 
Cells, cancerous in plants. Mar., p.24; divi- 
sion and aging, Feb., p.8 
Cemeteries, Mar., p.60 
Chicane youth. May, p.56 
China, expatriates of. Apr., p.24 
Chinese culture. Bajau. Oct.. p.34 
City forests, Europe, Nov., p.52 
Climate and urban trees, Nov., p.70 
Climatic changes and pollution, Aug., p.lOO 
Codflsh, Jan., p.44 
Coclacanth, fossil fish, Feb., p.58 
Comet Kohoutek, Nov., p.l26; Dec, p.l04 
Conservation 

Black rhinoceros. Apr., p.58 

Codfish, Jan. p.44 

East African wildlife, Jan.. p.lO 

Honeycreeper, Aug., p.30 

Prairie falcon. May. p.66 

South Atlantic wildlife. Feb., p.30 
Coral reefs, Aug., p.40 
Cree Indians, Aug., p.46 
Darwin, Charles, Dec, p.85 
Dog, dachshund, Aug., p.l2 
Dbugs 

Hemp, Aug., p.58 



and Huichol Indians, Apr., p.34 

Marijuana, Aug., p.58 
Earth, Oct., p.lOl; Nov.. p.l2; Dec, p.l02 
Earthquake, Peru, Oct., p.64 
East African wildlife, Jan., p.lO 
Ecology 

Bahamian hutias, June, p.66 

Birds, Nov., p.55 

Black rhinoceros, Apr., p.58 

Cemetery, Mar., p.60 

City forests, Nov., p.52 

Food, Oct., p.28 

Forestry, Nov., p.72 

Forests, Nov., p.82 

Home improvement plan, Nov., p.74 

Honeycreeper, Aug., p.30 

Human, East Africa, Jan., p.lO; rural In- 
dia, Jan., p.32 

Hunting practices, Cree Indians, Aug., 
p.4« 

Lord's Woods, Nov., p.63 

Lynn Woods, Nov., p.76 

Pig, Feb., p.20 

Racoon, Aug., p.64; Nov., p.58 

Smokey Bear and fire prevention, Apr., 
p.6 

Scpiirrel, Nov., p.61 

Urban trees, Nov., p.4S; p.70 

Wooded wonderland, Nov., p.67 
Education, May, p. 18 
Elephant, Jumbo, Feb., p.46 
Elk, Irish, Mar., p.lO 
Energy crisis, Oct., p.82; Dec, p.20 



Eskin 



Ethnohistory, Basque shepherds. Mar., p.28 
Evolution 

Fishes, Feb., p.SB 

Theories of, Irish elk. Mar., p. 10; Charles 
Darwin, Dec, p.85 
Falcon, prairie. May, p.66 
Falkland Islands, Feb., p.30 
Fire prevention, Smokey Bear. Apr., p.6 
Fisher, Jan., p.52 
Fisheries, management, Jan., p.44 

Cod. Jan., p.44 
Coelacanth, fossil, Feb., p.SB 
Folklore, Feb., p.40 

Cod, Jan., p.44 

and Fuel, Dec, p.20 

Increase, Oct., p.28 

and Pig, Feb., p.20 
Forestry, Chicago, Nov., p.72 
Forests 

in Cities, Nov., p.52 

Second growth and turkeys, Nov., p.86 

Return of, Nov., p.82 
Fossil, fishes, Feb., p.S8; imprints. May, p.9 
Fuel, Oct., p.82; Dec, p.20 



Galai 



Gazelle, Grant's, Oct., p.70 

Geology, earthquake, Peru, Oct., p.64 

Goose, wild, Dec, p.60 

Greenland. May. p.36 

Hawaii, birds. Aug.. p.30 

Heahh care. North Vietnam, June, p.20 

Hemp, Aug., p.SB 

History, elhno, Mar., p.28; oceanographic 

Mar., p.76 
Honeycreeper, Aug., p.30 



loopoe, crested, June, p.60 
luichol Indians, Mexico, Apr., p.34 
luMArr Strategy 

Fashions, Jan., p.l8 

Green Revolution, Mar., p.20 

Pig, Feb., p.20 

Pigment and summer, Aug.. p.20 
lulias. Bahamian, June, p.66 
ce Age, cave animals. May, p.26; climatic 

changes, Aug., p.lOO 
ndia, rural, Jan., p.32 

Cree. Aug., p.48; Huichol, Apr. 



D.34 



Influ 



3.72 



InsecU, monarch butterfly, Apr., 

Invertebrates 

Coral reefs. Aug.. p.40 
Sabellid and serpulid polychai 






, Mai 



p.40 



Squid. Apr., p.44 
Irish elk. Mar., p.lO 
Japanese tattoo, Dec, p.50 
Jerusalem, Dec p.38 
Jumbo, Feb., p.46 
Kohoutek, Nov., p.l26; Dec, p.l04 
Law of the sea, Dec, p.87 
Leaves 

Language of, Jan., p.26 

Movement of, Feb., p.26 

Sleep movements, Jan., p.26 

Turning of, Oct., p.56 
Letters to the Editor, Jan., p.4; Feb., 

p.6; Mar., p.4; Apr., p.20; May, p.4; June, 

p.8; Aug., p.Il; Oct., p.8; Nov.. p.6; Dec, 

p.ll 
Lord's Woods, Nov., p.63 
Lynn Woods, Boston, Nov., p.76 
Mammals 

, May, [ 



Dog, Aug. 



1.12 



Elephant, Jumbo, Feb.. p.46 

Elk, Irish, Mar.. p.lO 

Fisher, Jan., p.52 
. Gazelle, Oct., p.70 

Hutia, Bahamian, June, p.66 

Panda, Giant, Dec, p.70 

Pig, Feb., p.20 

Raccoon, Aug., p. 64; in Cincinnati 
p.SB 

Rhinoceros, black, Apr., p.58 

Squirrel, Nov., p.61 
Marijuana, Aug., p.S8 
Marine Life 

Coral reefs, Aug., p.40 

Sabellid and serpulid polychaete 



Mai 



p.40 



Squid, Apr., 
Medieval beasties, Jai 
Metamorphosis, mor 

p.28 



Mar., p.40 



■ch butterfly, Apr. 



Meteor observations, Jan., p.84 
Meteorology, Oct., p.46; Aug.. p.lOO 
Mexico, Huichol Indians, Apr., p.34 
Microbiology, influenza virus. Jan.. p.7 
Micronesia, Yap Island, June, p.26 
Miracle seeds. Mar., p.20 
Molecule, June, p.lO 
Monarch butterfly, Apr., p.28 
Mud flats, Brazil, Feb., p.80 



Murals, Chicano, May, p.S6 
Mythology, Jan., p.SB; Feb., p.40 
Natural History, a name, Apr., p.4 
Natural History museums, early collections, 

Nov.. p.41 
Naturalist at Large 

Conservation, Jan., p.20 

Dogs, Aug., p.l2 

Genesis, June, p.lO 

Smokey Bear, Apr., p.6 

Trivia, Nov., p.41 
New Guinea, Wape people, Dec, p.74 
New York City, and influenza virus, Jan., 

p.76 
North Vietnam, May, p.l8; education, May, 

p.l8; health care, June. p.20 
Oceans 

History, Mar., p.76 

Tropical, Oct., p.46 

Wealth of, Dec, p.87 
Oil fields and Bedouins, Nov., p.94 
Paleontology, coelacanth, fish, Feb., p.SB 
Panda, Giant, Dec. p.70 
Peru, earthquake, Oct., p.64 
Peyote and Huichol Indians, Apr., p.34 
Philippines, Bajau, Oct., p.34 
Photosynthesis, Oct., p.28 
Pig, Feb., p.2a 

Pigment and summer, Aug., p.20 
Plants see Botany 
Pollution, and climate, Aug., p. 100; and 

Florida's coral reefs, Aug., p.40 
Polychaete worms, sabellid and serpulid. 

Mar., p.40 
Population explosion. East Africa, Jan., p. 10 
IS, Aug., p.64; in Cincinnati, Nov., 



0.58 



Rhei 



, Mai 



Rhinoceros, black, Apr., p.58 

Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., Nov., 

p.SS 
Rome, ancient. May, p.44 
Sardis, excavations in. Mar., p.46 
Satellite, Nov., p.l2 

Science, and federal support, Aug., p.24 
Sea anemones. Mar., p.40 
Seaweed, Dec, p.24 
Sea worms. Mar., p.40 
Seeds, June, p.38 

Skin and pigment, summer, Aug., p.20 
Sky Reporter see Astronomy 
Smokey Bear, .'\pr., p.6 
South Atlantic, Falkland Island, Feb.. p.30 
South Pacific, Yap Island, June, p.lO 
Southern sky, Jan., p.84 
Space, Nov., p.l2 
Spiders, black widow, Feb.. p.66 
Squid, Apr., p.44 
Squirrel, Nov., p.61 
Summer and tan, Aug., p.20 
Swiss National Park, May, p.88 
Tattooing, art of, Dec, p.50 
Time clocks in plants, Nov., p.26 

Autumn leaves, Oct., p.S6 

Chicago trees, Nov., p.72 

Home improvement plan, Nov., p.74 

Urban, Nov., p.48 

Urban and climate, Nov., p.70 
Trivia, Nov., p.41 
Turkev, Nov., p.86 



Urban trees, Nov., p.4S; p.70 

Vikings, May, p.36 

Vinoba Bhave, and farming in India, Jai 



, in bis 
J.72 



May, p.48; influ 



Wape people, New Guinea, Dec, p.74 

Weather, Oct.. p.46 

Wildlife. East African. Jan.. p.lO; Falkland 

Islands, Feb., p.30 
Women, fashion. Western, Jan., p. 18; and 

liberation, Feb., p.40 
Woods 

Lord's Woods, Nov., p.63 

Lynn Woods, Nov., p.76 

Wooded wonderland, Nov., p.67 

see also Forests, Trees 
Yap Island. Micronesia, June, p.26 



Books its Review 
Afrkanin: The Cullural Unity of Black Af- 
rica, Feb., p.91 
Amasonian Cosmos, Feb., p.86 
Americanizing the American Indians, Oct.. 

p.88 
Avocado Pit Grower's Indoor Hott'-To Book. 

The, May, p.80 
Big Thicket, The, Jan., p.94 
Conscnnrig Life on Earth, June, p.87 
Edge of an Unfamiliar World, Oct., p.92 
Flowers and Trees of Tudor England, Nov.. 

p. 123 
Food in History, Aug., p.86 
Foxfire Book, The, Jan., p.97 
From Honey to Ashes, June, p.80 
Gad Within, A. Feb., p. 93 
Growing Unusual Fruit, May, p.82 
Grow Your Own Plants, May, p.80 
Handbooks of the Brooklyn Botanical Gar- 
den, May, p.80 
Japanese Art of Miniature Trees and Land- 
scape, May, p.80 
Jii'aro, The. June, p.84 
Literature of the American Indian, 0. I.. 



Long African Day. The, Apr., p.83 
Miniature Plants Indoors and Out, 



Ma' 



Mountain People, The, Mar., p.84 
Music of the Atnericas, Apr., p.78 
Must the Seas Die? Oct., p.92 
New York Times Book of House Plants, The. 



y, p.ti 



A^cif Zealand Spiders, Aug., p.92 
One Cosmic Instant, Man's Fleeting Suprem- 
acy, Nov., p. 120 
Pitseotak: Pictures Out of Mr Life, Mar. 

p.93 
Plundered Past, The, Dec, p.94 
Power Along tlu- Hudson, Feb., p.96 
Scribner Garden Library, May, p.80 
Sun Dance Religion, The, Oct., p.88 
Tender Carnivore and the Sacred Game, The 

Nov., p. 110 
Titne of the Buffalo, The, May. p.82 
To Live on This Earth. Mar., p.90 
Where the Wasteland Ends, Jan., p.SS 
Winds of Mara, The, Apr.. p.SS 
Your City Garden, May, p.SO 



ATURAL HISTORY 



JANUARY 1973 • $1 



The 1973 Thunderbird. 

In appearance, 
in appointments, it's a luxury car. 

In ride and handling, 
its distinctly Thunderbird. 



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The automobile that is known for ride and 
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Its suspension system has been refined 
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Tires that are tested to give the average 
driver 40,000 miles of tread life in normal 
driving. Result: an extraordinarily smooth 
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Some other special luxuries: cushioned 
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Experience it at your Ford Dealer's. 




A unique luxury automobile 

THUNDERBIRD 

FORD DIVISION _ 



equipment shown 



NATURAL HISTORY 



liicoijxiratiii^ i\alurr Miifiuziiic 
lol. LW.MI. \o. I 
Jariiian t97:S 



lilt Mii.scuiii i>l \iiliiiiil llisliiry 

Gardner D. Stoat, J-'rvsident 

Thomas D. Nicholson, Director 



Alan Terms, Executive Editor 

■ Robert E. Williamson, Managing Editor 
Thomas Page, Art Editor 

■ John P. Wiley, Jr., Senior Editor 

' Lawrence D. Queen, Senior Editor 
Frederick Hartmann, Associate Editor 
Christopher Hallouell, Associate Editor 
Carol Breslin. Booh Reviews Editor 
Florence G. Edelstein, Copy Chief 

* Toni Gerber, Copy Editor 
Ernestine Weindorf, Administrative Asst. 
Angela Soccodato, Production 

' Diane Pierson, Editorial Asst. 
Lillian Berger 

-• Dorothy Naylor 

Rosamond W. Dana, Publications Editor 

■ Harvey Oshinsky, Advertising Director 

■ Gordon Finley 
Harry R. Jeter 
Vi€ Asselin 

Eileen O'Keefe. Production 
Roberta Zelem, Asst. 

' Dinah Lowell, Promotion 

■ Joan Mahoney 
Harriet Walsh 

Editorial Advisers: 
Dean Amadon 
Dorothy E. Bliss 
Mark Chartrand 
Niles Eldredge 

Vincent Alanson 
Margaret Mead 

Thomas D. Nicholson 

Gerard Piel 

Richard G. Van Gelder 



2 Authors 

6 Letters 

10 A Naturalist at Large: The People Crunch Comes to East Africa Norman Myers 
Something has to go, and the trend indicates it will be ,4frica's wildlife as the human 
population reproduces and reproduces and reproduces. 

18 The Human Strategy: What Goes Up, May Stay Up Marvin Harris 

Despite the optimism and tremendous advertising lobby of clothing designers, a signifi- 
cant victory looms in the struggle for human liberation. 

26 Bios: The Language of the Leaves Arthur W. Galston 

The next time you have a heart-to-heart talk with a plant, ask it if it needs a light— 
you may be surprised at its response. 

32 Land Sharing in Rural India Curtis P. Hartman Photographs by Gary S. WoUnsky 
Vinoba Bhave, a disciple of Gandhi's, has left a quiet revolution in the wake of his 
low-profile walks through India's farm communities. 

44 The Cod: A Case of Supervised Neglect Albert G. Jensen 

A major food fish may disappear from oup tables if we don't begin to practice ivhat our 
fisheries experts have been preaching for some tinie. 

52 Return of the Fisher Robert B. Brander and David J. -Books 

In the Great Lakes area a predator-prey experiment seems to be succeeding in putting 
one small corner of nature back in balance. 

58 Medieval Beasties Frank J. Anderson 

Overcoming the embarrassment of foolish questions is the most stamina-sapping part of 
chasing down the origin of myths. 

64 Arctic Renaissance George Swinton 

In the face of rapid acculturation, the enduring Eskimo are still full of surprises— wit- 
ness their new art form. 

72 Man's Adaptable Predator Edwin D. Kilboume 

Following the Footprints of Influenza in New York City Pascal James Imperato 
Sleuthing the last great plague of man. 

84 Sky Reporter: Black Holes and Galaxies John P. Wiley, Jr. 

86 Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 

88 The Prophet Speaks A review by Luther P. Gerlach 

Theodore Roszak: The transition from sympathetic interpreter of the counterculture to 
evangelist with a double-edged sword. 

100 Suggested Additional Reading 

Cover: This stone walrus was carved in 1960 by Noah, an Eskimo artist from the 
Belcher Islands, Quebec, Canada. Story on page 64. 



PMicalwn OJke: Tin 4nencan Mitsem, oj \atuml H I r, C ml I I I! I ,1 / V c \. )o*, ^ 1 1( V24. PMished 
nwnlUy, October ihrougk Mm bimonthly June to ieplen ber A bunptio >& III) a cir In Canada a id all other countries: $9.00 
a yeai. Single copia SI 00 becond class postage paid at Aew 1 rt. \ ) and at add t mat offices Copyright © 1973 by The 
American Museum of Natural History ^o part of this per od tal a ay be reproduc d uitl out the written coi 
Manuscripts and illustrations submitted to the cdUonal office ttldt be handled ntti all possible care but ue cannot assume re; 
bility for llicir safety. The opinwns cxpr ised by aalhori are their uun and do mt necessarily reflect the pol cy of The .-Ira 
Museum. Natural History incorporating Nature Magazine IS indexed i Reader s Gu (it to Periodi al L teralure 



t of Natural History. 



Autliors 



Norman Myers first became in- 
terested in conservation in his na- 
tive England, where he graduated 
with a master's degree from Ox- 
ford University in 1957. After 
two years as a district officer with 
the Kenya administration and four 




Norman Myers 



as a teacher in Nairobi, he be- 
came a free-lance writer and pho- 
tographer in the field of wildlife 
conservation. Myers, who received 
a doctorate in conservation ecol- 
ogy from the University of Call- 




k 



fornia at Berkeley in 1971, is 
now a consultant on the wildlife 
and human ecology of Africa. His 
book, The Long African Day, has 
just been published by The Mac- 
millan Companv, New York. 

After living and studying with 
Vinoba Bhave in India for six 
months in 1968, Curtis P. Hart- 
man decided to reject the fields 
of political science and social an- 
thropology "to starve as a writer." 
He has taught in both public and 
private schools, but is presently 
studying for his doctorate in 
English literature at Boston Uni- 
versity. His future plans call for a 
trip to Japan this summer to study 
chronic displacement in devel- 
oping cultures. Gary S. Wolinsky 
is a free-lance photo-journalist. A 
graduate of Boston University, he 
worked for the Boston Globe for 




Curtis P. Hartman 

2 



Cary S. Wolinsky 

four years, and has been pub- 
lished frequently in newspapers 
and magazines. Wolinsky, who has 
traveled and worked in Ireland 
and India, is the author of Marsh- 
mallow Worlds, a book of photo- 
graphs published in 1972. 



Albert C. Jensen, regional su- 
pervisor of marine and coastal re- 
sources for the New York State 
Department of Environmental 
Conservation at Stonv Brook, New 
York, holds a master of science 
degree in fisheries management 
from the State University of New 
York at Syracuse. From 1954 to 
1966 he participated in six ocean- 
ographic cruises; in addition to 
writing a nature column for six 
years, Jensen has published nu- 
merous articles on marine subjects 




Albert C. Jensen 

in scientific journals and popular 
magazines. He is also author of 
The Cod, a book on "the uncom- 
mon history of a common fish and 
its impact on American life from 
Viking times to the present." 



Mail attached card 

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For the past twelve years Rob- 
ert B. Brander has studied the 
fisher— porcupine relationship in 




Robert B. Brander 



northern Michigan with an eye to 
re-establishing a state of equilib- 
rium between these predator— prey 
populations. Brander, with a doc- 
torate in wildlife management 
from the University of Minnesota, 
is the principal wildlife biologist 
and project leader for wildlife re- 
search in the lake states for the 
United States Forest Service. Co- 




David J. Books 



author of the fisher article David 
J. Books, a doctoral student in 
the College of Forestry at the 
University of Minnesota, is also a 
free-lance writer and photogra- 
pher. His work has appeared in 
various conservation and camping 
publications. 



Frank J. Anderson considers 
his frequent childhood visits to 
The American Museum of Natural 
History and the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art "the most valuable 
and lasting part of my education, 
a kind of off-the-sidewalk univer- 
sity." Anderson, a graduate of the 
Pratt Institute School of Fine and 




Frank J. Anderson 

Applied Arts, is assistant to the li- 
brarian at the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden and editor of its 
newsletter. He is presently en- 
gaged in a historical survey of 
herbal literature and a study of 
the relationships between art and 
natural history. 

For almost thirty years George 
Swinton has studied the Eskimo 
and his art; particularly, the im- 
pact of modern technology on 




primitive art forms. Swinton, a 
professor at the University of 
Manitoba School of Art, as well 
as an adjunct professor of anthro- 
pology, is the author of Eskimo 
Sculpture, published by the New 
York Graphic Society, Ltd. He 
has written 82 programs for CBC- 
TV's ''Art in Action" series and 
is consultant for the exhibition 
"Sculpture of the Inuit -Master- 
works of the Canadian Arctic," 
which opens in Philadelphia on 
January 2.3. 

A graduate of Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College, Edwin D. 
Kilbourne is professor and chair- 
man of the Department of Micro- 
biology, Mount Sinai School of 




George Swinton 



Edwin D. Kilbourne 

Medicine of the City University of 
New York, where he continues his 
22-year study of the influenza 
virus. Kilbourne is the author of 
more than ninety medical articles 
for technical journals and is coau- 
thor of two textbooks: Preventive 
Medicine and Public Health and 
Human Ecology and Public 
Health. Pascal James Imperato, 
director of the Bureau of Infec- 
tious Disease Control and princi- 
pal epidemiologist of the City of 
New York Department of Health 
received a master's degree in pub- 
lic health and tropical medicine 
from Tulane University and has 
done extensive field work in Af- 
rica (see "Nomads of the Niger," 
Natural History, December, 
1972). ■ 



Vacation in tlie 
18th Century. 



The change will doyou good. 

It will take you back to a time 
as chaotic, yet far more courtly 
than our own. A time when so 
many new social, political, and 
scientific ideas burst forth on our 
world that call ing those years "The 
Enlightenment" is clearly an un- 
derstatement. 

That's why we invite you to 
pick any three books about the 
18th Century (or indeed any three 
listed on this page) as your intro- 
duction to The History Book Club. 

You get all three for only 99e 
when you choose a fourth at the 
low member's price. Then you 
simply take four more new books 
of history or world affairs during 
the coming year from the 150 of- 
fered each month. You get these 
at savings of $2, $3, or $4 off book- 
store prices. And you also earn 
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books you select from the Club's 
entire list. 

Mail the coupon. Choose a 
vacation that gives you distance, 
without the cost that normally 
entails. 

First price is publisher's list. 
Boldface shows member's price. 

797. The War of American Independence: 
Military Attitudes, Policies and 
Practice, 1763-89 

By Don Higg/nbolham. $12.95/$8.95 
771. The World of the French Revolution 
By R. R. Palmer. $8.50/$6.75 

369. The Spanish Civil War 

By Hugh Thomas. $12.50/$8.50 

708. Jefferson and the Rights of Man 

By Dumas Malone. $10.00/$7.95 

657. The Creation of the American 

Republic, 1776-1787 

By Gordon S. Wood. 

Bancroft Award winner. $15.00/$9.95 

671. Medieval History: The Life and 

Death of a Civilization (2nd Edition) 

By Norman F. Cantor. $11.50/$8.50 

677. Witchcraft at Salem 

By Chadwick Hansen. $6.95/$5.75 

687. Anti-lntellectualism In 

American Life 

By Richard Hofstadter. 

Pulitzer Prize winner. $7.95/$5.95 

746. Empire of the Steppes: A History 

of Central Asia 

By Rene Grousset. $17.50/$9.95 

476. The Life of Lenin 

By Louis Fischer. 

Winnerof the National Book Award. 

$12.50/$8.50 
837. The Age of Energy 
By Howard Mumford Jones. 
American society from 1865-1915. a 
highly original interpretation by the 
noted cultural historian. $12.50/$8.40 
859. Let History Judge: The Origins 
and Consequences of Stalinism 
By Roy A. Medvedev. $12.50/$8.50 

606. Henry VIII 
By John J. Scarisbrick. $10.95/$7.65 






THEl^ 

FRENCH lWMlijrnCf<f—' 

RichardlAofstadter '"'""■ 

AtllCriCl at 1750 ASocialfbrtrait 




872. America at 1750: A Social Portrait 

By Richard Hofstadter. 

His last book. $6.95/$5.80 

898. Hitler and the Beer Hall Putsch 

By Harold J. Gordon, Jr. $19.50/$9.95 

877. Apache Chronicle: The Story of a 

People 

By John Upton Terrell. $12.50/$8.50 

767. Conquest of the Incas 

By John Hemming. $12.50/$8.75 

222. Dragon by the Tail: American, 
British, Japanese and Russian 
Encounters with China and One Another 
By John Paton Dawes, Jr. $10.00/$7.50 
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Tilsit, 1799-1807 



By Georges Lefebv 



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Letters 



In<lia.n Authors 

I am very happy that ISatural 
History has the good sense to in- 
clude analyses of the Native 
American experience in its pages 
("The Cheyenne Experience," No- 
vember, 1972), but I'm not at all 
sure that what Mr. Deloria has to 
say about the literature covering 
this subject increases our under- 
standing. 

My objections come in two 
areas: first, his lauding of Stan 
Steiner's The New Indians and 
second, his implication that Seven 
Arrows marks something new in 
the literature of Native Ameri- 
cans. 

I find a book such as Steiner's 
anything but a ''real break- 
through." In fact, I find it to be a 
book that could do more to push 
interracial relations back into the 
nineteenth century than anything 
since Mohawk Trail tourist shops 
opened in northwestern Massachu- 
setts. As I see it, understanding is 
brought about by a mutual ex- 
change, highlighted by respect, in- 
terest, fairness, and an ability to 
rise above former differences. 

For Steiner to quote an Indian 
spokesman as saying that "in the 
American system nothing is done 
legally, honestly, and truthfully" 
does very little to create an atmo- 
sphere conducive to dialogue, par- 
ticularly since he offers no sup- 
porting evidence to back this up 
or even an opinion on the other 
side. Certainly the American sys- 
tem has been grossly unjust to 
Native Americans; to simply reit- 
erate the outrage does nothing to 
correct it. 

Unwarranted and unsubstan- 
tiated value judgments hurt the 
book from the beginning: "Going 
down the rough dirt road, from 
the earthy and easy-going tribal 
life on the rural reservations to 
the middle-class oneupsmanship of 
university life in the cities. . . ." 
Or "It was uniquely Indian: the 
respect for the elders by the 
youth; the recognition of the 
youth by the elders. . . ." 

Orgies of racial self-denigration 
are the lifeblood of the book, 
rather than the overwhelming 
amount of positive material that 



could have been used when de- 
scribing the Indians themselves: 
"The militant, Nazi-like Game and 
Fisheries Departments" or "Vaca- 
tioning from the manufacture of 
nuclear death that was his job at 
the plant of the Atomic Energy 
Commission. . . ." 

One particularly disturbing pas- 
sage, which Steiner does nothing 
to analyze, concerned Clyde War- 
rior and his apparent contempt for 
the American "system." "If 
American society is so goddamn 
great, then how come it creates 
social movements like this?" ques- 
tioned Warrior. A minimal ac- 
quaintance with American history 
would reveal a simple answer to 
this: America, as every other 
country, has had many social 
movements "like this" and has 
survived precisely because the 
government is highly receptive to 
change. 

What is more constructive in 
my eyes, and what Mr. Deloria 
seems to have missed, are the 
many books already written by In- 
dians in the manner of Seven Ar- 
rows. What of Geronimo's autobi- 
ography (published in 1906) or 
Sun Chief (the autobiography of a 
Hopi, published in 1942), or The 
Son of Old Man Hat (the autobi- 
ography of a Navaho, published in 
1938), or Black Hawk's autobiog- 
raphy (published in 1833)? 

These are but a few examples 
of exciting, immensely informative 
indigenous literature, which De- 
loria ignores when he opts for fur- 
ther misunderstanding and the 
perpetuation of myths as destruc- 
tive as those his and my fifth-grade 
American history textbooks told. 
Jeffrey A. Sheehan 

History Department, Dublin School 
Dublin, New Hampshire 



Ttie Author Replies 

First, I am appalled at the mis- 
reading of my review. I com- 
mented on The New Indians as 
the real breakthrough because up 
until that time, no contemporary 
Indian had been able to write a 
book and have it taken seriously. 
I tried to write a book in 1964, 
and Clyde Warrior tried in 1965. 



Stan Steiner contacted publishers 
on our behalf. We were told that: 
(1) Indians can't write books; (2) 
any book written by an Indian 
would be biased in favor of In- 
dians; and (3) no single Indian 
could represent all Indians and 
only impartial whites who had 
"studied" the question could write 
books on Indians. 

The New Indians proved to a 
great many publishing houses that 
there were some live, articulate 
Indians who could conceivably 
write books, and so some of us 
were offered contracts. I wrote a 
book and Hank Adams has writ- 
ten a book. Had Stan Steiner not 
written his book, none of us 
would have ever been given a 
chance to write anything. I would 
call it a real breakthrough in 
terms of contemporary Indians to 
have the right to write our own 
books, saying what we wanted to 
say, regardless of what that mes- 
sage was. 

I am horrified at the choice of 
books Sheehan quotes to show 
that I overlooked "Indian litera- 
ture." He chose four autobiog- 
raphies, the oldest of which dates 
from 1833 and the youngest from 
1942. Certainly the world has 
changed considerably since 1833 
and at least a minimum amount 
since 1942. All of these alleged 
autobiographies involved whites 
who did the actual writing with 
the Indians "telling their story" to a 
sympathetic ear. Seven Arrows is a 
book that attempts to make a reli- 
gious statement in this time period. 
It is written without the traditional 
anthropological viewpoint and re- 
lates a totally new effort by Indians 
to make statements about today and 
not about what whites discovered in 
1833. 

With respect to Steiner's choice 
of words, I am not entirely happy. 
However, the quotations cited are 
certainly, in my opinion, accurate 
with respect to the game wardens 
of Washington State. Nazilike be- 
havior is not unique to Germany 
of 1933-45 and if you had ever 
been involved in the fishing rights 
situation, you would see almost 
immediately the startling parallels. 
To criticize that description with- 



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out knowing the actual situation 
would appear to me to be fool- 
hardy. 

I find nothing wrong with Stei- 
ner's quotations of Clyde Warrior. 
Steiner was simply reporting 
throughout the book on what was 
then happening in Indian country. 
The recent blow-up at the Bureau 
of Indian Affairs would seem to 
indicate that Steiner early caught 
at least some of the mood of how 
people were beginning to feel 
with respect to their situation. I 
cannot see how you can be an ac- 
curate reporter on events and re- 
port only the pleasant things and 
hide what is really happening. 

I have been keenly aware that 
things were building to a destruc- 
tive edge in the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs for some time. I have done 
everything I could to prevent dis- 
order, but many people attacked 
me for trying to stop their alleged 
"revolution." I am very sorry 
about the recent events in Wash- 
ington. However, I could see this 
desperate "Ghost Dance" feeling 
coming several years ago as In- 
dian militants began to get inter- 
ested in Indian religions. I wrote 
the review the way I did to try 
and get Sheehan and millions who 
think like him to recognize that 
we are real people, that there are 
real and pressing problems caus- 
ing great dissatisfaction, and that 
with the publication of Seven Ar- 
rows I would hope that younger 
Indians would recognize the 
strengths of their religion and cool 
it. I had hoped that people such 
as Sheehan would take seriously 
the problems of today and stop 
mooning over Geronimo, Sun 
Chief, and Chief Red Fox, and rec- 
ognize us as contemporary people 
with many pressing problems. 

When Sheehan demands that 
we all keep silent while everyone 
reads old autobiographies, he only 
helps to discredit those of us who 
are moderates and to fulfill pre- 
dictions of militants that whites 
won't and can't listen. 

In conclusion, I can only say 
that I am greatly depressed when 
I think that people such as Shee- 
han are teaching hundreds of 
young people American history. I 
believe that it is such teachers 
who are perpetuating stereotypes 
and not myself and Stan Steiner. 
Vine Deloria, Jr. 



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NH 1/3 



A Naturalist at Large 



by Norman Myers 



The People Cr-unch Comes 
to East Africa 



A rising tide of humanity is placing the 
national parks under a state of siege 



Africa, exotic homeland of the 
primitive mvstique, is joining the 
world travel community with a 
rush. As air transportation makes 
the continent more accessible to 
tourists from the Western world, 
travel agents from Oslo to Omaha 
are offering trips to Africa as part of 
standard itineraries. Tourists are 
beginning to think of Nairobi as a 
logical extension of the Copen- 
hagen-Paris-Rome-Athens air high- 
way. 

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ronmental consciousness, Africa's 
principal attractions are its pan- 
oramic open spaces and the vari- 
eties of animals that still inhabit 
them. Africa is the refuge of the 
last great array of mammals from 
the Pleistocene, but their declin- 
ing numbers have added a sense 
of urgency to the African trip. 
National parks, established in vari- 
ous areas of the continent to pro- 
tect this faunal heritage, now har- 
bor remnants of the once huge 
herds, as well as pocket popula- 
tions of several threatened species. 
Much of the wildlife is found in 
East Africa, which has more parks 
and reserves than the rest of the 
continent put together. 

Africa, however, is no longer 
the last great empty continent, 
and East Africa is fast becoming 
one of its most populated areas. 
Here, the poacher is no longer the 
main problem. It is the poacher's 
three or four surviving siblings, 
each with six to eight children, 
who are exerting the most intense 
pressure on the parklands and the 
animals inside. 

Kenya, occupying some of the 
best of the East African wildlife 
country, typifies the oncoming, 



disastrous collision between people 
and animals. The annual birthrate, 
alreadv high at more than .50 per 
1.000 population, continues to 
rise, while deaths, now at 18 per 
1,000, are falling at a rate of 2.0 
percent per vear. About half of 
the present population is under 
16. Even if Kenya— the first coun- 
try in black Africa to institute a 
national family planning pro- 
gram—were to do better than any 
other country has ever done and 
could reduce family size from an 
average of 7.3 children to two 
within the next twentv years, the 
population would continue to soar 
until the middle of the next cen- 
tury. The net growth rate is al- 
ready approaching 3.5 percent a 
year, almost the highest in the 
world. And Kenya, along with 
Uganda and Tanzania, its neighbor- 
ing East African nations, stands a 
good chance of reaching a growth 
rate of 4 percent annually. At this 
rate, its population would double in 
17.5 years. The rate of the coming 
population expansion will be greater 
than Asia's and is sure to engulf 
much of the continent. Kenya could 
well feature the most extreme 
growth in human numbers and suf- 
fer some of the most deleterious con- 
sequences. 

The monumental problems of 
Kenya's increasing population will 
be compounded by the lack of 
suitable land for agriculture; only 
one-sixth of the country's 225,000 
square miles is presently arable, 
with an average annual rainfall of 
30 or more inches. This limited 
area is where 90 percent of the 
population presently lives. But in 
the last few years a spillover of 
land-hungry Africans into the 



drier, game-supporting savanna 
lands has begun. Such is the 
mounting land pressure that some 
farmers are trying to grow maize 
in areas where they are lucky to 
get 20 inches of rain. Twentv-five 
years ago, when Kenya's first na- 
tional parks were being set up, 
there were 4.6 cultivable acres for 
each Kenyan. Now there are two, 
far less than the worldwide aver- 
age. Without any drop in the 
birthrate, there will be onlv 0.7 
acre bv the turn of the centun. 
Even if Kenya brings its fertility 
rate down by a stupendous 60 
percent between 1975 and 2000, 
unless new lands are brought un- 
der cultivation, there will still be 
less than one acre per person. 

The 15,000 square miles of Ki- 
kuyuland— home of the Kikuyu, the 
nation's most numerous tribe — 
are already bursting at the seams, 
and one male out of four is trying 
to make a living elsewhere. 
Within sight of the tourist hotels 
of downtown Nairobi, people are 
living at a density of 1,800 a 
square mile. Farming on land al- 
most as densely settled as the gar- 
den mcU^ket areas of Holland, con- 
sidered to be the most heavily 
occupied arable areas on eeu-th, 
some of these people are sub- 
sisting through a form of un- 
planned horticulture. Residents of 
the Nairobi suburbs live at den- 
sities reaching as high as 1,000 
an acre. And these people are not 
living in high-rise buildings, but 
rather in single-story huts (try to 
visualize 1,000 people lying down 
to sleep in a single acre). By the 
year 2000, Nairobi will be five 
times as big as today's tourist sees 
it, housing about three million 



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can survive with its present fe- 
cundity and spectacle in the face 
of all those people over the 
boundarv. The problem will still 
remain even if the boundarv be- 
comes a fence, as it perhaps must 
if wildlife is to live next to man's 
growing estate. The conflict will 
be especially troublesome if man's 
estate becomes a maize plot. The 
farmer, watching helplesslv as his 
harvest disappears over a game re- 
serve boundarv inside an elephant, 
is likelv to think again about cries 
that Africa's wildlife does not be- 
long to Africa alone. 

Similar pressures are being 
mounted right now against some 
of the parks in Kenva. Nairobi 
National Pai'k, literally on the 
outskirts of the rapidlv expanding 
capital, contains remnants of the 
splendid herbivore herds that once 
roamed much of central Kenya. 



Animals do not remain within 
the confines of parks. During 
the wet season, many from, 
Tarangire National Park migrate 
through an area ten times the 
size of the park, while in 
drought years, the Serengeti 
eco-unit extends to Lake Eyasi. 
As agricultural activities 
usurp these unprotected areas, 
only a reduced number of 
park animals udl sun it e 



Modern-style Masai ranchers are 
now starting to fence off the mi- 
gration routes of the animals onto 
the Athi Plains of Masailand. 
Resident herds of semidomestic 
animals could soon be the inevi- 
table result as the park is trans- 
formed into a large outdoor zoo. 

Tsavo National Park, in the 
southeast section of the country, 
is one of the largest in the world, 
but still too small at 8,000 square 
miles (twice the size of Yellow- 
stone National Park) to absorb the 
numbers of elephants crowded 
into the sanctuarv of the park by 
the expansion of nearbv tribes. 
Since World War II, human popu- 
lation densities in the environs 
have increased bv up to 100 per- 
cent. In the Taita Hills over- 
looking the park, the local com- 
munitv has doubled and the 
amount of land under cultivation 
has trebled; not only are people's 
numbers rising but their ex- 
pectations as well, and a man may 
not be content with the amount of 
land his father subsisted on. 

This also means that some steep 
slopes are being dug up, and ero- 
sion is rapidly accelerating. The 
Voi River, which used to bring 
relief to Tsavo's parched elephant 
ranges during the drv season, now 
dries up soon after the rains peter 
out. Other lai-ge rivers of Kenya, 
such as the Galana, now carry so 
much topsoil from overworked 
arable regions hundreds of miles 




Main Migratory Routes 
. Average Extent of the 

Serengeti Eco-unit 
i 0-25 people per square mile 
i 25-1000 people per square n 



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^h. 






LAKE^-, 
MANYARA 
NATIONAL' 

LAKE k'gS^^ PARK 

EYASI ^ 

v^^^ ~ 




COM 



DISEASE 



HISTORY 



INITHIII^giNIC!! 






Was malaria 

the Fall of 

the Roman Empire? 





Want to 
feed a snake? 



Fly 

through the night 
with the owls. 



All the worlds oF man and nature await you in the 

INIATy^AIL $CDiINICE iOOBC 



It's high, wide, wild adventure all the way as a member of the Natural Science 
Book Club. Wonderful reading. Amazing savings. A stamp is all it takes to see 
your first three books. Why not send it and come adventuring with us! 



Take any 3 books $4490° 



for only 99^ each 



if you will agree to accept only 3 more selections (at discount prices) in the next 12 months 



(retail prices shown) 

48400. THE FASCINATION OF REPTILES. Maurjce 
Richardson. A colorful and handsomely illustrated 
appreciation of these scientifically neglected and 
often maligned animals. Includes information on 
the care and feeding of reptiles- SID. 00 

37411. CHALLENGING BIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS. 

Edited by John Behnlte. In this 25th anniversary 
volume of the American Institute of Biological 
Sciences, a group of the nation's foremost geneti- 
cists, ecologists, zoologists and botanists ofer 
solutions to some of the most pressing problems 
of modern biology. $10.95 

50610. GREAT CITIES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

L. Sprague de Camp. Gives a bird's-eye panorama 
of fourteen cities of the ancient world including 
Jerusalem, Rome. Constantinople Crammed with 
fascinating facts and little-known details. S12.9S 

64670. THE NIGHTWATCHERS. Angus Cameron 
and Peter Parnall. Big attractive volume detail- 
ing much of the folklore of the owl. Olfers vivid 
descriptions and anecdotes about owls of the 
United States and Canada, including the Screech 
Owl. the Barn Owl. the Snowy Owl, and many 
more. SB. 95 

32290. THE ADVENTURE OF SAIL 1520-1914. 

Captain Donald Macjntyre This sumptuous, over- 
size (12" X 10") book is a dramatic portrait of 
the glorious age of the great sailing ships. Full- 
size, full-color plates, old maps, etchings, and 
photographs strikingly complement the stirring 
tale of sailing's 400 most thrilling years. Counts 
as 2 ot your 3 bool<s. $25.00 

42340. DISEASE AND HISTORY. Fredericl< F. Cart- 
wright, M.D. in collaboration with Michael D. 
Biddiss. Did scarlet fever cause the downfall of 
Athens? Did the Roman Empire succumb, not to 
luxury and decay, but malaria'' Did Napoleon 
lose at Waterloo because of hemorrhoids? The 
role that illness and disease have played in the 
long course of history. S6.95 

52050. A GUIDE TO KENYA AND NORTHERN 
TANZANIA. David f. Horrobin. A vicarious, thrill- 
ing armchair trip to East Africa. Comprehensive 
and up-to-date guidebook that contains more than 
300 pages with 48 handsome photgraphs in full 
color. $12.50 



57280. KINGDOM OF THE SEASHELL. R. Tucker 
Abbott. Beautiful book, profusely illustrated in 
color, that details the basis for a fascinating 
hobby, and can turn you into a reasonably com- 
petent expert, even if you never own a single 
shell. $14.95 

88120. YELLOWSTONE: A Century of the Wilder- 
ness. Ann and Myron Sutton. Traces the history, 
explores the future of the national park idea — 
perhaps the most successful of the U.S. exports. 
Ivlagnificent photos. Counts as 2 ot your 3 books. 
$25.00 

88010. WYMANS GARDENING ENCYCLOPEDIA. 

Donald Wyman. 1,264 pages ... an alphabetical 
listing of 9500 plants . . . this invaluable refer- 
ence combines the simplicity of a beginner's 
manual and the specificity of a horticultural treat- 
ise. Counts as 2 of your 3 books. $17.50 

63930. NATURE'S PARADISE. 360 oversize pages 
profusely illustrated in color and black and white 
on the mighty continent of Africa. Counts as 2 ot 
your 3 books. $19.95 

87410. WORDS FOR BIRDS. Edward S. Gruson. 
An engaging study of the origins of the scientific 
and common names of 800 birds of North Amer- 
ica. Information-packed, fun to read. $8.95 

34620. ASTRONOMY: Fundamentals and Frontiers. 

Robert Jastrow and Malcolm Thompson. The di- 
rector of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies 
and an associate have written a stimulating new 
book with a refreshingly new approach to a sub- 
ject which is enjoying an amazing upsurge of 
interest. $12.50 

43210. EARTH MEDICINE - EARTH FOODS. 

Michael Weiner. An exciting rediscovery of the 
plant remedies, drugs, and natural foods of the 
North American Indians. $8.95 

50220. GEOLOGY ILLUSTRATED. John S. Shellon. 
Superb and comprehensive new presentation of 
geology with nearly 400 magnificent original pho- 
tographs. $10.50 

36190. THE BIG THICKET. A. Y. Gunter. The grip- 
ping account of the still unfinished fight to save 
the Big Thicket area of East Texas from the rapa- 
cious hands oi oil drillers, pulp and paper com- 
panies, and real estate developers. Many photo- 
graphs. $12.50 



34630. ASIMOVS GUIDE TO SCIENCE. Isaac 
Asimov. The incomparable Isaac Asimov has 
done it again with this exciting general account 
of modern science — an encyclopedic work of 
945 pages that is meant to be read and enjoyed. 
$15.00 
48090. THE FACE OF THE DEEP. Bruce C. Heezen 
and Charles D. Hollisler. Superb, scientific ac- 
count of the strange and fascinating portion of 
the world's surface that is deeply covered by the 
sea Beautifully illustrated. Counts as 2 ot your 
3 books. $25.00 

48791. FOSSILS FOR AMATEURS: A Handbook 
(or Collectors. Russell P. MacFall and Jay C. 
Wollin. Comprehensive guide to the collection, 
preparation, and exhibition of invertebrate fossils. 
Profusely illustrated, this new book tells you all 
you need to know to get started in this rewarding 
hobby. $10.95 

37070. BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS. Edited by 
Norman Riley. Exquisite. Two hundred of the 
world's most beautiful moths and butterflies are 
shown along with an authoritative, data-filled text. 
$14.95 

74010. THE RESTLESS EARTH: A Report on the 
New Geology. Nigel Calder. A penetrating and 
dramatic report on the change in geological 
thinking, based on interviews with 200 earth 
scientists in a dozen countries, and their trail- 
blazing work, l^agnificently illustrated. $10.00 

I- — — MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION — — --^ 

Natural Science Book Club 4-26W 

Riverside. New Jersey 08075 
Upon acceptance of this order, please enroll me 
as a member and send the 3 books I have indi- 
cated Bill me only 99c each, plus postage and 
handling. If not delighted. I will return all 
books within ten days and this memt>ership 
will be cancelled. 

As a member, I need accept only three more 
selections during the next 12 months at reduced 
member prices, plus postage and handling. Sav- 
ings range up to 30^ and occasionally even 
more. I understand that I w.'ill receive free 
advance Reviews which fully describe each 
month's Main Selection and Alternates. If I 
wish the Main Selection, I need do nothing 
and it will be sent automatically. If I prefer 
an Alternate — or no book at all — I need only 
return the convenient reply card you send me 
by the date specified. Send no money. Members 



billed when books : 
3 Books for 99c each: CWrite 



1 numbers) 



Some expensive books cotint as 2 selections. 







_. C-'«A*>*«l 



1^ . ^ ~'' «* 




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GROUND SQUIRREL PICTURES ARE FROM QUESTARS 
NEW BOOKLET CONTAINING 150 NEW PHOTO- 
GRAPHS BY QUESTAR OWNERS; $1 TO COVER 
HANDLING-MAILING COSTS ON THIS CONTINENT. 
AIR TO S.A., $2.50; EUROPE AND N. AFRICA, 
$3; ELSEWHERE, $3.50. 



BOX Q60. NEW HOPE. PENNSYLVANIA 18938 



25 people per square mile 
25-1000 people per square mile 




Elephants are being 
increasingly restricted to 
areas like Murchison Falls 
National Park, where they are 
trapped in what is, in effect, 
a large outdoor zoo. 



inland that the new marine parks 
on the coast, where the Galana 
River debouches into the Indian 
Ocean, are threatened with suffo- 
cation by silt. 

The situation in neighboring Tan- 
zania is not yet as bad. The 14 
million residents occupy a land 
of 363,000 square miles, an area 
the size of Texas. Approximately a 
third of the country is nearly un- 
inhabitable because of heavy infes- 
tation by the tsetse. Also, much of 
central Tanzania is too arid for 
cultivation, and the cost of irriga- 
tion would be prohibitively high. 
There is already heavy population 
pressure in several areas. Under 
the country's present level of 
technology and market mecha- 
nisms, almost one-quarter of the 
land area can be considered over- 
populated, and another one-third 
at saturation level. Every district 
around the great chain of parks 
and wildlife areas in the north, in- 
cluding Serengeti, Ngorongoro 
Crater, Lake Manyara, and Tar- 
angire, falls into either of these 
two categories. 

Tanzania's infant mortality rate 



is still at the appalling level of 
165 per 1,000, a rate that pro- 
vides plenty of scope for cutting 
down on human loss and for 
pushing up population growth 
higher than the present 2.8—3.0 
percent. President Julius Nyerere 
has emphasized that this flood of 
people could well hold up the 
type of development he wants to 
see for the country, but little offi- 
cial has been done in the way of 
family planning, and abortion is 
widely condemned. 

The area to the west and north- 
west of the Serengeti National 
Park is among the most densely 
occupied in the whole country. 
Grass huts and maize plantations 
line much of the park's bound- 
ciries and clog the strategic migra- 
tion routes of the wildebeest and 
zebra. In fact, the park, as it is 
now constituted, is only a half or 
a third the size of its eco-unit. 
The size required by the migrating 
animals shifts from season to sea- 
son according to the annual rain- 
fall: in 1970, the wildebeest 
strayed twice as far outside the 
park as they had two years before. 
During the 1960s, park officials 
managed, through strenuous ef- 
forts, to get extra bits of territory 
added to the sanctuary. But those 
days are over. In early 1972, a 
60-square-mile sector of parkland 
was occupied by local people with 
the blessing of their adminis- 
Continued on page 79 



i6 



The answers to some 
questions frequently asked 
by our sponsors 

If you are considering sponsoring a cliild 
through the Christian Children's Fund, 
certain questions may occur to you. Perhaps 
you will find them answered here. 



Q. What does it cost to sponsor a child? A. Only $12 per month. 
(Your gifts are tax deductible.) 

Q. May I choose the child I wish to help ? A. You may indicate 
your preference of boy or girl, age, and country. Many sponsors 
allow us to select a child from our emergency list. 
Q. Will I receive a photograph of my child ? A. Yes, and with 
the photograph will come a case history plus a description of the 
Home or Project where your child receives help. 
Q. How long does it take before I learn about the child assigned 
to me? A. You will receive your personal sponsor folder in 
about two weeks, giving you complete information about the 
child you will be helping. 

Q. May I write to my child ? A. Yes. In fact, your child will 
write to you a few weeks after you become a sponsor. Your 
letters are translated by one of our workers overseas. You re- 
ceive your child's original letter, plus an English translation, 
direct from the Home or Project overseas. 
Q. What type of Projects does CCF support overseas ? A. Be- 
sides the orphanages and Family Helper Projects CCF has 
homes for the blind, abandoned babies homes, day care nur- 
series, health homes, vocational training centers, and many 
other types of Projects. 

Q. Who supervises the work overseas ? A. Regional offices are 
staffed with both Americans and nationals. Caseworkers, or- 
phanage superintendents, housemothers, and other personnel 
must meet high professional standards— plus have a deep love 
for children. 

Q. Is CCF independent or church operated? A. Independent. 
CCF is incorporated as a nonprofit organization. We work 
closely with missionaries of 41 denominations. No child is 
refused entrance to a Home because of creed or race. 
Q. When was CCF started, and how large is it now? A. 1938was 
the beginning, with one orphanage in China. Today, over 
1 50,000 children are being assisted in 55 countries. However, we 
are not interested in being "big." Rather, our job is to be a 
bridge between the American sponsor, and the child being 
helped overseas. 

Q. May I visit my child ? A. Yes. Our Homes and Projects 
around the world are delighted to have sponsors visit them. 
Please inform the superintendent in advance of your scheduled 
arrival. 

Q. May groups sponsor a child ? A. Yes, church classes, office 
workers, civic clubs, schools and other groups. We ask that one 
person serve as correspondent for a group. 
Q. Are all the children orphans ? A. No. Although many of our 
children are orphans, youngsters are helped primarily on the 
basis of need. Some have one living parent unable to care for 
the child properly. Others come to us because of abandonment, 
broken homes, parents unwilling to assume responsibility, 
serious illness of one or both parents, or parents just too poor 
to care for their children. 

Q. How can I be sure that the money I give actually reaches the 
child ? A. CCF keeps close check on all children through field 
offices, supervisors and caseworkers. Homes and Projects are 
inspected by our staff. Each Home is required to submit an 
annual audited statement. 

Q. Is CCF registered with any government agency ? A. Yes, 
CCF is registered with the U.S. State Department's Advisory 
Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid, holding Registration 
No. 080. 




Margaret was found in a back lane of Calcutta, lying in her 
doorway, unconscious from hunger. Inside,her mother had just 
died in childbirth. 

You can see from the expression on Margaret's face that she 
doesn't understand why her mother can't get up, or why her 
father doesn't come home, or why the dull throb in her stomach 
won't go away. 

What you can't see is that Margaret is dying of malnutrition. 
She has periods of fainting, her eyes are strangely glazed. Next 
will come a bloated stomach, falling hair, parched skin. And 
finally, death from malnutrition, a killer that claims 10,000 lives 
every day. 

Meanwhile, in America we eat 4.66 pounds of food a day per 
person, then throw away enough to feed a family of six in India. 

If you were to suddenly join the ranks of I Vi billion people 
who are forever hungry, your next meal might be a bowl of rice, 
day after tomorrow a piece of fish the size of a silver dollar, 
later in the week more rice — maybe. 

Hard-pressed by the natural disasters and phenomenal birth 
rate, the Indian government is valiantly trying to curb what 
Mahatma Gandhi called "The Eternal Compulsory Fast." 

But Margaret's story can have a happy ending, because she 
has a CCF sponsor now. And for only $ 1 2 a month you can also 
sponsor a child like Margaret and help provide food, clothing, 
shelter — and love. 

You will receive the child's picture, personal history, and the 
opportunity to exchange letters, Christmas cards — and price- 
less friendship. 

Since 1938, American sponsors have found this to be an 
intimate, person-to-person way of sharing their blessings with 
youngsters around the world. 

So won't you help? Today? 

Sponsors urgently needed this month for children in: India, 
Brazil, Taiwan (Formosa), Mexico and Philippines. (Or let us 
select a child for you from our emergency list.) 



Write todav: Verent J. Mills ^^^ 26511 

CHRISTIAN CHILDREN'S FUND, Inc. Richmond, va 23283 

wish to sponsor a □ boy D g'r' in (Country). 




□ Choose a child who needs me most. I will pay $12 a month. 

I enclose first payment of $ Send me child's name, 

story, address and picture. 

I cannot sponsor a child but want to give $ 

□ Please send me more information. 

Name 

Address 

City 

State 



Zip_ 



Registered (VFA-080) with the U.S. Government's Advisory Committee on 
Voluntary Foreign Aid. Gifts are tax deductible. Canadians: Write 1407 
^onge, Toronto 7. NH 6910 ^ 



The Human Strategy 



by Marvin Harris 




What Goes Up, 
May Stay Up 

A 300-year-old cycle of ups and downs 

in Western women's fashions 

has been shattered— despite the designers 



I have been watching the 
amount of leg exposed by the ups 
and downs of women's dress fash- 
ions since 1949. That was the year I 
took a course given by the great an- 
thropologist Alfred Kroeber entitled 
"The Nature of Culture." Kroeber 
was then the leading advocate of the 
theory that cultural patterns have a 
life of their own, independent of the 
actions and plans of prominent indi- 
viduals. 

Because it had shock effect, 
women's dress was Kroeber's fa- 
vorite example for proving this 
theory. Fashion experts thought 
that women's fashions were "set" 
by a small number of Parisian de- 
signers and their wealthy custom- 
ers. They subscribed to the still 
popular view that of all cultural 
phenomena, dress styles are the 
most fickle. Virtuoso designers are 
supposedly free to do as thev 
please, raising or lowering hem- 
lines, shrinking or expanding 
waists, covering or exposing the 
bosom, according to the happy 
fancy of inspired genius. 

At the time that Kroeber pub- 
lished his first study of dress 
styles in 1919, Chanel was the 
reigning designer. Before her it 
had been Poiret, father of the 
"hobble skirt." So charismatic 
were these geniuses of fashion 
that during World War I, the 
leading Paris houses continued to 
dictate style not only in London 
and New York but in Berlin and 
Vienna cis well. 

Kroeber was primarily inter- 
ested in debunking the role of the 
virtuoso designers. He saw them, 
not as "style setters," but as 
agents of cyclical trends over 
which they had little real control. 
According to Kroeber, dress styles 
were obedient to a basic pattern that 
perdured independently of the 
conscious whims and schemes of 
the designers. 



Mail this postpaid 

card today and audition 

Bach's 

BRANDENBURG 

CONCERTOS 

First Recording • Original Version 

months before it is available 
to the general public! 

No obligation to buy! 



i i 

! 




on of the Brand- 
in days and owe 
handling charge 
d list price of the 
will also receive, 
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onths, free ten-day p 
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RECOMMENDED 

by the 

Came^e Hall 

Selection 

Committee 




Audition 

important new recordings 

months before 

they are available to 

the general public. 

Begin today! Preview first recording ever of 

Bachs BRANDENBURG CONCERTOS 

as Bach originally composed them! 

Yours for Half Price if you decide to keep it! 



Try it 

for ten days 

FREE 

No 

obligation 
to keep it. 



Bach's six Brandenburg Concertos, greatest orchestral mas- 
terpieces of the Baroque Era, have just been recorded, for 
the first time in their history, exactly as Bach composed them! 
This Philips album will not be available to 
the American public for many 
months, but you may preview 
it now for ten days, without 
charge and without obligation. 
Furthermore, should you de- 
cide to keep it, you may do so 
for only half the suggested list 
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The Carnegie Hall Selection 
Committee's report which accompanies the album 
points out why this performance was singled out 
for their recommendation: the profound differ- 
ences—like a French horn clarifying the texture 
of the 2nd Concerto as never before— between 
these Brandenburgs and any others you've heard, 
based on leading musicologist Thurston Dart's brilliant re 
search . . . inspired music-making by Neville Marriner 
and the famous Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 
superbly recorded. The two stereo discs them 
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pressings, manufactured by Philips to highest quality 
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exclusive Committee report. 

Our preview offer of the Brandenburg Concertos is limited ! So 
please mail the coupon on this page today. Listen for ten days. 
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By replying now, you assure yourself of the privilege of receiv- 
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major new albums . . . chosen exclusively for the International 
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Since the Society is not a record "club", you will never be re- 
quired to buy any album, nor will you receive a "record-of-the- 




month" like clockwork. Only when the Committee discovers a 
new album of the most extraordinary musical interest, artistic ex- 
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for your free audition, so that there will often 
be months when no album at all is offered by 
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In every case, you will preview these records 
long before they reach the stores . . . with the 
option of purchasing any album you wish, in 
a superb imported pressing, including exclu- 
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months later, and frequently at big savings! 
You may cancel this arrangement at any time. 
If you truly love great music, please mail the 
coupon today for your exciting Brandenburg 
Concertos preview. 



"Another beautifully executed series of 
performances by the celebrated Academy 
of St. Martin-in-the-Fields . . ranks with 
the world's great ensembles of its kind." 



Julius Bloom 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/CARNEGIE HALL 



•- Fill out and mail this coupon today--------------- 

FREE AUDITION AND HALF-PRICE PRIVIl^GE NB-7 

THE INTERNATIONAL PREVIEW SOCIETY 

333 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60601 

Please send, for my free preview, the two-record special advance edition of 
Bach's Brandenburg Concertos by Neville Marriner. I may return It after ten 
days and owe nothing, or keep it and pay only $6.98 plus small postage/handling 
charge (sales tax extra, where required). This is 50% off the suggested list price 
of the regular edition, when it becomes available months from now. I will also 
receive, at intervals of one or more months, free ten-day previews of albums 
chosen by the Carnegie Hall Selection Committee, far in advance of general 
release. I may keep any album for no more, and often for far less, than suggested 
list price. / am not obligated to buy any minimum number of albums and I may 
cancel litis arrangement at any time. 



NAME 








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se print) 




CITY 


STATE 




ZIP 



Only new members eligible for this offer. 




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In 1940 Kroeber and anthro- 
pologist Jane Richardson pub- 
hshed a studv that concluded that 
the basic pattern of Western 
women's dresses (for evening) had 
been remarkably stable for more 
than 300 years— from 1631 to 
1936— all impressions of sensa- 
tional novelties such as hoops, 
bustles, and short skirts notwith- 
standing. 

Kroeber concentrated on six di- 
mensions to prove his point: skirt 
length, skirt diameter at base, 
waist height, waist width, depth of 
decolletage, and width of decolle- 
tage. Until 1936, the last year in- 
vestigated, these dimensions fluc- 
tuated in an orderly manner, 
going from one extreme to an- 
other—and returning again— on an 
average of every 98 years. For ex- 
ample: skirts were full in 1655, 
narrow in 1679, full in 1750, 
narrow in 1811. full in 1861 and 
narrow in 1926. Waists were high 
in 1720, low in 1760. high in 
1817, low in 1842, high in 1869, 
low in 1903, high in 1917, low 
in 1926. Each of the remaining 
measures had its own periodicity. 
The precise wavelength was not 
important; what was important 
was that as each dimension de- 
parted further from a certain nor- 
mal value characteristic of the pat- 
tern, the probability that it would 
reverse direction increased. 

Which value was the normal 
one corresponding to the basic 
pattern? The thin or thick waist? 
The high or low neckline? The 
long or short skirt? Kroeber 
solved this problem by measuring 
the variability in the year-by-year 
samples. If dresses showed a large 
amount of variation at one ex- 
treme but not at the other, he 
concluded that the basic pattern 
was the extreme with the smaller 
amount of variation. If both ex- 
tremes had high amounts of varia- 
tion, the middle values were se- 
lected. For example, the narrower 
the waist and the fuller the skirt, 
the less variation per sample of 
dresses per year. 

By analyzing the relationship 
between variances and the long- 
term maximum and minimum 
measurements, Richardson and 
Kroeber arrived at a definition of 
what they called the "basic or ideal 
pattern of Occidental wom- 
en's evening or formal dress": 



Poiret took the dress 

to the knee in 1926: 

low waisled. loose, 

and liberated. 

But hemlines 

were to fall with 

the market in 1929. 




long skirt, ample at bottom; an 
expanse of bare breast and shoul- 
ders, as deep and wide as possible 
{subject onlv to "meebanicar" lim- 
itations); as slender a waist as 
possible; and a middle, or natural, 
waistline position. 

Although Kroeber and Rich- 
ardson emphasized that they were 
analvzin"; e\enino; or i'ormal wear, 
tiieir conclusions were applicable 
to daytime attire worn by women 
who were wealthy enough to fol- 
low the fashion. So the pattern 
described above can be considered 
to apply equally to day and eve- 
ning wear at least until 1900. For 
the years since 1900, annual day- 
wear modes are easily substituted 
for Kioeber's evening wear mea- 
surements. 

I want to devote the remainder 
of this essay to the proposition 
that the basic pattern of Western 
women's dress— day and evening— 
iiad actually begun to break up in 
1913 before Kroeber wrote his 
first article. Today, we are deep 
into a transitional period in which 
further pattern-shattering changes 
can be expected. I base my opin- 
ion on the unprecedented behayior 
of skirt length during the present 
centurv. 

Prior to 1913, skirl length was 
the least variable of the six basic 
dimensions investigated by Kroe- 
ber and Richardson. The basic 
pattern was not simply a "long 
skirt,"' but a skirt that remained 
at the ankle or the ground contin- 
uously throughout its entire his- 
tory-. The only exceptions were 
the years 1813 and 1834 when 
skirts rose briefly and erratically 
to a point between the ankle and 
calf. Starting in 1913, however, 
daytime skirts rose to the ankle 
and have never returned below it, 
in spite of repeated attempts by 
designers to get them back into 
their timeworn groove between 
the ankle and the floor. Between 
1913 and the present, all ups and 
downs have taken place above the 
ankle. According to the measure- 
ments of fashion author Helen L. 
Brockman, skirts reached the calf 
in 1918, fell to the ankle by 
1922. rose to the knee in 1927, 
fell to the ankle in 1929, hovered 
between calf and ankle from 1930 
to 1938, and rose to the top of 
the calf by 1940. During World 
War II they held steady at the top 



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of the calf only to drop back to 
the ankle in 1947. In 1950 they 
started up again, regaining and 
holding the World War II top-of- 
catf levels from 1958 to 1960. 

In the early 1960s confusion 
reigned as skirts started to rise 
above the knee. Some designers 
pinned their future on the con- 
tinued upward advance, v^fhile oth- 
ers held steady below the knee. In 
1960 Vogue magazine said "no" 
to skirts three or four inches 
above the knees, implying that 
one or two inches above was not 
unthinkable. In 1963 Vogue s edi- 
tor-in-chief capitulated to the up- 
ward movement and advised 
women to settle for "the shortest 
possible skirts." By 1967-68, this 
meant miniskirts, four or five 
inches above the knee. 

Simultaneously, midi- and maxi- 
skirts were launched by designers 
who were, in effect, betting that 
Richardson and Kroeber's basic 
pattern still existed and that theie 
must inevitably be a return to the 
ankle and below. The climactic 
shattering occurred in 1968-1969 
when Vogue, noting the existence 
of long and demi-long as well as 
minilengths, declared, "We are 
past being hung up on hemlines." 
An editorial on September 15, 
1969, wrapped it all up: "Every 
woman should choose her skirt 
length or lengths. No need to 
stick to one. Don't worry about 
length at all. No length is more 
correct than any other. Be com- 
fortable, be happy. Paris is filled 
with uncomplications." 
- Kroeber and his coauthor had 
made no provision for skirts above 
the knee. During the midilength 
1930s it appeared to them that 
"the upper limit of possibility, 
and probably our less definable 
limits of decency" had already 
been reached in 1927 at the knee. 
They were right in one sense: by 
surging over the knee the basic 
pattern had oscillated itself right 
out of existence. While there may 
yet be a return to maxilength for 
evening wear, other lengths will 
remain as alternatives. For day- 
wear, dresses and pants ranging 
from mini and short-short to maxi 
and long trousers will probably be 
found in the same wardrobe for a 
long time to come. 

I predict that Occidental wom- 
en will never again tolerate a 



fashion that rec^ires them to wear 
ankle- to floor-length skirts except 
as entirely optional alternatives to 
pants or short skirts. The demise 
of the floor-length skirt is the Oc- 
cidental equivalent of the end of 
foot binding in China or of veil 
wearing in the Middle East. It is a sig- 
nificant victory in the strug- 
gle for women's liberation. 

Although Ki-oeber thoroughly 




11 



mt woni n o/ / iNnm ai i in/wn 



misunderstood tlio signififaiuc oC 
tlif skirt-lt'ii-illi hijihs of U)I8 and 
1927, Ills main [xiinl about tin" 
causes of style cliatifies seems to 
be more vabd iban ever. Lari:;e- 
scale eultural forces, ratber tban 
tlie designers, are in control of 
I'asbion cbanges. Unless you be- 
lieve tbat women's liberation is a 
movement primarily based in tbe 
Frencb bouses of fashion, vou will 



The well-dressed woman of 

1868 was more tortured 

than liberated. 

This Currier and Ives 

cartoon poked fun 

at the bustle. 





AThousand Miles UpThe Nile. 



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23 



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The Empire dress of 1818 
was high waisted, slim 
skirted, sweet simplicity 
(in Josephine's time 
the neckline swooped 
considerably lower). 
Just 40 years later 
hoops became the rage. 




24 



have to concede that the bright 
voung designers of 1962 who took 
the skirt above the knee wore re- 
spt)nding to an opporlunitv lliey 
had done httle to create. 

If my analysis is correct and 
the basic pattern of Western 
women's dress has indeed been 
shattered, certain additional con- 
sequences logically follow. I will 
be surprised if some of the other 
lime-honored limitations on Occi- 
dental female attire are not also 
superseded in the near future. For 
example, the traditional pattern of 
decolletage is already under at- 
tack. Kroeber and Richardson 
wrote about the mechanical limita- 
tions that prevented the simulta- 
neous achievement of maximum 
depth and breadth in the exposure 
of the upper torso, but see- 
through fabrics provide an easy, 
technical solution to this problem. 
An informant tells me that exten- 
sive "transparencies" will also 
shortly be in the fashion news. To 
the extent that a double standard 
has prevailed by which women 
can be arrested for exposing their 
breasts in public, while men 
suffer no such restrictions, topless- 
ness is a liberationist issue. 
Hence, I do not expect the taboo 
on female breast exposure to be 
maintained much longer. 

The breaking of these centuries- 
old patterns will not lead, as some 
hope and others fear, to an era in 
which "anything goes." New pat- 
terns will simply take the place of 
the old, and styles will resume 
their meandering within culturally 
defined channels. Even in so- 
cieties that have stripped down to 
penis sheaths and G strings, strict 
limits of exposure continue to 
exist. Culturally established prefer- 
ences, mainly unconscious, will 
continue to channel our own post- 
liberation choice of clothing and 
adornment. I do not, for example, 
expect men to begin wearing 
skirts this year. Neither sex will 
cover up with lip plugs, nasal sep- 
tum feathers, facial tatoos, or 
body cicatrices. A runner from 
Seventh Avenue has just reached 
me with the news I know you've 
been waiting for: tooth avulsion 
and tooth blackening are defi- 
nitely "out" in 1973. 

Columnist Marvin Harris teaches an- 
thropology at Columbia University. 



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25 



Bios 



by Arthur W. Ga^lston 



Tlxe Language of the Leaves 

To learn how and why plants move their leaves, ask a plant 



For those who would divine 
some of the inner secrets of 
plants, the leaves speak a lan- 
guage of their own. Learning to 
read and speak this language is a 
challenge worthy of the most 
highly developed skills of the ex- 
perimental biologist; learning to 
frame critical questions and ask 
them of the plant in such a way 
as to elicit a clear answer is ex- 
hilarating. I speak from experi- 
ence, for some colleagues and I 
have been engaged in this kind of 
dialogue for about five years now, 
and the answers we receive from 
the plant keep us busy devising 
ways to ask still more questions. 

Let us start with the observa- 
tion that many leaves have obvi- 
ous sleep movements: during the 
day, the leaves are so oriented 
that the lamina, or blade, is 
roughly perpendicular to the in- 
cident sunlight, and is thus said 
to be in an upright, or "awake," 
condition. By contrast, at night 
the leaves frequently fold so that 
their blades face either other leaf 
blades or the stem of the plant. 
{See "The Rhythm of the Flow- 
ers," by John D. Palmer, Natural 
History, August-September, 1971.) 
It is easy to understand why 
leaves should be oriented with 
their blades perpendicular to the 
incident light during the daytime: 
the leaves are, above all, pho- 
tosynthetic organs and the hori- 
zontal orientation optimizes light 
absorption for this important nu- 
tritional process. But why should 
a leaf fold at night? Why go 
through the trouble of a cycle of 
closing and opening when it 
would be less complicated simply 
to stay open and be ready to re- 
ceive the next morning's sunlight? 

Most people believe that all 
characteristics of living organisms 
must have some survival or selec- 
tive value, or else they would 
have been eliminated in the long 



course of the evolution of those 
organisms. In fact, Charles Dar- 
win, who was fascinated by plant 
movements in general, and espe- 
cially by leaf movements, hypothe- 
sized that the inward folding of 
leaves at night prevented excessive 
radiative heat loss to the open 
sky. Since, on a clear night, the 
open sky is a "black-body" ab- 
sorber with an effective tempera- 
ture of absolute zero, and since 
heat loss by radiation is propor- 
tional to the fourth power of the 
absolute temperature difference be- 
tween sending and receiving body, 
such heat loss could cool the plant 
down drastically. For tropical 
plants, whose metabolic processes 
are geared to work best at high 
temperatures, this could be a seri- 
ous impediment to growth. Thus, 
folding of the leaves at night, ac- 
cording to Darwin, is simply a de- 
vice employed by the plant to 
protect itself against excessive 
radiative heat loss. 

For about 80 years this was the 
only theory that seemed at all rea- 
sonable, and it was accepted sim- 
ply for lack of an alternate ex- 
planation. Recently, however, 
another plausible theory has been 
advanced by the distinguished 
German plant physiologist Erwin 
Biinning. Biinning and his col- 
league Moser noted that a neces- 
sary stimulus to flower formation 
in many plants with pronounced 
leaf movements is the so-called 
short-day treatment. In reality, the 
leaves of such "short-day" plants 
need an uninterrupted long night 
of a certain minimum duration be- 
fore they start to synthesize and 
export the flower-forming hormone 
that transforms their buds from 
vegetative to reproductive struc- 
tures. The plant is so sensitive to 
light during this mandatory dark 
period that even the intensity of 
bright moonlight could inhibit 
production of the hormone. 



How, then, can such photo- 
periodically sensitive plants time 
their flowering efficiently when 
the erratic effects of moonlight 
might disturb them? The answer, 
said Biinning and Moser, is that 
the leaf-folding process causes the 
plant to present the narrow edge 
of their blades to the impinging 
moonlight; this minimizes light ab- 
sorption to the point that the 
chemical processes requiring dark- 
ness can proceed without inter- 
ruption. In long-day plants, which 
require short nights for flower for- 
mation, the same mechanism 
would prevent premature repro- 
duction. 

Which theory is more nearly 
correct, Darwin's or Biinning's? It 
is hard to say, although Biinning's 
has an appeal in that it bases the 
plant's movements on a more 
qualitatively important decision. 
To make a flower or not seems to 
be a more important question 
than whether to cool down mark- 
edly or not. For some tropical 
plants the latter decision may be 
crucial, but even many temperate 
plants have pronounced nyctinas- 
tic (sleep) movements. At the mo- 
ment, it seems most appropriate 
to concede that both theories have 
a certain validity. 

What is the mechanism that 
causes the leaves to move? Cer- 
tainly not muscles, which do not 
exist in plants, although con- 
tractile proteins do exist within 
plant cells. This question is most 
conveniently studied in certain le- 
guminous plants whose leaves are 
attached to the stem by a special 
organ called a pulvinus. This 
swollen knob of tissue contains 
special motor cells on its upper 
and lower surfaces; such cells are 
capable of shrinking and swelling 
dramatically in response to loss 
and gain of water. This, in turn, 
is governed through regulation of 
the salt concentration of the stor- 



26 







1972 ECLIPSE PHOTO FROM AN EKTACHROME SLIDE TAKEN BY ROBERT LITTLE AND MARTIN SCOTT ON BOARD ECLIPSE 72 'VOYAGE TO DARKNESS" CRUISE. 

vovfioeio DflfiKn€/r 



^>^ The spectacular success achieved in observing and photographing 

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age compartments, or vacuoles, oi' 
these cells. When the salt concen- 
tration of these cells is increased, 
their osmotic concentration be- 
comes sufficiently high that water 
tends to diffiise into the cell, 
thereby increasing its internal tur- 
gor pressure and making it bulge 
and swell. When salt is lost from 
such motor cells, the osmotic con- 
centration declines and water 
tends to diffiise out, the internal 
pressure declines and the cell be- 
comes flaccid and shrinks. 

Thus, when the upper cells are 
turgid and the lower cells flaccid, 
the leaves are pushed down and 
out from the stem to the horizon- 
tal, or "awake," position. When, 
on the contrary, the lower cells 
are more turgid than the upper 
cells, the leaf is pivoted at the 
pulvinus and pushed upward and 
toward the stem, assuming the 
closed, or "asleep," attitude. 
Thus, leaf movements are accom- 
plished by differential salt accu- 
mulation patterns, which in turn 
control the diffiision of water into 
and out of key motor cells in the 
pulvinus. 

What controls salt movement 
into and out of the motor cells? 
One obvious answer is the alterna- 
tion of light and dark. In fact, 
one can easily show that many 
darkened, asleep leaves will open 
promptly upon illumination; the 
opening is accompanied by a 
marked increase in the salt con- 
centration of the upper motor 
cells. Conversely, many illumi- 
nated, awake plant leaves will 
close promptly upon transfer to 
darkness, and this is accompanied 
by a loss of salts from the upper 
motor cells and a gain of salts in 
the lower motor cells. 

In the plant we have studied 
most intensively, the leguminous 
silk tree, Albizzia, the mobile ele- 
ment is potassium, probably mov- 
ing across the membrane as the 
salt of an organic acid, such as 
malic acid (so named because of 
its abundance in the apple. 
Malm). Both the uptake and se- 
cretion of potassium salts from up- 
per motor cells of the pulvinus in- 
volve the expenditure of energy, 
indicating the operation of a meta- 
bolically powered potassium 
"pump" located in the membrane. 
Thus, in the upper motor cells the 
inwardly directed pumps pre- 



28 



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In these microscopic cross 
sections, above, changes in the 
cells of Albizzia leaflets show 
clearly. In the open leaflets at 
left, the cells on the topsides 
are swollen and those on the 
undersides are shrunken. In 
the closed leaflets at right, the 
opposite is true. The 
macroscopic drawings show 
the leaflets in the 
corresponding positions. 




dominate in the light: the outwardly 
directed pumps, in the dark. 

But this is far from the whole 
story. If a leaf is artificially main- 
tained in continuous light for an 
unusually long period, the leaf 
closes, even in bright light. Con- 
versely, if a closed leaf is main- 
tained in an extraordinarily long 
dark period, it will open spontan- 
eously. The closing and opening 
movements of leaves maintained 
under constant conditions will oc- 
cur at roughly twelve-hour inter- 
vals, so that the complete cycle 
takes about 24 hours, or one day. 
Such rhythmically repeated events, 
with an oscillatory frequency of 
about one day, are said to be cir- 
cadian. When the circadian 
rhythm persists under constant en- 
vironmental conditions, it is said 
to be endogenous. Thus, the leaf 
movements of many plants show 
control both bv light and by some 
as yet uncharacterized endoge- 
nous, circadian process. 

Is the rhythmic movement the 
same as the light-controlled move- 
ment? We have found that en- 
dogenous closure of leaves main- 
tained in the light differs from 
nvctinastic closure caused by 
transfer of leaves from light to 
dark. While the latter process in- 
volves, as mentioned above, the 
operation of an energy-requiring, 
active pump, endogenous closure 
in light can occur even in the 
presence of substances that pre- 



vent such active processes from 
occurring. Rhythmic closure there- 
fore seems to involve a passive 
leakage outward of the potassium 
salts that were previously energet- 
ically accumulated in the upper 
motor cells. This fact led us to 
hypothesize that the rhythm in- 
volves an alternation between two 
states of the differentially per- 
meable membranes of the motor 
cells, a state of "integrity" and a 
state of "leakiness." During the 
leaky phase, salts leave the cell no 
matter how rapidly the inwardly 
directed active pump is working: 
when the membranes regain their 
integrity, salt accumulation again 
predominates. 

We have no definite proof that 
this hypothesis is correct, nor do 
we have any reaisonable mecha- 
nism to propose for the rhythmi- 
cally changed states of the mem- 
brane. But because the interplay 
of light and rhythms is important 
in the control of a myriad of 
plant processes, including flower- 
ing, we are pressing our investiga- 
tions further. How can light affect 
membrane permeability? Can 
chemical substances control these 
movements? How can changes in 
leaf cell permeability affect behav- 
ior of plant parts at a distance? 
These and related questions will 
be treated in articles to follow. 

Columnist Arthur W. Galston teaches 
biology at Yale University. 



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31 




32 




Land 

Sharing 

in^ 

Flnral In^dia 




Inspired by a holy man, some farmers 

are pooling their resources 

to combat drought and hunger 

by Curtis P. Hartman 

photo graphs 

t)y Cary S. Wolinsliy 

This winter the seventy-three people of Nazri- 
chawk, a village in the Indian state of Bihar, are 
faced with famine. The monsoon rains came too late 
last summer, and crops across the state withered. 
Fifty percent of the maize died, and because of in- 
sufficient water in the paddies, only 30 percent of 
the annual rice crop, the area's staple food, could 
be planted. Crops in the lowlands, which caught wa- 
ter running down from rocky hills common in many 
areas of the state, grew well, but for each produc- 
tive field, four went unplanted. 

After the last drought, in 1967, government and 
private agencies constructed a concrete irrigation 
project— complete with diesel pump— capable of lift- 
ing enough water from a nearby river to flood ten 
acres of rice paddy a day. A local government de- 
velopment worker hailed the construction as "end- 
ing forever the threat of drought in Nazrichawk." 
Now the inch of brackish water in the irrigation 






Runoff from nearby hills barely 
provided enough water for transplanting 
rice in this Bihar paddy last year. 



33 



ditch is a breeding ground for frogs. The diesel 
pump, unused and unmaintained, is encrusted with 
rust. Tlie paddies surrounding the project, which 
should be shimmering and emerald, are brown and 
fallow. 

For $100, a large but not impossible sum for a 
small village to raise, the community could have re- 
paired and operated the pump when it was finally 
needed. Unfortunately, leaders of Nazrichawk's dif- 
ferent caste groups could not agree on a pattern for 
water distribution and a loan was never taken. 

The situation in Nazrichawk illustrates the com- 
plex of problems that frustrates rural development 
throughout Bihar. Schemes to raise crop productiv- 
ity by means of irrigation systems, new strains of 
rice, and various planting techniques have been 
tried over the years. All have failed. 

Weather is a major problem. Only five times in 
the last twenty years has Bihar received the right 
amount of rain at the right time. During the other 
fifteen years, agonizing labor with hand-crafted im- 
plements produced only a subsistence crop for the 
few who could afford seed. Irrigation waters less 
than 3 percent of the tillable land in Bihar; the 
men who farm the balance of the land remain tied 
to the erratic monsoon rain. 

Yet the soil is rich. If erosion could be halted 
and the acreage under irrigation increased, the agri- 
cultural productivity of Bihar could be increased 
more than 200 percent. The problem is that the 



necessary work projects would require a group ef- 
fort: to develop schemes any more sophisticated 
than a bullock-drawn waterwheel demands consensus 
on such issues as water distribution, financing, and 
labor. 

Such common needs, however, rarely unify a 
community divided by religion, caste, and politics. 
Moslem-Hindu rancor, which caused India's parti- 
tion in 1947, still simmers in many rural areas, and 
while the national government is scrupulously secu- 
lar, the widespread rioting that exploded this past 
June in the state of Uttar Pradesh indicates how 
little of this spirit reaches beyond the capital of 
New Delhi. 



JLn numerous villages, caste divisions are an even 
greater hindrance than religious differences to the 
consensus necessary for rural development. While 
most of the traditionally supportive aspects of the 
caste system disappeared after 200 years of British 
rule and 25 years of independence, a strong residual 
system of social stratification persists. Incidents in 







34 






Top left: The village council, or gram 
sabha, of Kiriah, in session. Above, Vinoba 
Bhave meets with followers at his ashram. 
The empty irrigation ditch of Nazrichawk, 
left, runs through a field of drought- 
stunted maize. In preparation for 
transplanting rice, far left, a man works the 
paddy field with a bullock-drawn plow. 



which low-caste individuals are stoned for drawing 
water from a high-caste well are frequent, and even 
such simple acts as intercaste dining remain taboo 
in many villages. A multitude of small, caste-ori- 
ented political parties are active throughout the 
state, and their activities further fragmentize the vil- 
lages. Instead of being a community, a village often 
disintegrates into hostile factions splintered along re- 
ligious, political, and caste lines. 

There is also the problem of obtaining financing 
for development projects. Few lending institutions 
in either the public or the private sector are wiUing 
to grant credit to a small community, and most 
farmers in need of cash are forced to sell their land 
and become migrant or tenant laborers. Rarely is 
there any local industry that is capable of either ere- 

35 




H 


r"^ 


^HBk^^Bj^w J 






%\ fl 


HI 


'P^J^ 



The faces of rural Bihar. 



ating a capital base or of offering casual employment. 

Eighty percent of India's burgeoning population 
is rural, and any hope for the progress of this group 
will depend upon development programs. Ironically, 
it is in Bihar, one of the poorest states in India, 
that a development strategy offering positive hope 
for such improvement has been growing for almost 
twenty years. The strategy, or movement, has been 
named bhoo-dan, "land gift." 

Essentially a nonpolitical structure for the mobili- 
zation of local effort to meet specific development 
needs, bhoo-dan is not a concept that emanated 
from one of India's many bureaucratic planning 
boards; rather, it developed out of the experiences 
of a now frail 77-year-old man, Vinoba Bhave. 

Vinoba is a unique figure on the contemporary 
Indian scene. He is not affiliated with any political 
party, and has never sought public office. Yet he is 
as well known in rural India as was Gandhi, who 
also avoided electoral politics. During the long free- 
dom struggle, Vinoba was Gandhi's foremost dis- 
ciple, and now most people consider him the ma- 
hatma's spiritual heir. As such, he inherited 
Gandhi's mantle of saintliness. The saint, a tradi- 
tional Indian figure, is a spiritual leader who ex- 



36 




37 



At an Independence Day celebration 
organized by gram-dan workers, young boys 
participate in a rice-transplanting contest. 
Judging is based on speed and neatness, 
hut after the fun, it is the women 
of the village who will do this tedious work. 
Youngsters, below, play kopatty, a 
traditional Indian game that combines 
elements of wrestling and tag. 



cniplifies austere renunciation coupled with service 
to others. Vinoba took a vow of celibacy at the age 
ol ten; at seventeen, a vow of poverty; and at 
twentv-four. a vow of service to others. To the villa- 
gers who flock to garland him with flowers he is a 
saint— a perfect, selfless man. 

In 1952 Vinoba was invited to address a confer- 
ence of Gandhian workers in the state of Telengana, 
some 350 miles from the ashram, or retreat, where 
he had been in meditation for the four years since 
Gandhi's death. Hoping to re-establish contact with 
India's rural population, Vinoba walked the entire 
distance. In most of the villages along the way, he 
was received as a great teacher; individual villagers 
sought his assistance, and entire communities at- 
tended his nonsectarian prayer meetings. 

In one village, Pochampalli, he was approached 
by a representative of a group of twenty-two land- 
less families of the untouchable caste— the lowest 
stratum of Indian society. Without land, the man 
said, the families would star\'e. During that night's 
praver meeting, Vinoba spoke of the obligation of 
each villager to aid his neighbors. "These people 
are your brothers." he said. "Are thev to have no 
land?'' One wealthy landowner at the back of the 
gathering stood up. If Vinoba wished, he an- 
nounced, he would give them 100 acres. 

This was the beginning of the bhoo-dan move- 
ment; over the past twenty years, walking thousands 
of miles from village to village, Vinoba has collected 
more than diVi million acres of land gifts to be dis- 
tributed to India's landless. His success, in a coun- 
try where land is the primary commodity of value, 
was due only to his reputation as a saintly teacher 
unmotivated bv personal concerns. As he walked, he 
gathered disciples: primarily youths from urban and 
semiurban high schools and colleges. They would re- 
main behind in the villages through which he 
passed to implement the pledges and redistribute 
the land. In one community in 1956 all of the land- 
owning villagers decided to give their properties to 
Vinoba. He returned the gift; all of the land, he de- 
clared, should be held by the village as a whole. 
This was the first gram-dan, or "village gift." 

While Vinoba avoided creating any external struc- 
ture for bhoo-dan and gram-dan, an organization of 
his disciples, the Sarva Seva Sangh, developed as 
the number of gifts and the number of disciples 



grew. Once again in meditation, Vinoba is no 
longer walking, but the disciples have become orga- 
nized and independent workers. More than 5,000 
gram-dan workers are laboring full time throughout 
rural India. 

A small number still walk from village to village, 
spreading Vinoba's doctrine of sharing, brotherhood, 
and self-sufficiency. The majority of them, however, 
have set up base operations at self-sufficient ashrams 
on bhoo-dan land in heavily populated village areas. 
Most ashrams function as part-time local schools and 
as central meeting places for villagers throughout 
the area. While the workers continue to spread the 
gram-dan doctrine, most of them are more con- 
cerned with the lengthy process of pledge imple- 
mentation aqd with rural development in general in 
the surrounding villages: digging wells, arbitrating 
community disputes, and introducing new seed and 
planting techniques occupy most of their time. 



Th 



he actual operation of the gram-dan process is 
relatively simple. Each landowner agrees to turn le- 
gal title to his property over to the village as a 
whole. Twenty percent of this land is leased, rent 
free and in perpetuity, to all landless members of 
the village. The remaining 80 percent of the land is 
leased back, on the same terms, to the original do- 
nor. Each villager then agrees to give one-thirtieth 
of his yearly income (the equivalent of one day a 
month's intake) in cash, produce, or labor to a cen- 
tral fund. All villagers become members of a coun- 
cil, which by near-unanimous consent makes all 
community decisions. 

As soon as implementation begins, the problem of 
landlessness disappears; with the distribution of 20 
percent of all lands, each family is assured of at 
least a small plot. And large landholders rarely feel 
threatened. If a man owns ten acres before gram- 

39 




40 




'_^^^ldl 



To supplement a meager income, a gram- 
dan villager separates long strands 
of cotton preparatory to weaving khadi, 
the traditional Indian cloth. Another 
villager, without land to farm, has 
foraged these sticks to sell as firewood. 



dan, for example, he will still retain the use of 
eight acres after the conversion. Although he cannot 
sell the land without the approval of the village 
council, the all-important farming rights remain with 
the original owner and his heirs. The stipulation 
against sale insures that legal title, as well as farm- 
ing rights, stays in the village rather than going to 
an urban monevlender. In most cases the existence 
of the central fund makes the sale of any land un- 
necessary. The collection of one-thirtieth of each vil- 
lager's yearly income or produce guarantees that a 
community will have a capital base. 

The village council, or gram sabha, is a means of 
emphasizing the commonality of needs by forcing 
hostile groups to meet and talk together. Insistence 
on near-unanimity minimizes the possibihty of domi- 
nance by any single faction. Furthermore, as a 



stable body backed by the local economic power of 
the central village fund, the council is able to ap- 
proach regional or national lending institutions for 
capital. 

The task of the gram-dan workers becomes easier 
as the effects of central village funds become known 
within an area. The village of Kutka, for example, 
has 1,200 rupees (about $180) in their fund; so far 
they have used the money only for federal and state 
land taxes. There has been much earnest discussion, 
however, widely commented on throughout the area, 
about buying a tractor. About one-quarter of the vil- 
lagers in Bhoodapuri were in debt when that village 
pledged itself to gram-dan; now only two families 
remain in debt, and the gram sabha hopes to repay 
their loans within the next year. Another village in- 
vested about 600 rupees ($90) on irrigation wells 
and on a new bull to improve theu- stock. 

Other communities, like Talasari, have used the 
money to develop a local handicraft industry. Six 
looms to spin khadi, the handspun cotton cloth that 
was Gandhi's symbol, were built with fund monies. 
Such local industry provides both employment and a 
cash product from a low capital investment. Al- 
though khadi manufacture is considered "archaic" 
by more sophisticated planners, about 60 percent of 
all gram-dan villages produce such cloth. A farmer 
with only a small plot of land may earn the extra 
cash he needs to support his family by sitting be- 
hind the large wooden looms of the community and 



41 



A miniature variety of banana is grown 

in many areas of Bihar. Here, the 

women of a gram-dan village carry away 

the vegetative debris from a banana field 

previously thinned out by the men. 



weaving the popular material when there is no de- 
mand for agricultural labor from large landowners. 

The gram sabha is also a tool for social devel- 
opment. In many ways the assembly, like the Sun- 
day evening gatherings in the community of Kiriah, 
resembles a New England town meeting. Everyone 
is allowed to speak. Wliile this slows the decision- 
making process, it forces different caste and reli- 
gious groups to discuss their differences. Parlia- 
mentarianism is new to Kiriah, and the meeting be- 
gins with agonizingly slow politeness. The elected 
chairman of the council sits uncomfortably in the 
middle of the group, balancing the books of the vil- 
lage fund on his knees. A family of four who left 
Kiriah six years ago, before it became a gram-dan 
village, has returned to the community, and the vil- 
lage must decide how to provide for them. The fa- 
ther of the family wants some of his old land back. 
His only source of income now is from foraging for 
sticks, which he wraps into long bundles and carries 
on his shoulders to sell door to door for firewood. 



o, 



ne bare-chested man argues forcibly that the 
village has no responsibility— the family left during 
a drought and must take the consequences. They 
should not come back now, when times are good. 
An opponent, his legs still caked with mud from the 
fields, argues just as loudly that the family is still a 
member of the community. No one seems to pay 
much attention to him, though; the head of the re- 
turning family is his brother. The argument cascades 
as each man airs his point of view. 

One old man, sitting peacefully in the corner, 
breaks the crescendo of debate. "If your son left," 
he asks the bare-chested man, "would you not wel- 
come him back? Vinoba has said that the village 
must be like a family. We must welcome these four 
and provide them with land." Two hours later a 
course is decided: money will be used from the vil- 
lage fund to buy a small plot for the new family. It 
was the name of Vinoba that quelled the debate. 

The close connection between gram-dan and Vi- 
noba Bhave is one of the movement's prime assets. 



When difficulties arise, villagers turn naturally to 
the teachings of the man thev consider to be a liv- 
ing saint. Paradoxically, this identification between 
the movement and the saint is also gram-dan's 
greatest weakness. Educated Indians, judging the 
surface rather than the substance of Vinoba's mes- 
sage, decry gram-dan as outmoded. While they re- 
vere Vinoba, they see little connection between the 
teachings of an aging holy man and the needs of 
modern India. 

Furthermore, gram-dan is not spectacular. Huge 
dams are more impressive than a new well for the 
people of Tliatheri, and the 1,200 rupees in Kutkas 
village fund wouldn't keep government planners in 
paper clips. The concept behind gram-dan has been 
consistently ignored by government planners and re- 
mains virtually unknown outside of the subcon- 
tinent. This ignorance would be less sui-prising if it 
were a splinter movement, but more than 150,000 
villages have pledged themselves to the ideal of an 
integrated and self-sufficient village. 

In August, Nazrichawk became a gram-dan vil- 
lage. It had become clear that neither government 
planners nor political parties could solve the com- 
munity's problems, so the villagers asked the local 
gram-dan worker for help. Late one evening, four 
men sat in earnest debate on the concrete irrigation 
ditch that runs through the fields of Nazrichawk. 
Three of them were leaders of the different caste 
groups in the village; the fourth, a gram-dan 
worker. In June the community had been split into 
hostile factions led by these three men; now a dia- 
logue was beginning. Although planting time had 
passed and it was too late to avoid widespread fam- 
ine, the village council agreed to take a loan and to 
repair the pump before the next planting season. 

No one can foresee the future of gram-dan. It re- 
quires sacrifices from some of those who accept it, 
and it can be difficult to get an agrarian people to 
relinquish the concept of private property. Only 
when the situation becomes desperate, as in a 
drought year like 1972, do large numbers of vil- 
lages turn to the idea of pooling their resources for 
the benefit of all. 

It is even possible that gram-dan will die with 
Vinoba. It is the image of the saint that attracts 
gram-dan workers, and it is his message that village 
people find so compelling. After the death of Vi- 
noba perhaps it will be possible to evaluate the im- 
pact of gram-dan on rural development generally. 
But in such villages as Nazrichawk, gram-dan is 
now offering seventy-three people a chance to de- 
velop through their own inherent strength. ■ 



42 




43 



The Cod: 
A Case of Supervised INeglect 

Nearly a third of the world's population depends on the North Atlantic cod 
as an important food resource— future generations may have to look elsewhere 

by Albert C. Jensen 



"Be content, the sea hath fish 
enough." Thus did the British 
man of letters Dr. Tliomas Fuller 
sum up the prevailing attitude 
about marine resources in 1732. 
He reasoned that if the herring 
fishery failed, fishermen could fish 
for cod. And if the cod should 
leave, they could sail a few 
leagues farther to find them in 
abundance. Even in the mid-nine- 
teenth century, Dr. Thomas Hux- 
ley, the British biologist, wrote, 
"I believe that the cod fishery 
. . . and probablv all the great 
sea fisheries are inexhaustible: that 
is to say, that nothing we do seri- 
ously affects the number of fish." 

Today, the evidence that all is 
not well with the cod is presented 
in statistics issued by the National 
Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) 
of the U. S. Department of Com- 
merce. Their report states that in 
1880, a record 294 million 
pounds of cod were landed by 
New England fishermen, who still 
catch the bulk of the cod in the 
United States. Today, NMFS re- 
ports that the catch has declined 
to 39 million pounds. Because of 
this, the United States delegation 



This scene of ice-packed 
North Adantic cod at 
New York City's Fulton 
Fish Market may someday 
be just a memory. 



to the 1972 International Commis- 
sion for the Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries (ICNAF) annual meet- 
ings in Washington requested con- 
sideration of "catch quotas or 
. . . other supplementary regu- 
latory measures such as closed 
seasons and /or areas that can ef- 
fectively be applied to cod stocks 
so as to avoid depletion of the re- 
source." 

The resource is a valuable and 
much-needed one. Many people in 
the world, from Iceland to Africa, 
depend on cod as an important 
part of their diet. To satisfy this 
demand, fishermen in the North 
Atlantic annually land more than 
7 billion pounds of Atlantic cod. 
There are several reasons why cod 
became important as a food fish 
and thus the object of intensive 
fisheries: a mild-flavored fish of 
relatively large size, cod were 
abundant on many coastal banks 
in the North Atlantic and could 
be stored as salt fish or frozen. 

Cod range on both sides of the 
Atlantic Ocean, from the northern 
Barents Sea south to the Bay of 
Biscay, as well as around Iceland 
and the southern half of Green- 
land. Along the North American 
coast, cod are found from the 
southern tip of Baffin Island to 
North Carolina, but they are most 
abundant in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, off Newfoundland. In the 
spring, a trawler may take as 
much as 35 tons of cod in a two- 
hour tow. The Georges Bank cod 
fishery off Massachusetts is less 
productive: Boston vessels catch 
cod at an average rate of 1.5 tons 



a day. Although they are consid- 
ered groundfish, cod occasionally 
rise off the bottom, presumably in 
search of food. They have been 
caught in waters of all depths, from 
as shallow as one fathom to as deep 
as 250 fathoms. 

Cod often grow to large sizes. 
A cod caught on a line trawl off 
the coast of northern Massachu- 
setts in 1895 weighed 211.5 
pounds and was more than 6 feet 
long. In the commercial fishery to- 
day, many thousands of cod 30 to 
40 inches long and weighing 10 
to 25 pounds are caught each 
year. 

The peak of the spawning sea- 
son is in December. The female is 
a prolific egg producer and may 
shed 3 to 9 miUion eggs, but only 
a few of these become adult fish. 
The adults feed mostly on shell 
animals (clams, mussels, crabs), 
squid, and small fish. 

Long before Fuller and Huxley 
made their sweeping— and erron- 
eous—pronouncements, some 
thought had already been given to 
the matter of conservation of sea 
fishes. In sixteenth-century England, 
fishermen complained about mesh 
sizes in the crude trawl nets used by 
other fishermen in the Thames es- 
tuary. The trawls, they argued, 
were capturing and killing many 
small, unmarketable fish (a com- 
plaint repeated in fisheries even 
now). So it was that in 1558 Queen 
Elizabeth I published a royal decree 
setting a minimum limit of two and 
a half inches on the size of the mesh 
in trawl nets. 

Trawl nets have always been 

45 




46 



viewed as a mixed blessing. Wliile 
thev are extremely efficient at 
catching large quantities of fish 
rapidly, they catch fish of all sizes 
and the fishermen throw the 
small, unmarketable ones back 
into the sea. Since most of these 
discarded fish are either dead or 
dying by the time they are re- 
turnee! to the water, they are 
wasted for man^s use. 

The waste at sea, the specter of 
overfishing, and the fear of what 
it would do to the resources were 
the concern of a few far-thinking 
men a century ago. In 1860 the 
Norwegians began to keep careful 
records of the catches of cod 
landed at their northern fishing 
villages in the Lofoten Islands. By 
keeping track of the catches and 
of the number of fishing boats 
needed to make them, they ob- 
tained an index of abundance- 
catch per vessel— that is still used 
in scientific fishery management. 
Up to then, there had been no 
way of knowing if changes in the 
landings of cod actually reflected 
real changes in the number of cod 
in the sea. 

In the 1930s, Norwegian re- 
search on the cod provided addi- 
tional background information on 
the life history of the species. 
Starting with studies of cod eggs 
and environmental influences on 
them, the Norwegians moved on 
to studies of the artificial propaga- 
tion of cod. This approach was 
based on the idea that if nature 
failed to provide adequate spawn- 
ing, man could intercede to sup- 
plement natural production with 
young fish from hatcheries. Al- 
though hatcheries have been suc- 
cessful with freshwater fishes, es- 
pecially black bass and trout, they 
have failed dismally with most 
marine fishes. It is not surprising, 
then, that the Norwegians dis- 
carded the idea of hatcheries and 
turned to research on the age and 
growth of the cod in Norwegian 
waters. Age and growth data pro- 
vide the foundation for fishery 
conservation regulations by help- 
ing fishery managers determine 
the optimum age at which fish- 
ermen can begin harvesting a spe- 
cies; such regulations insure that 
the fish are allowed to mature and 



spawn at least once. These data 
also help the gear specialists to 
design the mesh size or hook size 
that will "select" the mature fish. 
And, together with data from tag- 
ging experiments, physical charac- 
teristics of the same species from 
different fishing grounds, blood- 
type studies, and surveys of fish 
populations, age and growth data 
help tietermine the need for sepa- 
rate conservation regulations for 
different geographic areas. 

At about the same time that 
the Norwegians were first taking a 
serious look at the state of their 
fisheries, the British began to in- 
vestigate their own fishing indus- 
try. In about 1885 a royal com- 
mission on trawling started 
collecting statistics on catches and 
number of boats. These data were 
analyzed and published in 1900 in 
a report entitled "The Impover- 
ishment of the Sea . . . Alleged 
Depletion of the Trawling 
Grounds." The commission had 
looked at the conditions of the 
British fishing industry during a 
ten-year period when the steam 
trawler boom was at its height. It 
found that the total catch of all 
the vessels had increased by 
nearly one-third from 1889 to 
1898. But during the same period 
the number of vessels had in- 
creased by two and a half times, 
while the actual catch per vessel 
had declined to about a half. In 
addition, the average size of the 
fish in the catch had decreased. If 
the trend were allowed to con- 
tinue, the fleets would soon be 
harvesting many of the young fish 
before they had an opportunity to 
spawn. This would ultimately re- 
sult in a real impoverishment of 
the sea. 

The ideas, speculations, and re- 
search of the Norwegians and the 
British fell largely on deaf ears. It 
took the cataclysm of World War 
I to demonstrate that the con- 
servationists were right and that 
Huxley and Fuller were wrong. 

Prior to World War I the scien- 
tists who advocated protection of 
fishes in the sea were speaking 
largely on the basis of theory and 
conjecture. They could present no 
proof that the fish stocks were in 
a state of decline as a result of 



fishing efforts, at least no proof 
that the average fisherman would 
accept. Thus, in the opinion of 
the industry, there was no need to 
regulate the fishing effort to con- 
serve the fish stocks. However, 
during the period 1913-18, severe 
restrictions on fishing— the result 
of wartime shortages of fishermen, 
gear, and supplies— plus the men- 
ace of submarines prowling on the 
fishing grounds provided the proof 
the scientists needed: in 1919 the 
average daily catch per vessel 
from the North Sea was 3,060 
pounds, compared with 1,430 
pounds in 1913. It was clear that 
the fishing hiatus during the war 
had allowed the fish to grow big- 
ger and heavier. It was not that 
there were twice as many fish as 
before, but rather that the fish on 
the grounds had been able to 
grow and increase in weight. 

In the United States few people 
seemed worried about the con- 
tinued supply of cod off the north- 
east coast of the American conti- 
nent. Perhaps it was too difficult 
to even imagine that the great 
populations on Georges Bank or 
on the Newfoundland Grand Bank 
could be affected by man's 
efforts. But as early as the latter 
part of the nineteenth century, 
there were discouraging changes 
in the abundance of cod, and a 
few perceptive observers suggested 
that something was wrong. 

In 1871, President Ulysses S. 
Grant signed into law a resolution 
"for the protection and preserva- 
tion of the food fishes of the 
coasts of the United States." He 
also appointed Spencer F. Baird 
as commissioner of the newly 
created U. S. Fish Commission 
and set up a laboratory in Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. 

Baird made a study of the situ- 
ation and presented his findings in 
a report, "Conclusions as to De- 
crease of Cod Fisheries on the 
New England Coast." The Fish 
Commission soon embarked on an 
ambitious program to increase the 
number of cod in the sea by 
building hatcheries at Boothbay 
Harbor, Maine, and at Gloucester 
and Woods Hole in Massachusetts. 

John J. Brice, a later commis- 
sioner of Fish and Fisheries, re- 



47 




The stern trawler. 
Albatross IV, is a United 
States fishery research 
vessel operating out of 
Woods Hole. Massachusetts. 



Large-mesh nets allow small 
fish to escape and grow 
until they reach marketable 
size in years to come. 



ported in 1898 that the "cod is 
propagated artificially on a more 
extensive scale than any other ma- 
rine fish." Up to the season of 
1896-97, a total of nearly 450 
million cod fry had been liberated 
from the hatcheries. During the 
1896-97 season 98 million fry- 
were liberated. Brice proclaimed 
the hatchery operations a success, 
saying, "The unmistakable eco- 
nomic results which have attended 




these efforts warrant all the time 
and money devoted to them and 
justify the greatest possible expan- 
sion of the work." 

To insure a steady supply of 
eggs and sperm, healthy, lively 
cod— from 1,600 to as many as 
9,000 each season— were caught 
in fish traps or by vessels fishing 
in the inshore waters and taken to 
the Woods Hole hatchery to serve 
as brood -fish. There, they were 
kept in floating live cars in a 
large outdoor pool. The fish were 
removed periodically and exam- 
ined to determine their stage of 
ripeness. When they were ripe, 
the eggs and sperm were stripped 
from the fish into containers filled 
with seawater and the contents 
stirred to obtain maximum fertil- 
ization. The fertilized eggs were 
then transferred to hatching trays 
for subsequent development. 
Newly hatched fry were taken 
from the trays and released in 
nearby waters: the harbor at 
Gloucester and Eel Pond at 
Woods Hole. It was at this stage 
that the entire hatchery scheme 
failed in its intended purpose. 

Because cod are difficult to rear 
to a large size— supplying food of 
the right size and kind is perhaps 




the biggest obstacle— the frv' were 
released at a verv early stage of 
development. Under natural condi- 
tions, however, the death rate 
among voung fish is astronomical, 
and most die in the early stages, 
perhaps in the first three months. 
Thus, the hatcherv fish were being 
released when they would be sub- 
ject to the greatest mortality. De- 
spite the great faith that Brice 
and others had in the work of the 
hatcheries, the milUons of fish 
that were stocked really added 
little, if at all, to the populations 
in the sea. 

The hatchen,' at Woods Hole 
continued to function until the 
buildings were taken o\"er bv the 
U. S. Na\7 in World War II. 
Hatchery operations had ended 
somewhat earlier at Gloucester 
and Boothbay Harbor, and today 
there are no cod hatcheries in the 
United States. 

Nor can declining stocks be re- 
plenished bv migrating fish. The 
results of manv tagging experi- 
ments in European and North 
American waters sho\\' that there 
is no interchange bet^veen the cod 
of the northeast Atlantic and 
those of the northwest. There are 
several separate ecological groups 



of fish. Grand Bank fish, for ex- 
ample, are separate from Nova 
Scotian fish; Georges Bank fish 
are separate from the southern 
New England fish, and so on. 
Similarly separate groups exist in 
European waters. 

With a host of nations fishing 
for the cod throughout its range— 
seventeen countries in the eastern 
Atlantic and fifteen in the west- 
ern—multilateral arrangements 
were made to examine the cod re- 
source with an eye to managing 
it. International commissions have 
been established in many parts of 
the world for the management and 
conservation of a variety of 
aquatic resources. Most of them 
have had mediocre success, partic- 
ularly with regard to fisheries, and 
have served primarily as forums 
for discussion and debate. This is 
certainly true of the Atlantic com- 
missions. Their principal success 
has been in conducting research 
and gathering data for the scien- 
tific advisors to present to the 
commissioners. But in too many 
cases the commissioners, because 
of their nationalistic and political 
leanings, choose to ignore the rec- 
ommendations of their advisors. 
The International Commission for 



Hatched areas show the 
major North Atlantic 
cod-fishing grounds from 
Georges Bank, off Cape 
Cod, to the Barents Sea. 



the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 
(ICNAF), which held its first 
meeting in 1951, was establishes! 
for the "investigation, protection 
and conservation of the fisheries 
of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, 
in order to make possible the 
maintenance of a maximum sus- 
tained catch from those fisheries." 
The area covered bv the conven- 
tion includes the entire northwest 
Atlantic from the west coast of 
Greenland, and the offing of Lab- 
rador, Newfoundland, and Nova 
Scotia, to New England as far 
south as Rhode Island. Twelve na- 
tions, including the United States 
and Canada, signed the conven- 
tion. Most of them were con- 
cerned with the rich cod fisheries 
on the Grand Banks, in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, and on the Sco- 
tian Shelf. 

Along with its northeast Atlan- 



49 



tic counterparts, ICNAF was early 
concerned with savings-gear ex- 
periments to reduce the destruc- 
tion of young fish in otter trawls. 
They also examined the possible 
destruction of small fish caught by 
gill nets, traps, and hooks, but 
found that none of these was as 
destructive as the otter trawl. 
Their experiments uncovered dif- 
ferences between species in their 
capacity to escape through the 
trawl meshes. For example, more 
cod of all sizes escape than had- 
dock, an indication that regulating 
mesh size as a conservation mea- 
sure is not nearly as simple as 
many biologists would like to be- 
lieve. Nevertheless, in 1953 the 
United States passed legislation 
that established four and a half 
inches as the minimum mesh size 
for the cod and haddock fishery 
on the New England banks, re- 
placing the former two and a 
quarter inches. The rest of ICNAF 
followed suit, and today minimum 
mesh sizes are five and one-eighth 
inches for west Greenland waters 
and four and a half inches in the 
remainder of the convention area. 

Recently, however, some ex- 
perts in the dynamics of fish pop- 
ulations have contended that mesh 
regulation for such species as cod 
and haddock is just as ineffective 
as artificial propagation, and for 
much the same reasons: natural 
phenomena, as well as man's 
other fishing activities, are too 
powerful as depleting factors. At 
the 1972 ICNAF meeting, the 
United States delegation reported, 
"The scientists have emphasized 
that the existing mesh regulations 
are not sufficient in themselves to 
prevent depletion of these [cod] 
resources. . . ." 

Because of the great number of 
vessels involved, overfishing has 
reduced the cod population on 
many grounds. Further, as the 
abundance of other species has de- 
clined, fishing for cod has in- 
creased to satisfy consumer de- 
mand, as is happening today in 
the New England fishery. 

We need only look to other 
grounds to see how precarious lo- 
cal cod populations are and how 
easily they can be affected by 
seemingly minor changes in their 



environment. Forty years ago 
there were no cod present off 
Greenland; but a rise of only 1.5 
degrees (Celsius) in the average 
annual sea temperature has made 
these waters habitable for cod 
populations. In Norwegian waters, 
poor spawning in 1965 and 1966 
resulted in poor fishing for small 
cod in 1969 and 1970, and Nor- 
wegian scientists predict poor fish- 
ing for large cod in 1973 and 
1974. In the Barents Sea, low 
abundance of capelin, a smeltlike 
fish that is a favorite cod food, re- 
sulted in low abundance and small 
catches of cod. In Danish waters, 
large numbers of dead cod were seen 
among other dead and dying fish, 
birds, and marine invertebrates fol- 
lowing an outbreak in October, 
1968, of a red tide. Natural disasters 
such as these easily diminish the ef- 
fect of mesh regulations and other 
conservation measures. 

There is little we can do about 
natural mortality, and mesh regu- 
lation alone is like patching up 
one hole in a sieve. What is 
needed is a comprehensive con- 
servation program. An approach 
to the solution of the overfishing 
problem, at least for the Barents 
Sea, was voiced by Hallstein Ras- 
mussen, deputy director of the 
Norwegian Fisheries Directorate, 
at a meeting of the Northeast At- 
lantic Fisheries Convention 
(NEAFC) in 1969: 

Rapidly diminishing resources 
of fish, particularly cod and re- 
lated species, is one big prob- 
lem for which a solution has 
yet to be found. . . . Con- 
servation and replenishment of 
Northeast Atlantic fish re- 
sources depend on much more 
comprehensive measures than 
those considered up till now. 
. . . Nations fishing in the Ba- 
rents Sea should reduce their 
total catch from its current 
level of 400,000 metric tons 
annually to 250,000 tons. . . . 
The best solution is to put a 
complete ban on trawling, at 
least in areas which are known 
as feeding grounds for fish be- 
fore they reach maturity. 

It is becoming increasingly evi- 
dent that stern measures such as 



The author, here beginning 

a dive, almost lost his life 

riding the working nets of 

the trawler as he tried to see 

how young fish escaped. 



these will have to be taken to 
conserve the stocks of cod. Tlie 
report of the NEAFC annual 
meeting in 1968 noted that "con- 
trol of mesh sizes and minimum 
fish size had not been sufficient to 
obtain maximum sustainable yield, 
and therefore it seemed that effort 
control was necessary." The ques- 
tion of which nations shall fish— 
with how many vessels, and for 
how long a time— is still being de- 
bated. 

There is a danger, however, 
that we may study and debate the 
problem of overfishing the cod to 
the near extinction of the species. 
We have seen this happen with 
the Georges Bank haddock, which 
has been intensively studied for 
nearly forty years. Today it is in 
dangerously low abundance and 
tightly controlled catch quotas for 
haddock are enforced on the fish- 
ing grounds. Once the quota has 
been reached, the grounds are 
closed for the vear to further fish- 
ing for the species. The closure of 
the New England grounds for 
1972 was announced effective Oc- 
tober 27. With the haddock fish- 
ery denied to them, however. New 
England fishermen will fish more 
intensively for the cod, and under 
existing conditions, overfishing and 
depletion of the cod resource is al- 
most a certainty. 

We can no longer be com- 
placent about our diminishing ma- 
rine resources. What is needed 
now is a total management plan, 
not merely such stopgap measures 
as mesh regulations and catch 
quotas. The fishery scientists have 
shown the way. Now it is up to 
commissioners, administrators, pol- 
iticians, and diplomats to forego 
their nationalistic prejudices and 
implement the management pro- 
posals that have been presented to 
them. • 



5° 




51 



lieturn of ttie Fislier 



A taste for porcupine 
is helping a sleek 
and elegant predator 
stage a comeback 



t>y Robert B. Brander 
.and David J. Books 



One of the most proficient North 
American predators is a fast, sleek, 
and obscure member of the muste- 
lid family, the fisher. A close rela- 
tive of the marten, wolverine, wea- 
sel, and mink, the fisher, a native of 
the northern forest, is known to few 
other than trappers, woodsmen, nat- 
uralists, and wildlife biologists. Its 
low profile is due primarily to its 
densely wooded habitat, restricted 
range, and low population densities. 

Of all its common names— pe- 
kan, wejack, black cat, and Pen- 
nant's marten— the name fisher is 



least suitable, since the fisher does 
not fish. The name may have 
stemmed from its habit of robbing 
traps baited with fish, or perhaps 
from its being confused with the 
otter, an expert fish catcher. Just 
as likely, however, is the possi- 
bility that the term originated 
with early immigrants who noted 
the fisher's similarity to the Euro- 
pean polecat, a large, dark-colored 
weasel. Trevor Poole, a Welsh 
zoologist, notes that other names 
for the polecat include fitchet, 
fitche, or fitchew. 




5^ 



The fisher is larger than its 
nearest North American relative, 
the pine marten, but considerably 
smaller than the wolverine. An 
adult male normally weighs 8 to 
12 pounds and measures 36 to 48 
inches in length, including its 
long tail. The female weighs only 
about half as much and measures 
30 to 36 inches in length. 

Dark brown to nearly black in 
color, fishers have slender, muscu- 
lar bodies, short legs, black feet, 
and bushy, black-tipped tails. Be- 
cause their long guai'd hairs have 





a white band near the tip, they 
often appear to be "frosted," or 
grizzled. Sometimes, a small white 
patch is discernible on the throat 
or chest. Their low, rounded ears, 
piercing black eyes, and pointed 
nose give them an elfin look. But 
playful they are not, as their 
curved, needle-sharp claws, pow- 
erful jaws, and businesslike teeth 
attest. Adult fishers have no 
known natural enemies, but they 
can be fierce adversaries when 
forced to defend themselves, as 
for example, against hunter's dogs. 
The fisher's anal sacs emit a foul- 
smelling musk that can also be 
used to discourage would-be at- 
tackers. 

When the white man began his 
advance across the continent, how- 
ever, the fisher's defenses were of 
no use against this new threat. 
The heart of its original range was 
coincident with the northern con- 
iferous forest from coast to coast, 
and as far south as the coniferous 
zones of the southern Great Lakes 
states and the mountains of Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee. Because they 
are apparently dependent on the 
presence of a forest canopy, fish- 
ers retreated rapidly northward 
before the ax and plow. By the 
turn of the century, fisher popu- 
lations in the remaining forests 
had declined drastically, mainly as 
a result of overharvesting by the 
fur industry. The fisher, because 
of its inqiiisitive nature and strong 
response to strange scents, is a 
fairly easy animal to trap, and it 
was ruthlessly exploited because of 
the high value placed on its 
dense, lustrous fur. 

Tlie demands of the fur trade 
reached frenzied proportions be- 
tween 1919 and 1924 At fur 
auctions in 1920, the peak year, 
fisher pelts averaged $85 in Can- 
ada, and prime pelts brought as 
much as $300. To trappers, log- 
gers, and homesteaders eking out 
a meager living in the woods, a 
single fisher pelt could have 
meant more than a month's 
wages. Most fishers were taken by 
trap, but they were also hunted. 



On spotting a fisher track in the 
snow, a woodsman would pack 
some food, strap on snowshoes, 
and pursue the fisher— perhaps for 
days— until it was cornered and 
killed. 

By the 1930s the fisher had all 
but disappeared in the United 
States, except for small popu- 
lations in Maine, the White and 
Adirondack mountains, northeast- 
ern Minnesota, and California. 
Fur-trade records from Wisconsin 
reveal how quickly the decline oc- 
curred. In the trapping season of 
1917-18, 559 fishers were taken 
in Wisconsin; in 1920-21, the 
last legal season in that state, only 
three were taken. California like- 
wise saw the legal take of fishers 
decline precipitously from 102 in 
1920 to two in 1931. By 1940 
the once-abundant fisher was ex- 
tinct in the province of Nova 
Scotia and dwindling in other Ca- 
nadian provinces. 

Fortunately, several factors in- 
tervened to save the fisher from 
extinction. First, the warnings of 
some wildlife biologists and other 
concerned parties resulted in 
closed trapping seasons in manv 
states. Wisconsin was among the 
first, closing the fisher season in 
1922, Minnesota followed suit in 
1929, New Hampshire in 1935, 
New York and Wyoming in 1936, 
Maine and Oregon in 1937, and 
California in 1946. While seasons 
were seldom closed in Canada, 
laws requiring registration of trap 
lines succeeded in reducing the 
fisher harvest. Second, women's 
fashions, which had created the 
high demand for fisher in the first 
place, turned away from long furs 
to the spotted cats. By the 1950s, 
the price of a fisher pelt was 
down to a low of $10 or $15. 
And third, much of the fisher's 
habitat has improved steadily 
since the 1920s, when our north- 
ern forests were at a low ebb 
from overcutting and subsequent 
overburning. 

In the last 30 years there has 
been a sharp rise in the fisher 
populations of areas still possess- 

53 



ing breeding stock. New York 
noted a fisher increase by 1940, 
Maine by the mid-1940s, and New 
Hampshire by the early 1950s. 
Limited trapping seasons were re- 
opened in these states in 1949, 
1950. and 1961, respectively. 

Minnesota, the only refuge re- 
maining in the Midwest three 
decades ago, has also seen its 
fisher population increase. While 
the trapping season on fisher has 
been closed continuously since 
1933, Minnesota has encouraged 
trappers to turn in fishers caught 
in traps set for other species by 
paying them half the pelt's auc- 
tion price. The average accidental 
take increased from 22 per year 
between 1934 and 1938 to 114 
per year between 1959 and 1963. 
We believe this reflects a real in- 
crease in fisher numbers, not just 
a fluctuation in fur value. 

Protection programs were not 
sufficient to re-establish the fisher 
in all parts of its original habitat, 
however, and reintroduction of 
breeding stock will be required in 
many states. Given the still preva- 
lent attitude toward predators in 
general, any proposal to release 
such animals is likely to raise a 
hue and cry from certain influen- 
tial segments of the public: hunt- 
ers anticipating a decline in game 
animals, farmers fearing depreda- 
tion of livestock and poultry, and 
those animal lovers who object to 



the death of any prey species 
might all be expected to oppose a 
restocking program involving a 
predator. One can imagine the re- 
action that would greet an attempt 
to reintroduce wolves on their 
former range. The fisher, however, 
has a potential degree of public and 
governmental acceptance not en- 
joyed by other predators because it 
is the only animal that effectively 
preys upon porcupines. 

In recent years, the porcupine 
population has increased in many 
areas of the United States, with 
densities reaching as high as 60 ani- 
mals per square mile. Chewing the 
cambium and bark of trees during 
winter and feeding on tender buds, 
leaves, and twigs during spring, 
these rodents can kill valuable tim- 
ber and ornamental trees. Tliey are 
also pests near camps and summer 
homes, gnawing at anything that 
contains salt, such as canoe pad- 
dles, ax handles, and saddles that 
have become salted from human 
perspiration. These habits have not 
endeared the porcupine to people 
whose property has been damaged 
by the rodent. 

Fishers and porcupines share 
much of the same habitat— heavily 
wooded areas of conifers, junipers, 
and poplars— and it had long been 
thought that the fisher was the 
primary natural control on the 
number of porcupines in an area. 
Our study of a recent fisher re- 



stocking program in northern 
Michigan substantiates this theory. 

As a hunter, the fisher is 
largely an opportunist. It does not 
lie in wait like a bobcat or pursue 
prey for long distances like a tim- 
ber wolf. Rather, its hunting pat- 
tern is a random investigation of 
brushy areas, windfalls, hollow 
trees, and other places where 
hares and smaller mammals are 
likely to be found. Fishers are re- 
nowned for their speed and agility 
in trees, and many early accounts 
would have us believe that their 
hunting activity was primarily ar- 
boreal. However, we saw little 
evidence of tree climbing, and a 
study in Maine also showed that 
most of the fisher's activity is ter- 
restrial, although certain individ- 
uals do climb trees readily and of- 
ten. 

Throughout much of the fisher's 
range, the snowshoe hare is the 
staple of its diet; other foods in- 
clude squirrels, mice, shrews, 
birds, carrion, fruits, and nuts. 
Deer remains commonly turn up 
in the digestive tracts of fishers. It 
is highly unlikely, however, that a 
fisher could kill any but the weak- 
est deer, considering the disparity 
in size. This has been supported 
by studies of deer yards in Maine 
where fishers were present but did 
not hunt the snowbound and win- 
ter-weakened deer. The deer re- 
mains found in the stomach con- 



Fislier Distrilmtlon 
in Michigan— 1970 

Number of Fishers Released: 

1961-31 

1962-16 

1963-14 




54 




tents of fishers can be explained 
by their tendency to feed on car- 
rion; they will often remain near 
the carcass of a deer or other 
large animal for seyeral days. 

Ruffed grouse remains are 
sometimes found in fisher stom- 
achs, but the fisher does not con- 
stitute a threat to grouse popu- 
lations. The claim by some 
sportsmen that fishers stalk and 
kill grouse roosting under the 
snow is unsubstantiated by our ex- 
perience with the two species in 
northern Michigan. 

Porcupines are a highly pre- 
ferred prey, and if fresh sign is in 
evidence, a fisher wiU become 
more deliberate in its hunting 
habits, often spending several days 
in the same area. Porcupines, pro- 
tected by their defensive arma- 
ment, move through the woods 
without making any noticeable ef- 
fort to avoid an encounter with a 
predator— possibly because thev 
have none except for the fisher. 
Rare eyewitness accounts indicate 
that when the two meet, the fisher 
rushes in, leaping and circling 
rapidly to confuse its prey. Re- 



peated attacks to the face and 
head soon kill or cripple the por- 
cupine and enable the fisher to 
rip open the rodent's soft, unpro- 
tected beUy. The popular litera- 
ture has erroneously reported that 
fishers kill porcupines by first flip- 
ping them on their backs, then at- 
tacking the belly, or by attacking 
from underneath when both ani- 
mals are in a tree. Malcolm Coul- 
ter of the University of Maine has 
studied fisher behavior in the wild 
and he also reports that fishers 
kill porcupines by attacks to the 
face and head. Wounds are in- 
flicted by both the teeth and 
claws, and feeding begins either at 
the belly or the head. Little is left 
of the porcupine when the fisher 
is finished except for a few pieces 
of skin and some scattered quills. 
Even most of the bones are 
cracked and eaten. 

The fisher frequently receives a 
number of quills during its attack, 
but these do little harm. Dead 
fishers examined by biologists of- 
ten have soft, partially dissolved 
quills lodged harmlessly under the 
skin, in the stomach and in- 



In trees, porcupines are 
less vulnerable to predation 
than on the ground, ivhere 
fishers can more easily 
attack their heads and faces. 



testines, and in muscle tissue; 
rarely is there any sign of inflam- 
mation or infection. The reason 
for this immunity to any ill 
effects from quill penetration is 
not known, but it is certainly im- 
portant in the fisher's success 
against the porcupine. Other pred- 
ators have been found suffering 
from quills in their bodies, and fatal- 
ities may occur as the injured ani- 
mals gradually succumb to infection 
or to the inability to hunt for other 
prey. Most predators simply give the 
porcupine a wide berth. 

Since the great decline of the 
fisher population in the early part 
of this century, the porcupine 
population has shown a steady, 
and in many cases, a dramatic in- 
crease. This was particularly true 



55 



in Ottawa National Forest, in the 
western half of the Upper Penin- 
sula of Michigan. Porcupine dam- 
age to timber trees had reached 
serious proportions, and despite 
various control measures, the pop- 
ulation densities of the rodent re- 
mained a very high 30 to 60 per 
square mile. Anxious to avert any 
more economic loss and recogniz- 
ing that the absence of any natu- 
ral predators had resulted in a se- 
rious imbalance in the forest 
ecosystem, the United States For- 
est Service undertook a restocking 
program. Between 1961 and 
1963, the Forest Service live- 
trapped 61 adult fishers in Minne- 
sota and released them in the for- 
est. We immediatelv began monitor- 
ing the establishment of these 
fishers as part of a long-term 
study of porcupine food habits 
and population dynamics in the 
area. 

A few vears after the rein- 
troduction, sightings and sign of 
fishers were being reported over a 
large area surrounding the release 
points. More than 15 percent of 
these sightings have now been made 
more than 30 miles from a release 
point, suggesting a significant ex- 
pansion of the fisher in ten years. 

Over this same period, the 
number of porcupines in the re- 
lease areas has declined. We ob- 
tained direct evidence for this 
through censuses of porcupine 
populations in two fisher release 
areas during the winter of 1962 
and each winter since 1970. By 
1970 porcupine numbers in one 
area decreased from 36 to 9 per 
square mile during the ten years 
following the first release of fish- 
ers; in the other, porcupine num- 
bers declined from 27 to 21 per 
square mile. Area residents em- 
phatically state that there are con- 
siderably fewer porcupines now 
than in the 1950s and early 
1960s. Foresters who used to 
shoot porcupines to control de- 
struction of valuable timber now 
report that they rarely see the 
lumbering animals. Handguns, 
which were once standard equip- 
ment in woods work, are seldom 
carried now. The number of por- 
cupines killed by Forest Service 
personnel in the heart of the es- 

56 



tablished fisher range also illus- 
trates the decline. The kill fell 
from 360 in 1960 to fewer than 
50 in 1969. 

We can onlv speculate on the 
numbers necessary for porcupine- 
fisher populations to reach a state 
of equilibrium. Our observations 
indicate that while fishers obtain 
most of their energy from snow- 
shoe hares, they will attack any por- 
cupine they encounter. Chances of 
finding a vulnerable porcupine are 
high when the population is high, 
and are reduced as the population 
declines. Eventually, the kill-rate 
will come into balance with the por- 
cupine birthrate. We see some evi- 
dence that such a balance is being 
struck in the populations we are 
monitoring. 

This system could become un- 
balanced again if the number of 
porcupine dens secure from fisher 
intmsion came into short supply, 
and we have some indications that 
this is also happening. In 1962, 
before fishers were established in 
significant numbers, nearly 50 
percent of all porcupine dens 
were in hollow logs; in 1970, 
however, only 10 percent were in 
logs. We think this reflects the 
relative ease with which a fisher 
can harass a porcupine out of a 
log. A secure den is usuallv in a 
live, hollow tree. Because of the 
small entrance hole, a threatened 
porcupine can climb up into its 
wooden fortress and readily de- 
fend itself. We have observations, 
based on tracks in the snow, of 
fishers approaching porcupine den 
trees and sitting for long periods 
in front of the entrance, but not 
entering. Den trees may be occu- 
pied by a succession of porcupines 
for many years, as evidenced by 
the large accumulations of drop- 
pings at their entrances. Some of 
the den trees that we have had 



Fishers frequently travel 

through the trees in 

search of such prey as 

squirrels, but most of their 

hunting is terrestrial. 



under observation have been occu- 
pied continuously since, and even 
prior to, our first records in 1961, 
further suggesting the security 
they offer the occupant. 

Den trees in our study area are 
of four species: yellow birch, elm, 
sugar maple, and basswood. They 
become potential dens only when 
they reach a mature size, usually 
more than 20 inches in diameter. 
But in recent years these species 
have become highly valuable for 
timber; consequently, few are 
being allowed to grow to the re- 
quired size for dens. If this trend 
continues, there will eventually be 




a shortage of secure dens— perhaps 
in 50 years when most of tlie 
existing laige, hollow trees will 
have died and fallen. 

The fisher's economic and 
ecologic value can be clearly ap- 
praised. From an economic view- 
point, the place of the fisher in 
the North American fur trade 
has never been exceedinglv 
high-about $215,000 of the 
$34,000,000 market of 1968-69. 
In Ontai-io the fisher currently 
ranks tenth in importance among 
fifteen furbearers. However, in 
places where the total volume of 
furs ti'apped is lower, the fisher 



may assume a greater relative im- 
portance. In New Hampshire, for 
instance, 942 out of 17,951 furs 
trapped in 1969 were fisher, mak- 
ing it fourth out of ten in terms 
of number of pelts taken and sec- 
ond in monetary return. 

Ecologically, the fisher is valu- 
able because it preys on medium- 
sized herbivores such as squirrels, 
snowshoe hares, and porcupines, 
thus helping to check their poten- 
tially rampant fertility. If the 
fisher's niche were vacated, other 
carnivores would attempt to fill it. 
Birds of prey, the cats, the coyote 
and the fox, and other members 



of the weasel family could com- 
pensate for the loss of the fisher 
in some respects. Only the fisher, 
however, preys effectively on the 
porcupine, thereby cutting down 
on substantial timber losses in 
areas where the rodent has multi- 
plied unchecked. The ecological 
argument, then, also becomes an 
economic one. 

As people begin to better un- 
derstand the predator-prey rela- 
tionship between the fisher and 
porcupine, the fisher's return to 
its former territory will be wel- 
comed for the benefits it will 
brine. ■ 




57 








1/ . ^"^ ^' 






IT 















aiji- 




^ '%S 



Medieval Beasties 



If you ivant to unravel 
medieval legends and 
myths, be prepared to run, 
jump, and stand still all 
at the same time 

by Frank J. 
Anderson 



In the center panel of the 
Garden of Earthly Delights, 
Hieronymus Bosch 
positioned the fierce 
merknight Zytiron, a 
symbol of anger and lust, 
confronting a mermaid 
in the right foreground of 
the main pool. A slightly 
different version of Zytiron, 
mounted on a fish, 
appears in the upper right 
corner of the panel. 



Having persisted through a 
long, hard night of disbelief, 
mvthology is once again gaining 
credit in a few respectable circles. 
Archeologv and psychiatry, two of 
its newfound friends, are now 
busy removing the tarnish from its 
reputation. This process began 
when Heinrich Schliemann redis- 
covered Troy by placing his con- 
fidence in ancient, worn-out tales. 
The modern Israelis, following tiie 
same method, have also uncovered 
sites thought to be merely legen- 
dary. And psychiatry, through the 
voice of one of its major prophets, 
Carl Jung, has even suggested a 
science of mythology. 

The natural sciences, too, have 
supplied a few samples as evi- 
dence in favor of the reliability of 
myth. Most of these have risen 
out of exaggerated or mis- 
interpreted reports that were 
based on poor observation. Exam- 
ples that immediately come to 
mind are the manatees and du- 
gongs, which wishful sailors trans- 
formed into mermaids, and the 
common oranges that became the 
golden apples of the Hesperides. 
Almost all myths are constructed 
after the same fashion: a hard ker- 
nel of fact is overlaid with layers 
of decoration and padding, much 
like a slightly larcenous expense 
account. 

One of the great myth-making 
periods ran from postclassic times 
to the sixteenth century, but at 
the time of their creation, few of 
the legends were regarded as fic- 
titious by either their creators or 
their perpetuators. Most of these 
fables were based on hearsay in- 
formation, which when circulated 
in manuscript form lent them- 
selves to further misinterpretation. 
A busy scribe, with little time to 
check over what he had set down, 
was often guilty of errors of both 
sight and hearing; some works 



were copied by dictating to an en- 
tire battery of scribes, and one er- 
ror could beget another as easily 
as amoebas can establish a familv. 
As a consequence, medieval manu- 
scripts abound in puzzlements and 
oddities. Creatures were fathered 
out of a combination of ignorance 
and illegibility, assisted by an in- 
exhaustible passion for the mira- 
culous. 

Three such garbled progeny 
seem to be more endowed than 
others with their creators' passion 
for the miraculous. The first of 
the trio is called Zytiron, the 
Fish-tailed Knight, monstrous ter- 
ror of the seas. Helmeted in steel 
and encased in armor, he looked 
the very figure of the noble 
knight, complete with shield and 
gauntlet. But below his waistline a 
curious change occurred, for his 
lower half was that of a fish. 

For some unaccountable reason, 
this odd being enjoyed a wave of 
popular appeal in Flanders and 
Germany during the final decades 
of the fifteenth century. He is 
found gracing the border of a 
Flemish Book of Hours from the 
Ghent-Bruges area and is also the 
subject of a carving on the choir 
stalls at Saint Sulpice in Diest. 
Hieronymus Bosch depicts Zytiron 
confronting a mermaid in the cen- 
tral panel of the fantastic Garden 
of Earthly Delights, and he is de- 
scribed and pictured in the many 
editions of the famous medieval 
herbal Hortus Sanitatis, or Gar- 
den of Health. He was, in short, 
the kind of fellow who got 
around. 

But for all his fame, Zytiron's 
antecedents are a little hazv, a 
condition that was not altogether 
uncommon during the Middle 
Ages. The firmest birth date that 
can presently be assigned to him 
is 1491, the year in which he ap- 
peared in the first edition of the 

59 



Hortus. The text in that massive 
Latin work speaks of him as 
being armored like a knight of 
old and calls him "great and out 
of measure strong." He is said to 
wear a helmet, while pendent 
from his neck is a shield bound to 
his bodv bv manv sinews. Upon 
his hand he wears a gauntlet, di- 
vided onlv at the thumb, and with 
this "he stryketh ryght sore." 

Yet when this verbal disguise, 
woven out of simile and meta- 
phor, is finally penetrated, our ar- 
mored monster of the sea loses his 
knighthood and dwindles down to 
nothing more awesome than that 
gourmet's delight, the lobster. The 
shield hanging from his neck and 
fastened to his body is simplv a 
carapace, while the singly divided 
gauntlet is just as plainly a claw— 
with which he can strike verv 
sore indeed. 

But matters don't end with 
mere identification, for the lobster 
possesses certain characteristics 
that make it of interest to an ico- 
nographer. In the Old Testament 
the lobster is placed in the cate- 
gory of the unclean, a defiler of 
all who so much as touch it. Hier- 
onymus Bosch, penetrating Zyti- 



ron's disguise in the Hortus Sani- 
tatis, seized on his transfigured 
form as a fresh symbol of sinful- 
ness, one that combined anger 
and lust. Anger was a way of life 
with the lobster, which was re- 
flected in the warlike pose of the 
merknight. Lust could be attrib- 
uted to almost any creature that 
was loathsome and unclean, and 
since this was the verdict of the 
Scripture itself on the crustacean, 
its place in iconology was fixed. 

The second member of our 
mythical threesome is a citizen of 
two worlds, the animal and the 
vegetable. Variously known as the 
Tartarian. Scythian, or Vegetable, 
Lamb, it is also called bv the Tar- 
tar name of Barometz, and is a 
considerablv more innocent crea- 
ture than the lobster-knight. 

Although its ancestry goes back 
to ancient Hebrew writings in the 
Talmud of Jerusalem, the Lamb 
did not enter European literature 
until the Middle Ages. Friar 
Odoric of Pordenone first made 
mention of it in 1330 while he 
was describing his travels to the 
Orient, and some thirty years later 
Sir John Mandeville recounted 
much the same tale. 




Zytiron, as he appeared in 
the second edition of the 
Hortus Sanitatis, published 
in Strasbourg by Johann 
Priiss in 1498. The text 
described him as being 
"great and out of measure 
strong. " His gauntlet was 
divided only at the thumb, 
and with it he could 
"stryketh ryght sore. " The 
firmest birth date that can be 
assigned to Zytiron is 1491. 



6o 



Tliis jjccLiliai' plant-animal was 
described as being; a full-sized 
lamb, fixed at its navel to a stalk 
that rose out of the around. It fed 
bv bending and stretching to 
reach the grass that grew around 
it, and when the supply failed, it 
died— unless, of course, the wolves 
got to it sooner. Barometz was, 
therefore, a perfect model of 
meekness, living out its life with- 
out harm to any other creature. 
For this reason, many medieval 
churchmen saw it as a pre- 
figuration of the true Christian, an 
archetype of the Mystic Lamb, 
and argued that it was to be 
found growing in Paradise. It did, 
in fact, turn up in the very center 
of Paradise on one occasion, but 
that was only in the frontispiece 
to Parkinson's Paradise in Sole, 
Paradisus Terrestris. He also 
wrote of it in another of his 
works, the Theatrum Botanicum 
of 1640. but few others believed 
in it by that time. Still, Erasmus 
Darwin, writing about a century 
later, gave it a place in his Loves 
of the Plants, although he 
changed both its location and 
color. After Darwin, all is either 
silence or derision, for the legendary 



plant-animal was never discovered. 

The reason, of course, lies in 
the misleading description of an 
Asiatic plant as a "wool-bearing 
tree," one that bore as its fruit 
"fleeces surpassing those of sheep 
in beauty and excellence." These 
snowy fleeces were nothing but 
the opened bolls of the cotton 
plant, for that was the true Tarta- 
rian Lamb, a purely vegetable 
product with no taint of the ani- 
mal about it. Growing in India, it 
was woven there and reached mar- 
kets to the west by way of Tar- 
tary. There, it was often sold side 
by side with the Tartars' own 
woolen goods and lambskins, 
therebv setting the stage for myth 
making. Tlius, there arose an un- 
derstandable, charming, and color- 
ful error that puzzled minv Euro- 
peans for centuries. 

And it was scarcely anv the 
less puzzling to the Tartars them- 
selves. Thev were constantly being 
asked the whereabouts of the 
Barometz, which in their language 
meant a plain, ordinary four- 
legged sheep. But these inquiring 
strangers wanted a different Baro- 
metz, one that grew on a stalk or 
a shrub. And what could be done 




The Vegetable Lamb 
illustrates a chapter in 
Voiage and Travayle of Sir 
John Mandeville, Knight, 
published in London in 
1568. This plant-animal was 
also described by Parkinson in 
the Theatrum Botanicum, 
in 1640, and about a century 
later, Erasmus Darwin 
mentioned it in 
his Loves of the Plants. 



^I 



with people who insisted that 
something of that sort was to be 
found in the neighborhood when 
every sensible person knew better? 
The only logical thing, of course, 
was to send them on to the source 
of all good legends— some place 
farther down the road. 

The last of the fabulous crea- 
tures on our list enjoyed the most 
mixed ancestry of all. It began on 
a tree, passed through a marine 
stage as a barnacle, and then 
ended up as a fowl. This mag- 
nificently impossible being, known 
as the barnacle goose, was once a 
common article of sale in the me- 
dieval Lenten markets, for the 
bird was real even if its pedigree 
was not. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, writing 
the history of Ireland in 1186, 
was the first to chronicle this leg- 
end, which had circulated for 
some time among Irish and Scot- 
tish fisherfolk. He described the 
bird's manner of generation in 
rotted timbers floating on the sea, 
and related how it hung by its 
beak within a heart-shaped shell 
until it was mature enough to fly 
or swim away. If Giraldus had 
stopped there, the legend might 
have remained no more than a lo- 
cal myth, but he went on to state 
that some of the Irish clergy made 
"no scruple of eating these birds 



on fasting days, as not being 
flesh, because they are not born 
of flesh." This news delighted ordi- 
nary men who found the rigors of 
Lenten fasting just a bit too demand- 
ing, and churchmen suddenly found 
themselves with a rather thorny 
problem on their hands. 

Concurrent with the quandary 
that beset the Christian commu- 
nity, rabbis also found themselves 
faced with an unusual puzzle. If 
these geese originated as shellfish, 
they were obviously unclean, but 
if the shellfish had been engen- 
dered from wood, what then? And 
if that question was answered so 
as to satisfy dietary laws, an even 
nastier one lurked beyond. How, 
exactly, were these geese to be 
killed so as to render them rit- 
ually clean? Nowhere in the die- 
tary laws was there a ruling on 
the case, and nobody wanted the 
responsibility of declaring one. In 
the meantime, the goose graced as 
many tables among the Jewish 
brethren as it did among the 
Christian. 

The legend was still alive in 
the early part of the seventeenth 
century. John Gerard wrote about 
these fowl in his Herball of 1597, 
and even showed the veritable 
goose-tree, together with the geese 
being born of barnacles. Ulisse 
Aldrovandi, an Italian naturalist 



Another version of the 

Vegetable Lamb, known as 

Barometz, was described and 

illustrated by Claude Duret in 

Histoire admirable des 

plantes et herbes, Paris, 1605. 

The book speaks of 

Barometz as having "fleeces 

surpassing those of sheep in 

beauty and excellence. " 




62 



writing at liic same time, also 
took the story seriously. Bill 
doubt was growing on every side. 
Anotiier Italian naluralisl. Fahio 
Colonna, firmly stated that I he 
goose-barnaele did not have ils 
origin on land, that geese did not 
rise from it, and that it was en- 
tirely a marine specimen and re- 
mained so all its life. He was 
right in line with Aeneas Silvius, 
who a century earlier had been 
skeptical of these birds. Seeking 
their place of origin while he was 
on a diplomatic mission to Scot- 
land, Silvius was forever referred 
to yet another place, and con- 
cluded that "miracles will always 
flee farther and farther awav." 

Nevertheless, the fishermen did 
have a certain amount of reason 
on their side. For one thing, these 
birds always flew in from the 
northern seas, and nobody ever 
saw them breed in any corner of 
Europe. What were Irish and 
Scottish observers to think when 
ignorant of the fact that the barn- 



acle goose, Brania Iciu-opsis, ac- 
Inally bred in ihe Arctic barrens 
out of the sighl of man? Tbev 
vv(>re also aware thai a small. 
whil(\ goose-shaped form coulii lie 
found inside opened barnacle 
shells and ihat a kind of fealherv 
appendage often |)rotru(li'd from 
the shelFs mouth. To them this 
was clear evidence tiial. if its 
feathers were to be found sticking 
out, the goose was most certainly 
being formed within. Unaware 
that this was the means bv whicii 
the barnacle swept food from I he 
waters, they added two and two 
together and got infinity as an an- 
swer, something not entirely un- 
known in human history. 

So the next time you encounter 
a description of a seemingly im- 
possible beastie, don't dismiss it 
altogether. Hidden beneath the 
camouflage there is very likely to 
be something real or something 
odd, but always something to tell 
us a little more about the work- 
ings of the human mind. ■ 



This illustration of the 

barnacle goose in Gerard's 

Herbal], second edition, 

London, 1633, showed the 

bird's development through 

the embryonic stages of 

its life. First chronicled in 

Ireland in 1186, the 

bird's origin was of interest 

to Jewish communities 

as well as to the Christian 

clergy, particularly during 

the Lenten season. 




63 



Arctic 
Renaissance 



The process of 

acculturation has given 

the Eskimo a new medium 

of expression; and the 

world a new art 



l3v George S^vinton 



Contemporary Eskimo art is a 
new art form of the new Eskimo. 
Although the Eskimo himself has 
changed, his art is intrinsically 
and uniquely Eskimoan. Essen- 
tially, contemporary Eskimo ai't is 
a 'product of indigenous and ac- 
culturated techniques and the in- 
troduction of new materials. 

To the purists, all new materi- 
als used by "formerly prehterate" 
cultures are evil aspects of their 
cultural degradation. To the Es- 
kimo, however, new materials 
have been a source of stimulation 
and enrichment. One of the most 
exciting facets of all Eskimoan 
cultures is their fertile ingenuity 
in exploring and exploiting materi- 
als and in extending their uses. 

The traditional materials for art 
objects were many: ivory and 
bone, antler and wood, stone and 
leather. Stone was perhaps the 
least used because of its weight 
and fragility; but however little it 
was used for art, stone played a 
major role in utility carving. The 
entire earlier economy depended 
on the use of stone cooking pots 
and stone lamps. Yet it was pri- 
marily carving in stone, and stone 
inlaid with ivory, that caught the 
initial attention of the non-Eskimo 
world. Now stone has become so 
much used that many artists and 
collectors think of stone carving 
as the most legitimate form of Es- 
kimo art. Carving in stone cer- 
tainly is typical of the past twenty 
years; however, other materials 
and techniques, such as drawing 
and printmaking and, to a lesser 
extent, watercolors and oils, as 
well as ceramics, are being rapidly 
absorbed into the Eskimo art ethic 
and transformed into new ex- 
pressions. 

Drawing and printmaking cer- 
tainly are not Eskimoan art tech- 
niques, nor are paints and crayons 
indigenous materials, yet the 
drawings and prints of some Es- 



64 




65 





\ 




.A 



'% 



V'.'^: 



^l^-^. ■ ^y!f 



T 




Left 

Artist: Kiawak 
Cape Dorset 
Baffin Island, 1956 
Stone; 6 inches high 

Right 

Artist: Unidentified 
Port Harrison, Quebec, 1949 
Stone with inlaid materials 
5V2 inches long 

Below 

Artist: Emikotialuk 

Belcher Islands, Quebec, 1970 

Stone; 7% inches high 





kimo are so thoroughly Eskimoan 
that the formerlv foreign materials 
and techniques are now part of 
the new traditions, just as is syl- 
labic writing, which was intro- 
duced by an Anglican missionary 
only some seventy years ago. 

Soapstone carving, or more cor- 
rectly, carving in stone, is part of 
the contemporary Eskimo culture 
even though its forms and its 
widespread uses as art material 
and technique are of only recent 
vintage. 

In earlier times, carving efforts 
seem to have been directed 
toward achieving more favorable 
conditions with adverse forces in 
the universe or, perhaps, toward 
ensuring that such forces would 



not operate. In contemporary peri- 
ods, carving became a pre- 
dominantly casual activity, produc- 
ing functional, decorative objects 
as well as toys and "whittles" 
made for self-entertainment. In 
fact, many of the earlier amulet 
carvings of animals and birds, or 
characteristic details of them, such 
as caribou hoofs, bear heads, sea 
mammal skulls or parts, and bird 
beaks, were replaced by the actual 
animal's parts, natural or real ob- 
jects, rather than carved effigies. 
And instead of magical objects 
needed for one's spiritual survival, 
more objects for secular gratifica- 
tions came into use. 

The secularization of all aspects 
of life came about because hunt- 



ing, on which all Eskimo life de- 
pended, had lost a great deal of 
its sacred content. Hunting once 
was an inseparable part of the 
spiritual existence in which every 
Eskimo participated in personal 
and communal ways. But more 
than that, because of the hunter's 
mystical and sacred relationships 
with the animal world, animals 
and their soul-spirits and spirit- 
bodies were integral components 
of Eskimo life, kinlike and 
directly affiliated with one's exis- 
tence. These relationships are evi- 
dent in almost every aspect of Es- 
kimo mythology and legends. 
With the coming of the whalers 
and traders eager to exploit the 
rich fur resources of the North, 
the Eskimo began to hunt and 
trap fur-beai'ing animals for bar- 
ter. This commercialization broke 
the sacred bonds between animal 
and man and led to the seculariza- 
tion not only of the hunt but of 
Eskimo life itself. 



xm.t the same time, the Eskimo 
discovered the potential of making 
likenesses for barter. Contact with 
whites engendered the secularization 
of art as well as the hunt. 

Today's art reflects the changed 
conditions of Eskimo life; but in- 
stead of the mere negative aspects 



67 




Left 

Artist: Elisapee Kanagna 
Arctic Bay 

Baffin Island, 1960-61 
Whalebone; 3% inches high 



Right 

Artist: Oshooweetook "B' 
Cape Dorset, 
Baffin Island, 1968 
Stone; 19V4 inches high 



Below 

Stone narwhal 
with ivory tusk 



of acculturation, there has 
emerged a defiant spirit of self-af- 
firmation that is no longer merely 
immanent, as in the 1950s and 
early 1960s, but that is also dem- 
onstrated in such social action as 
cooperatives, settlement councils, 
and participation in governmental 
and national associations. 

Since the emergence of contem- 
porary Eskimo art forms in about 
1948, a major criticism leveled 
against them has been that they 
are based on Western (Euro-Cana- 
dian) and not Eskimo values. The 
reason for the criticism was that 
most art that appeared on the 
southern markets seemed to bear 
no resemblance to Eskimo life 
other than anecdotal content of 
Eskimo activities or quaint illus- 
trations of arctic fauna. Such 
carvings were part of the preced- 
ing nineteenth-century trade-art 
tradition, but many critics of the 
contemporary art looked for art 
objects that had meaning in the 
daily lives of the "true" Eskimo. 
Art produced for the white man 
only— regardless of esthetic val- 
ues—was therefore considered un- 
Eskimoan and white-polluted. 

The most conspicuously misun- 
derstood example of "pollution" 
concerns size and its relations to 
traditions old and new. In pre- 
historic art, small size was not 




only a visual characteristic but 
also a cultural necessity for no- 
madic hunters. Today, within the 
cultural environment of trade art 
and permanent settlements, the 
traditional size limitation is mean- 
ingless. From the financial point 
of view alone, large-size carvings 
are obviously preferable because 
of the higher monetary returns 
they yield. But quite apart from 



this advantage, there comes into 
play the liberation of the Eskimo 
fondness for extremes. The Es- 
kimo delights in the impressively 
large as well as in the surprisingly 
small— in the very special and un- 
usual as well as in the expected— 
as long as they ai'e well done. 

Todav, the Eskimo's admiration 
for the very small is associated 
with those objects that are charm- 



X**?J 






-%Vv^ 



Artist: Johnnie Inukpuk 
Port Harrison. Quebec. 1962 
Stone; 19 inches high 



ing rather than magically pow- 
erful, whereas the appeal of the 
large resides in the impressiveness 
and the physical power of the 
carvings. 

Eskimo artists and perhaps art- 
ists of other non-Western cultures 
differ from Western artists with 
regard to yerbalizations about 
their art. It is not part of the Es- 
kimo ethic to put forth unequivo- 
cal views, and ven often, out of 
sheer politeness, when Eskimo 
people talk to vou they will not 
reveal their thoughts and opinions 
unless \.he\ know vou verv' well. 

The questions about art become 
further complicated when one re- 
alizes that there is no Eskimo 
word for art and that accordingly 
the criteria for judgment are 
based less on esthetics than on a 
kind of functional effectiveness 
that relates to both message and 
medium. The Eskimo concept of 
art is process- and meaning-ori- 
ented rather than directed toward 
the product or toward a concept 
of beautv. 

This point needs much empha- 
sis because it leads to an under- 
standing of the basis of contempo- 
rary Eskimo art, which is 
essentially the achievement of 
making" likenesses— real or 
imagined— that have their own 
reality rather than beautv. A work 
of art to the Eskimo is an object 
that is well made rather than 
beautiful. An essential criterion 
for judgment is the success of the 
artist in having worked the stone 
well, in having reacted sensitively 
and intelligently to the material 
from which the carving is made, 
and in capturing the likeness it 
was intended to be. Still further 
complications in understanding 
the Eskimo art concept become 
manifest in a closer examination 
of the Eskimos's multifaceted in- 
teractions between styles, materi- 
als, and techniques. 

There are many polarities that 
coexist as style characteristics in 



contemporary Eskimo carving. 
They too derive from the Eskimo 
penchant for well-expressed ex- 
tremes. Among them are sym- 
metry and asymmetry, flatness and 
roundness, balance by weight and 
balance by gravitational forces, 
roughness and smoothness, styliza- 
tion and naturalism, observation 
and invention, expression and ab- 
straction. All these are equally 
typical of contemporary carving 
and to the Eskimo an artist's 
carvings must be a physical, sen- 
suous, tactile, and intuitive re- 
sponse to the material. 



jL m.s to techniques, an artist 
simply chooses the tools he likes. 
However, as we introduce me- 
chanical implements to the North 
and educate many young people 
to become mechanics, the eventual 
adoption of power tools in art 
processes is inevitable. The "dam- 
age" done by electric tools is due, 
not to the implements' mechanical 
characteristics, but to the lack of 
sensitivity and restraint on the 
part of those who use them. 

Incidentally, the rapid accultu- 
ration processes in today's North 
do not only include the obvious 
aspects of urbanization, such as 
the abandonment of camp life in 
favor of centralized, prefabricated 
settlements and the shift from 
subsistence economy to the money 
economy of laborers and wage- 
earners; from dog teams to snow- 
mobiles; from hunters to office 
workers and dump-truck oper- 
ators. The acculturation processes 
also generate new institutions 
such as government administration 
(with ever-changing civil serv-ants) 
schools (with ever-changing teach 
ers), cooperatives, and occasion 
ally some small enterprises. Yet 
intrinsically and insidiously, north 
ern acculturation implies the grad 



ual replacement of the Eskimo 
language and the juggernautlike 
incursion of values as expressed in 
the mass media and in the visual 
environments imported to the 
North by white institutions, resi- 
dents, and transients. 

Where does this leave Eskimo 
art in relation to other art forms 
of today? In kind, it does relate to 
many of the art expressions in 
many of the developing countries. 
The Africans are acculturating, so 
are the Australian Aborigines, the 
West Indians, and many other 
peoples of the world who gained 
new freedoms after the Second 
Worid War. They, like the Es- 
kimo, had old and complex tradi- 
tions. Some continue with their 
rituals but many do not. They, 
like the Eskimo, have Western- 
culture-oriented education. Only 
recently have many been taking 
cognizance of their past culture 
and traditions within their educa- 
tion processes. And so now do the 
Eskimo. 

Art to the Eskimo is an asser- 
tion, an affirmation, an act of 
faith. As such it always changes 
and, as long as it is able to 
change, it lives. Today its greatest 
danger comes from a com- 
mercialism that resists change or 
corrupts the artist into reproduc- 
ing a proved product. Com- 
mercialism is a state of mind that 
exists as much in the producer as 
in the distributor. It is a sickness 
of our century, and it pervades 
most of our activities, our mo- 
tives, and our institutions. Since it 
promises pleasant rewards, great 
strength and conviction are re- 
quired to resist it. With the 
growth of commercialism in the 
North much of the current art 
productivity will disappear. But 
for the time being the visual arts 
are still powerful and lively be- 
cause of the Eskimo tradition of 
flexibility and adaptation. If the 
Eskimo could not change, thev 
would no longer be. ■ 



71 



Man's Adaptable Predator* 



With a little help from 
barnyard animals, the 
ever changing influenza 
virus assures its 
survival by outwitting 
human chemistry- 

E>. Kilbourne 



Influenza is an ancient disease 
that even now continues its peri- 
odic ravages of mankind virtually 
unchecked. At a time when such 
other viral diseases as vellow fe- 
ver, smallpox, poliomvelitis, and 
measles are being effectivelv con- 
trolled bv vaccination, influenza 
remains the last great plague of 
man— the onlv infectious disease 
still capable of spreading and in- 
fecting most of the world's popu- 
lation—men, women, and children 
almost equallv— within a brief pe- 
riod of time. 

All other contagious diseases 
commonlv occur during childhood, 
at which time one acquires immu- 
nitv that remains protective 
throughout adult life. Further- 
more, these diseases occur in cv- 
cles, returning to a communitv 
when a critical number of suscep- 
tible individuals has been built up 
in the population bv birth or im- 
migration. But the patterns of 
these infections are for the most 
part regular and predictable and 
the severitv of epidemics relativelv 
constant. Not so with influenza. 

Influenza appears in three 
guises: in pandemic, or global epi- 
demic, form every ten to thu-tv 
years; in circumscribed regional 
epidemics every two to three 
years: and in endemic form, af- 
fecting only a few persons, each 
winter. \^Tiat then is influenza? In 
the words of the TV quiz show: 
"Will the real influenza please 
stand up." 

Influenza is an acute, conta- 



gious disease caused by influenza 
A, B, or C \iruses. The most im- 
portant of these viruses and the 
only one that causes pandemics is 
influenza A virus. Although the 
term influenza is used loosely bv 
physician and lavman alike, it is 
not to be confused with the com- 
mon cold or any of the milder in- 
fections of the respiratory tract. In 
its t^'pical form, influenza is a 
brief but severe and incapacitating 
illness, which strikes with devas- 
tating suddenness and is com- 
monlv attended bv fever, cough, 
and generalized aching. The out- 
come is usually benign and un- 
complicated, and the patient is 
well again in three to seven davs. 

The lethal impact of influenza, 
due to bacterial pneumonia occur- 
ring during or shortly after the at- 
tack, is usually seen in the very 
young and in the elderly. Modern 
antibiotics have reduced the toll 
from secondary infections, but 
have no effect on influenza itself. 
Tlie terrible toll of the 1918 pan- 
demic, which killed twenty mil- 
lion people, would have been 
greatly reduced bv modern drugs. 
The lesser mortality rates of the 
1957 Asian and 1968 Hong Kong 
pandemics reflect, in part, the 
availability of antibiotics for the 
control of secondaiT pneumonia. 
Although influenza virus alone can 
kill without the intercession of 
bacterial invaders, lethal influenza 
virus pneumonia is rare and prin- 
cipally restricted to those with 
chronic diseases of the heart or 
lungs. 

In view of the continued pres- 
ence of influenza in our midst and 
its awesome potential for human 
devastation, it is a paradox that 
an influenza vaccine was proved 
to be effective thirty years ago, 
long before the development of 
vaccines for poliomyelitis and 
measles. 

This sketchy introduction to a 
seemingly simple but actually very 
complicated disease is only to set 



the stage for a searching look at 
the villain in the piece, the influ- 
enza virus itself, which preys on 
man in such mysterious and capri- 
cious fashion. Although it lacks 
the palpability of the lion on the 
Serengeti Plains, being small to 
the point of invisibility and more 
changeable than a varying hare, 
the virus does leave its "foot- 
prints"— and even its "fossils"— so 
that with the help of the arche- 
ological, as well as the zoological, 
approach, its evolution can be 
traced. To use a simplistic anal- 
ogy, the virus is the predator 
(lion) and man is at once the prey 
and the environment (the Seren- 
geti). Interaction of all three com- 
ponents results in influenza, the 
disease, which cannot be under- 
stood without understanding the 
virus. Is the disease changeable 









Six hours after infection, . 
influenza virus particles 
emerge from a ctiicken embryo 
cell. Upon entering a cell a 
virus particle's spikes and 
membranes are destroyed, 
freeing the ribonucleic acid 
(RNA) strands to direct the 
making of as many as 2,000 
new particles. After leaving 
the cell, new particles 
infect other cells, resulting 
in further infection until 
limited by the body's 
defense mechanisms. 



72 



because the virus is changeable? 

Like all viruses, and unlike the 
free-living microbes, the influenza 
virus is completely dependent 
upon living cells for its existence 
and propagation. Some viruses can 
range widely through the animal 
kingdom, finding cells in which to 
reproduce themselves, but the hu- 
man influenza viruses are ordinar- 
ilv more demanding and require 
human cells in which to multiply. 
Thus, thev are obligate human 
parasites that cannot survive with- 
out continued access to cells in 
the respiratory tracts of suscep- 
tible human beings. Many other 
human viruses are not so demand- 
ing and can survive between epi- 
demics by various strategems. Po- 
liovirus can persist in the 
environment in sewage, yellow fe- 
ver virus can be harbored in non- 
human species, and chickenpox 
virus can persist for years in the 
humans it infects. These viruses 
are therefore not dependent upon 
being continuously transmitted 
from person to person. 

The influenza virus, however, 
has no place to hide; it must live 
in continuing coexistence with 
man. To do this it must be an ef- 
ficient predator. It must fell its 
prey — certain cells of the human 
respiratory tract— without at the 
same time destroying the Seren- 
geti Plain that harbors the prey- 
man himself. If the virus destroys 
its source of food and shelter, the 
living cells of a human, before it 
can migrate to a new source, then 
it cannot survive more than a few 
hours and will die without descen- 
dants. 

If, on the other hand, the virus 
is insufficiently virulent and in- 
fects without provoking disease, 
then it also will not be trans- 
mitted to a new environment by a 
cough or a sneeze. Like all living 
things, the virus is thus subject to 
environmental forces upon its 
genes that shape its evolution to a 
form best equipped to survive in 



Emerging Virus Particle 

Mutations in influenza A virus 
particles are a result of 
alterations in the proteins 
of the hemagglutinin and 
neuraminidase spikes that 
enclose each particle. These 
alterations are directed by 
the viral RNA strands, shown 
in the center of this 
schematic representation of 
an influenza A particle 
emerging from a cell. 



Hemagglutinin 
Spikes 




RNA Strands Membrane 



that environment. It must be an 
able, but not overzealous, predator 
or it will quickly die out. 

Influenza virus is admirably 
equipped for survival in respira- 
tory tract tissue. It is a medium- 
size virus, about .0000004 inches 
in diameter, and its genetic mate- 
rial (RNA) is packaged within lay- 
ers of protein and lipid, studded 
with spikelike projections that 
function in binding and releasing 
the virus to and from the cells it 
must infect. Once within the cell, 
the protein coat disintegrates and 
the RNA then directs the infected 
cell to make new virus particles, 
or virions. 

The respiratory tract cells of 
the throat and bronchi on which 
the virus preys are part of its 
larger environment, which con- 
tains mucus and antibodies. A hu- 
man being who has not previously 
been infected with the virus will 



not have specific antibodies 
against it, and infection and sub- 
sequent spread of virus will pro- 
ceed. However, this favorable en- 
vironment can and does change. 
After cells have been infected 
with the virus once, specific anti- 
bodies develop that can neutralize 
the virus when it next attacks and 
prevent it from infecting or 
preying further upon the cells it 
requires for its propagation. 

The human being containing 
such specific influenzal antibodies 
is wholly or partially immune and 
can successfully resist the attack 
of the virus. The longer the virus 
persists in the community, the 
more individuals develop specific 
anti-influenzal antibodies and the 
more difficult will be its survival 
in this changed and hostile envi- 
ronment. Unlike Kipling's leop- 
ard, the virus must then almost 
literally "change its spots" to sur- 
vive. By some process of natural 
selection, a virus must emerge 
that can hurdle the ring of neu- 
tralizing antibodies surrounding its 
prey. 

In 1972, as in the past, there 
appeared new mutant viruses of 
the earlier Hong Kong virus, the 
prevalent subtype of the present 
decade. These mutants, the pro- 
totype of which is a virus called 
A/England/42/72, can still be 
classed within the Hong Kong 
subtype, so they are not poten- 
tially pandemic strains. Changes 
in the present vaccine, however, 
will be required to provide opti- 
mal protection against them. 

"The virus," of course, is not a 
single genetic entity but in a 
single infection comprises billions 
of particles, including mutants 
that arise continually but that do 
not become predominant or even 
detectable unless some change fa- 
vors their propagation. Such mu- 
tants are less affected by anti- 
bodies against the prevalent virus, 
and thus have a survival advan- 
tage. In the new, antibody-con- 

73 



How Infection Takes Place 

In the individual who has not 
previously developed antibodies 
through infection or vaccination, 
virus particles, in this case 
of virus A, attach to cell membrane, 
easily infecting respiratory tract 
cells and spreading to other cells. 




How Infection Is Prevented 

The immune individual is one who has acquired 
antibodies to virus A. These antibodies, 
effective only against virus A particles, 
bind themselves to virus spikes, 
preventing attachment to cell and further 
infection. In order to survive, therefore, 
the particles must mutate. 

Respiratory Tract Cell \^oC/w 'MV" 





Because virus A antibodies cannot recognize 
viral mutant A' particles, they will be able to 
infect cell, thus assuring survival of the virus. 



taining environment they will take 
the place of earlier virus strains 
within a short period of time. In 
the same way, bacteria, through 
graded, stepwise genetic changes, 
may become resistant to antibiot- 
ics and survive in the face of 
modern drug therapy. 

But this mechanism does not 
explain the sudden appearance of 
the very different pandemic strains 
of virus that periodically (approxi- 
mately every decade) supplant the 
antecedent virus to which the pop- 
ulation has become immune. Such 
pandemic viruses, which are not 
neutralized at all by antibodies to 
earlier viruses, can be shown to 
have very different proteins in 
their spikes and therefore to have 
changed suddenly in many differ- 
ent genes. Where do such viruses 
come from? Probably not from an- 
tecedent human viruses. 

Influenza also occurs in certain 
domestic animals, caused by vi- 
ruses distinctly different from, but 
related to, human influenza vi- 
ruses. Animals, like man, have 
their own equivalents of polio- 
virus, pox virus and even com- 
mon-cold-like viruses, but there 
appears to be a peculiar distribu- 
tion of influenza A viruses in ani- 
mal species. These viruses are not 
found in all species examined, and 
no animal has been found to have 
viruses that are related to the hu- 



man influenza B and C vinjses. 

It is striking that animals that 
do suffer from influenza are prin- 
cipally domestic animals living in 
close proximity to man and hav- 
ing a manlike living pattern char- 
acterized by crowding and even 
indoor habitation. These species 
include the horse, swine, turkey, 
chicken, and duck. 

Can it be that these so-called 
animal strains of influenza virus 
are not indigenous in domestic 
animals but are rather human in- 
fluenza viruses that somehow 
leaped the species barrier in the 
past, thereafter to survive in do- 
mestic animals long after they 
were supplanted in man by new 
mutants? But if so, whence came 
the "new" mutant? I postulate 
that these very different pandemic 
viruses may represent a return to 
man of these so-called animal vi- 
ruses when the current human 
virus is crowded out by antibodies 
and cannot survive even by grad- 
ual mutation. 

There is little question that hu- 
man influenza viruses can infect 
lower animals. Furthermore, there 
is strong evidence that a virus 
very similar to the virus of the 
1918 pandemic persists to this 
day in swine in the United States. 
The human Hong Kong influenza 
virus, which appeared suddenly in 
Southeast Asia in 1968, has in- 



- California 10/68 




New York 12/6 




74 



Hypothetical Scheme for the Development of Pandemic Influenza Strains 

Period of Y Strain Prevalence Period of X Strain Prevalence 



Period of Ylike Strain Prevalence 




Y Infects Domestic Animal or Fo 



o 



X Infects Domesti c An imal or FowlVp arryi ng Y 







The prevalent virus strain, Y, 
will be transmitted in man until 
anti-Y antibody levels become too 
high. While infecting man, virus 
Y may, in rare cases, infect some 
domestic animal or fowl species. 
When this occurs, the virus, 
through genetic alterations, will 
lose its ability to infect man. 



Virus Y will be transmitted 
from animal to animal or 
from fowl to fowl. A "new" 
strain, virus X, will replace 
Y in man. Virus X may then, 
also as a rare event, infect 
a domestic animal or fowl 
already carrying Y. 



Y-like Virus Infects Man 

In the animal simultaneously 
infected with Y and X, genetic 
interchange may occur to produce 
Y-like and X-like viruses, both 
of which are potentially capable 
of infecting man. The prevalence 
of anti-X antibodies, however, 
will prevent infection by the 
X-like virus. With the passage 
of time, anti-Y antibodies will 
have dwindled in the human 
population, thus permitting 
infection by the Y-like virus. 




Southeast China 7/68 
Point of origin 

Hong Kong 7/68 



It is not known why 
Japan was infected at such 
a late date as compared 
to other Asian countries 



Thailand 9/68 



Belem 12/68 

Natal 11/68 




Accra 3/69 

Tanzania 2/69i 



South Africa 3/69 



Saigon 8/68 
Singapore 8/65 



Buenos Aires 10/68 




New Zealand 10/68 
Like all influenza pandemics, the first outbreak of the 
1968-69 pandemic appeared in the Orient, in this case in 
southeast China. Starting in July, 1968, by April, 1969, it 
had progressed throughout the world. England, the hardest 
hit country, was affected for a period of eight months, 
having been caught by both the eastward and westward spread. 



75 



fected swine in many parts of the 
world. The Hong Kong strain, in- 
cidentally, has a certain chemical 
resemblance to an equine influ- 
enza virus first isolated in 1963. 
Some influenza viruses of domestic 
fowl are chemically related to cer- 
tain human strains. Thus, the 
links between human and animal 
viruses are real, not merely hypo- 
thetical. 

But how does the animal influ- 
enza virus jump the species bar- 
rier to return to man in pandemic 
form? Infection of man by animal 
influenza viruses has rarely been 
demonstrated. Thus, animal influ- 



enza viruses, possibly once human 
influenza viruses, appear to be 
adapted to their hosts and de- 
adapted to man. 

The answer may be found in 
another unusual characteristic of 
influenza viruses: their ability, 
seen in laboratory experiments, to 
recombine or hybridize with one 
another by exchanging or reas- 
sorting their genes— pieces of 
RNA— within the cells they infect. 
This process results in progeny 
virus that, like human offspring, 
differs from both parents, having 
genes from both. This genetic 
mechanism provides the evolving 



predator with the capability— not 
possessed by the predators of the 
Serengeti— of adapting instantly to 
a new and unfavorable environ- 
ment, human cells, instead of tak- 
ing millennia to do so. 

Influenza virus may thus be 
unique in having what could be 
termed an extended gene pool 
upon which it can call as neces- 
sity demands, that is, after it has 
changed its own environment by 
infecting man and raising an anti- 
body. If human influenza virus 
should, however minimally, infect 
an appropriate domestic animal, 
then there may well be genetic in- 



Follo>ving the Footprints of Influenza in ]Ne^»v York City 



New York City is an ideal envi- 
ronment for the survival of a spe- 
cific influenza strain, especially 
during the winter months. Once 
introduced into the city, the virus 
finds the highly dense population 
easy prey. Through a sneeze or a 
cough— in crowded schools, office 
buildings, stores, buses, and sub- 
ways, the virus' hunting grounds- 
particles are able to jump from res- 
piratory tract to respiratory tract. 
The virus jJmost cannot help but 
survive until antibodies appear in 
the population. Even after forma- 
tion of antibodies, mutations of the 
prevalent strain will have a good 
chance of surviving in the dense 
population, thus assuring that a cer- 
tain influenza strain will always be 
present. 

Public health officials are always 
greatly concerned about the possi- 
bility of an influenza epidemic. But 
how, in a teeming, mobile popu- 
lation of a large metropolitan re- 
gion, do you determine when an 
outbreak of the disease has become 
so serious that the public should be 
warned? 

The effects of influenza, having 
been felt and observed year after 
year, are well known to most indi- 
viduals: several days of aches, 
coughs, and fever, which, al- 
though they cause a great amount 
of occupational absenteeism, in 
most cases are not serious enough 
for medical treatment. For this 
reason, tracking down the extent 
of influenza infection in the city 

76 



over a specific time is difficult. In 
New York City, however, the Bu- 
reau of Infectious Disease Control 
of the city's Department of Health 
employs several methods to detect 
both the number of cases and the 
type of inffuenza strain. 

The bureau has become an in- 
fluenza detective agency, using a 
surveillance system involving 
seven distinct activities: hospital 
surveillance; monitoring of indus- 
trial, public services, and school 
absenteeism; tabulating pneumonia 
mortality; and performing viral 
isolation and serologic studies. 
The watch on hospitals and ab- 
senteeism is carried out from No- 
vember through February, the 
months corresponding to the peak 



influenza season, while the other 
monitoring takes place throughout 
the year. The combined parts of 
this surveillance system provide 
data reflecting the amount of in- 
fluenza in the city. 

When influenza enters a com- 
munity, one of the first changes 
noted is an appreciable rise in the 
number of patients seen in out- 
patient clinics and emergency 
rooms. To monitor such rises, fif- 
teen hospitals in the city, three in 
each borough, are contacted by 
telephone on a weekly basis and 
the total number of outpatient and 
emergency room visits are ob- 
tained. Through this surveUlance 
method, weekly changes can be 
observed for the city as a whole. 



Num 
-200 

-180 

-160 

-140 

-120 

-100 


t>erofd 


eaths 












1 1 














Expe 


cted deaths 
^ncezone 




















■■■■■■■HI 


\ 
























\ 
























\a 


1 






















\ 


k 










A 




1 


M^_ 


^ \ 


I. ' 






-60 
-40 
-20 
-0 


v 




^ 




^"^ 




sP^ 


*^Pr/ 


' , vv=?w^ 




i^ 


\y \ 


! ! 1 

1 i i 




V 






I 


1 i 1 1 ! 1 1 i 1 


July 


j 1968 ! ! 1969 i ! 1 
Aug. 1 Sept. 1 Oct. 1 Nov. j Dec. | Jan. | Feb. | Mar. j April | May j June | 



Pneumonia deaths in New York City in 1968-69, showing the 
increase as a result of the pandemic. 



teraotion of that virus with 
anachronistic, or "dinosaur," hu- 
man viruses carried in that ani- 
mal. The progeny of this inter- 
action might then contain genes 
from the animal viiois, to provide 
il with a brand new coat not 
"recognized" by a prevalent hu- 
man antibody, and genes from the 
human virus, to endow it with hu- 
man virulence. Voila, the new 
pandemic strain. 

The probability of interaction 
between human and animal vi- 
ruses is increased in proportion to 
the frequency of human-animal 
contact. Such contact occurs in 



places like rural areas of South- 
east Asia, where man lives in 
close proximity to domestic ani- 
mals. In this connection, it is no- 
table that most pandemics of in- 
fluenza appear to have originated 
in Southeast Asia, perhaps in 
China. 

Thus, influenza virus, the evolv- 
ing predator, will continue to 
evolve, only to be temporarily de- 
feated once jigain by its own ex- 
cesses as the human population 
forms antibodies against its on- 
slaught, and so on, ad infinitum. 

But man has never been help- 
less against predation and cer- 



tainly he will eventually contain 
lh(; predations of influenza viruses. 
Advantage has already been taken 
of the genetic plasticity of influ- 
enza virus in making new vac- 
cines to artificially stimulate im- 
munity against the virus. One 
such vaccine contains a man-made 
recombinant virus that grows 
abundantly, resulting in high pro- 
duction yield and great economic 
saving. Another, live-virus-mutant 
vaccine produces infection and 
immunity without disease. Perhaps 
the very tricks used by the virus 
for its survival can be used by 
man for its eventUcJ conquest. ■ 



by Pascal James Imperato 



as well as for specific parts of it. 

Weekly contact is also main- 
tained with New York City's ten 
largest corporations, which to- 
gether employ 150,000 people. The 
number of persons absent per week, 
as well as the number of man-days of 
work missed, are obtained from each 
of these corporations. 

To supplement these figures, 
the two largest public service or- 
ganizations in the city, which 
jointly employ 50,000 persons, 
are also monitored each week. 
The data obtained from them re- 
flect absenteeism among civil ser- 
vice workers as opposed to those 
working in private industr\'. 

Although influenza affects all 
age groups at the onset of an epi- 
demic, the infection rate is high- 
est among primary and secondary 
school children. Thus, this popu- 
lation serves as a good index of 
influenza activity. Twenty-five 
schools, five in each borough, par- 
ticipate in the weekly influenza 
surveillance activity, providing ab- 
senteeism data on approximately 
20,000 children. Five of these 
schools, one in each borough, are 
contacted on a daily basis. 

Another clear measure of the 
amount of influenza activity is the 
increase in the number of deaths 
from pneumonia. Death certifi- 
cates are filed with the Depart- 
ment of Health, and the number 
of deaths due to pneumonia are 
tabulated on a weekly basis 
throughout the year. The normal 



curve of this mortality statistic for 
the city is one in which there is a 
graducJ rise starting in October 
and reaching a peak during the 
third week of January. Because 
pneumonia is often a complication 
of influenza and cliniccJly causes 
death about two weeks after the 
onset of the original influenza ill- 
ness, an increase in the expected 
number of pneumonia deaths at a 
given point in time usually re- 
flects the influenza situation of 
two weeks before. An exception 
to this occurred this past summer 
during the last week in July, 
when the actual number of pneu- 
monia deaths rose to 108 from 
the expected number of 55 to 70. 
This unexpected rise, which oc- 
curred two weeks after a pro- 
longed and severe heat wave in 
the city, was due to deaths among 
individuals suffering from pulmo- 
nary disease. 

During the entire year, nasal 
and pharyngeal secretions, as well 
as other materials, are submitted 
by private physicians and in- 
stitutions to the virology labora- 
tory of the New York City Health 
Department. Influenza virus can 
be grown from such materials in 
either tissue culture or embryo- 
nated hens' eggs during the early 
febrile stage of the disease, 
thereby permitting further labora- 
tory studies to accurately identify 
type, subtype, and streiin. 

Also throughout the year, thou- 
sands of blood specimens are sub- 



mitted to the department's labora- 
tories for a variety of studies. On a 
monthly basis, samples of sera from 
these specimens are tested for the 
presence of hemagglutination-inhi- 
bition antibodies to influenza virus. 
Early this winter, 48 percent of all 
sera tested possessed demonstrable 
antibodies, reflecting a high level of 
immunity in the city to current in- 
fluen2a virus strains. A year ago, 
however, only 28 percent of the 
sera tested possessed antibodies; 
this increase in the rate of immu- 
nity is the result of local influenza 
outbreaks dmdng the winter of 
1971-72. 

Although not entirely accurate, 
surveillance methods are the most 
effective means of determining the 
severity and longevity of an influ- 
enza outbreak. When absenteeism 
decreases and the pneumonia 
death rate returns to normal, it is 
evident that the population has 
formed antibodies to prevent fur- 
ther infection. The virus strain 
can no longer survive in the pop- 
ulation. But when absenteeism 
and pneumonia deaths again in- 
crease, it is a sign that the virus 
has successfully evolved a differ- 
ent strain or a mutation, for 
which present antibodies are not 
effective. 

Without high-powered micro- 
scopes, we cannot see the influ- 
enza virus, but we can quickly 
learn of its presence in New York 
Gty by watching the shadow of 
suffering and death that it Ccists. ■ 



77 




COLLECTING AMAZONITE AND AQUAMARINE AT THE 
PRECAMBRIAN NCONDI PEGMATITE MINE IN KENYA 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 
OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ANNOUNCES AN 

EAST AFRICAN GEOLOGICAL SAFARI 

For 21 Days 

August 16 to September 5, 1973 

in cooperation with the Mines and Geological Department 
of Kenya. 

Areas visited include the mines in Tanzania with the only 
known deposit of the newly-disc'overed gem zoisite, the 
""^ brilliant, sapphire-blue tanzanite, and those near Embu in 
Kenya, quarrying the emerald- and aquamarine-bearing peg- 
matites; opportunities to collect and purchase minerals and 
gemstones. 

Field studies include the geology and paleoarchaeology of 
Olduvai Gorge, site of the "Zinjanthropus" find by the late 
Dr. Louis S. B. Leakey and his wife, Mary; the Crater Highlands, 
including full-day field excursions into the remote areas of 
Mts. Kenya and Kilimanjaro; the Eastern Rift Valley; and 
others. 

On safari we will encounter the Masai and Kikuyu peoples. 
And so, too, in the great game reserves — Serengeti, Ngoron- 
' "^-^ 8oro, Tsavo, Masai Mara and Amboseli — lions, elephants, 
and rhinoceros; vast herds of zebra, giraffe, and gazelle; 
remnant Pleistocene and pre-Pleistocene populations known 
from no other continent today. 

But there is so much more; deluxe accommodations; safe and 
dependable land transportation. For further information write, 
or telephone: 

Department of Education 
The American Museum of Natural History 

Central Park West at 79th Street 
New York, New York 10024 
Telephone: (212) 873-7507 



The People Crunch Comes to East Africa 

Continued from page 16 



trators. It looks now as if most of 
the excision will be returned to 
the park, and "alien" use will be 
limited to grazing, which is not 
nearly as antipathetic to park pur- 
poses as cultivation. But the local 
people cleailv do not see the park 
meeting their daily needs, partic- 
ularly when the proceeds from the 
60,000 annual visitors go off to the 
national exchequer in Dar es Sa- 
laam. Unless Tanzanians can be per- 
suaded to \iew their park as some- 
thing integral to their individual 
hves, as well as to the national im- 
age, this recent incursion into park 
territory must be seen as a not-so- 
thin edge of a very powerful wedge. 



The high cost of irrigation 
throughout East Africa 
prevents sizable increases 
in the amount of arable 
land. As the trend 
toward feiver acres per 
capita accelerates, the 
national parks become 
increasingly vulnerable to 
exploitation schemes. 

Projected Population 
Growth for Kenya 

40 r 




Notes: A— no change in present 
number of children per 
family (7.6) 

B— fertility rate of four 
children per family 

C— fertility rate of three 
children per family 



Similar problems face Ngor- 
ongoro Crater. While nobody is 
planning to plant the place to 
wheat in the foreseeable future, 
and the few Masai in the crater 
live amicably enough with the 
wildlife, the crater's water bal- 
ances are critically dependent on 
watershed territor\' twenty miles 
away. If the forests of that, catch- 
ment area were chopped down, 
the timber would produce good 
revenue and the land would sup- 
port fine crops for some time. It would 
be hard to persuade someone bent 
on such an exploitation scheme to 
drop it for the sake of animals 
that . do. not apparently provide 
him with much direct income. 

As nearby Lake Manyara Na- 
tional Park, zebra and wildebeest 
have virtually disappeared since 
their grazing grounds along the 
lakeshore disappeared under floods 
ten years ago. Although the wa- 
ters have receded somewhat, there 
has been no chance to build up 
the remnant herds because the 
animal migration routes into the 
park have been blocked by recent 
human encroachment. Elephants 
have become effectively trapped in 



Arable Land Per Capita 











\ 










^ 




c 

B 
A 




1 


1 



Notes: based on a present arable 
land total of 24,855,000 
acres, and corresponding to 
population projections. 



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79 



In the highlands ot Florida ... . 

Looking out at a lovely lake . . . 

Your "lawn" a superb golf course . . . 




TheHURWAYS 

at Silver Springs Sliores 

offers you your own 

Garden Condominium from $19,950 

(maintenance from $32 a montli) 



In the orange country of central 
Florida where the high lands are, among 
whose dips and rises nestle hundreds of 
unspoiled lakes, where lofty live oaks dry 
and cool the clean, clean air— there we 
have created the acclaimed SILVER 
SPRINGS SHORES. There it is now, 
planted and growing, so to speak, testi- 
mony to man's planning and technique. 
And to his affection. To his love, even. 

But back when our plans first took 
form it was still only a project, still only 
a dream of grand design. The quintessen- 
tial community. Paradise in the sub-tropics. 
Someday, maybe. . . . 

We searched many, many months for 
the dream place in which to set our dream 
...and at length we found it. Unmistakably, 
this was the land— land green with health, 
rich in lakes, bordering the vast natural 
beauty of Ocala National Forest, edged by 



the lazily-flowing Oklawaha River. A gen- 
tle land where birds gather and deer live, 
where the sensual colors of hibiscus, ole- 
ander and bougainvillea splash th"e scape. 
A haven to run away to, yet not that far 
away as to close one's self off from the 
conveniences of modern living. For set off 
though we are, the entrance to our prop- 
erty is just four miles from Silver Springs 
itself, Florida's claim to a world wonder. 
And three miles away is downtown Ocala, 
one of the state's fastest growing towns. 
Nature having preceded us, we moved 
quickly. We lifted our dream from the 
drawing-boards and put it into life on the 
ground. We spent money— a great deal of 
money— for talent, for materials, and espe- 
cially on the land itself. We won awards- 
commendations which say that we, more 
than all others, had joined with nature in a 
harmonious partnership, bringing forth a 

(ADVERTISEMENT), 



community in which we could rightfully 
take pride and you, joy. 

Very sketchily, in the short space we 
have, and before we talk about the con- 
dominium that this advertisement is about, 
let us list part of what we've already done 
here. The land is beautiful and we've de- 
signed everything built on it to preserve, 
even enhance, that beauty. We're phobic 
about chopping down trees; our thing is to 
plant, not cut, and our landscape nursery 
is worth a visit in itself. Our paved roads 
are expensively curvilinear. The magnifi- 
cent 18 hole, 7151 yard championship golf 
course is wrapped around 6 lakes and ia 
considered the masterpiece of world- 
famous golf architect Desmond Muirhead. 
We have a Beach Club at Lake Smith and 
a Yacht Club at Lake Weir (fishing here is 
truly incomparable). Altogether, there are 
19 glistening lakes of which 14 are totally 



within the perimeters of our property. We 
built a 100 room hotel, community club- 
house (fully staffed), civic and shopping 
centers. We've provided sw/imming pool as 
well as lake facilities. The substantial firms 
who have come into our industrial park 
not only offer bright opportunities for em- 
ployment (thereby establishing a wide 
range of ages running from young mar- 
rieds to retirees) but have designed their 
operations to conform strictly to our non- 
pollutant requirements. 

There's a good deal more to tell of 
this master-planned community, into which 
has been put more than 10 million dollars 
in improvements alone, and of N. Y. Stock 
Exchange listed AMREP Corp. whose ex- 
perience and reputation for integrity are 
backed by assets of 170 million dollars. 
Much more to tell... but it's that condo- 
minium you want to hear about and we'd 
better get on to it. . . . 

In your mind's eye, stand with us here 
on the flower-framed terrace that leads 
from the living-room of your condominium 
apartment. Let's watch together as darting 
bass burst the bright surface of the lake. 
Step down and walk with us the few yards 
that bring you to the edge of a manicured 
fairway of what leading professionals have 
described as "one of the world's finest golf 
courses. . . ." You think how lovely it is, 
how tranquil. How it all fits: the natural 
scene and this condominium home of 
yours; their grace, so deceptively simple; 
their setting, the fabric of those two mar- 
velous collaborators, nature and man. 

And you wonder, as you surely must, 
how it became possible for you to have 
your own home in this luxurious landscape 
for so little money. Those apartments we're 
describing are typical; a one- or two-bed- 
room carpeted and air-conditioned con- 
dominium with large living-room, fully 
equipped kitchen, 1 or 2 baths and a wide 
terrace allowing a close-up view of lakes 
and golf course. No use attempting here 
to list in full all of the superior equipment 
that gives these apartments such palpable 
quality. You'll find that information in full 
detail in the tree portfolio that we're asking 
you to write for. It will show you in color- 
in photographs and renderings— what we're 
doing here at THE FAIRWAYS AT SILVER 
SPRINGS SHORES and why we're so 
proud of it. You will get floor plans of all 
of our models and actual photos of our 
sites, permitting you, therefore, to choose 
where you want to reserve your home. 
There will be maps, fact sheets. But 
whether or not you'll purchase, we wish 
most to have you understand very clearly 
what manner of home we are offering you 
and why, in this era of soaring price tags, 
our prices have been brought down to a 
level which should be in the range of your 
means. 

So we say to you in candor that when 
this splendid golf course was designed to 
thread its way through and around those 
six lakes, our original plan was to sell at 
expensive prices a limited listing of prime 
lots that hugged shores and fairways. We 
laid out these sites to attract a relatively 
small number of affluent purchasers who 
would have the means to afford them, 
each of whom would be required to build 
his home on them within a specified and 
early time. Did we say these lots were ex- 
pensive? You may believe it— up to $30,000 



for a single homesite, but that seemed to 
be no deterrent. Buyers came, but (re- 
member; we promised to be candid) we 
found that while purchasers for lots were 
plentiful, guarantees to immediately build 
dwellings were not. And even though some 
fine homes have indeed gone up, it be- 
came clear— to put it in plain words— that 
most shrewd purchasers were attracted to 
these lovely sites because of their obvious 
speculative value. High-priced though they 
were, these lots were still very much a 
bargain, difficult to be matched elsewhere 
except at fearful cost. Of course, we knew 
how valuable they were, and if it was just 
selling land that concerned us we could 
have moved them quickly. But merely sell- 
ing lots was not our intention; it wasn't 
speculators we wanted to attract. We 
wanted residents here, not empty spaces 
to be held out for resale profit alone. 
Homes, people living in them. We wanted 
people to play on our golf course, swim 
in our pools, fish and sail in our lakes, 
come together as friends in our Country 
Club and community centers. It is as 
builders of communities of outstanding 
ambience, not as peddlers of parcels, that 
our company has become what it is. 

Abruptly, we changed our thinking. To 
condominiums. . . . 

Simply stated, what you can buy in 
these condominiums on THE FAIRWAYS 
AT SILVER SPRINGS SHORES is a home 
on the very same site that originally had 
been planned for sale to a wealthy man. 
That which he would have acquired can 
instead be in part yours: the loveliest set- 
ting and most valuable real estate worth 
that SILVER SPRINGS SHORES can offer. 
And we are assuring the continuing super- 
lative quality of this area by insisting that 
our architects and builders produce struc- 
tures that stress esthetics and value, not 
profit. The buildings will be one- and two- 
story, not high-rise. Two-thirds of each 
area is preserved for lawns and gardens 
and for recreation and play. Our swimming 
pools won't be just bodies of water; their 
design will give you pleasure. In a word, 
we're putting into these condominiums 
more than you might have dreamed your 
money could buy. 

Please consider then; we're inform- 
ing you that you may own an elegant con- 
dominium apartment whose style is 
instantly seen to be of the highest and 
most tasteful worth. And then we go on to 
tell you that such a one-bedroom home 
will cost you only $19,950; a two-bedroom, 
two-bath apartment is as low as $22,950. 
The monthly maintenance quoted in the 
headline, as low as $32 -no higher than 
$64-leaves you virtually no responsibility 
except for the inside of your place. Main- 



tenance takes care of the outside. Finan- 
cing is available up to 80% mortgages to 
qualified purchasers. 

As has been said of condominiums: 
turn your key and come or go as you wish. 
It may be your permanent home or simply 
yours to come to when and for how long 
you choose— knowing all the time that it is 
being carefully attended to. We are in a 
region whose real estate investment char- 
acter is regarded as among the most 
attractive in Florida. The opening of Dis- 
ney World— some 65 miles from our prop- 
erty—has brought new growth to central 
Florida's land values. We don't loosely 
promise that you can rent your apartment 
whenever you wish but it is nothing less 
than the truth that rentals in the region 
are in high demand. And THE FAIRWAYS 
AT SILVER SPRINGS SHORES has more 
than the ordinary going for it. The great 
golf course is a major focus for the dis- 
criminating golfer. He wants to come for a 
stay, pay greens fees and play this mag- 
nificent lay-out. He is permitted to do so 
as a guest by renting a member condo- 
minium owner's apartment. Your member- 
ship? Your condominium? Shall we help 
you arrange it? 

With all we've said here, there is so 
very much more you'll want to know. Your 
mailman can help. He can deliver to you 
a portfolio we've prepared, deep with in- 
formation, plans, maps, photographs. This 
is free for your asking and, of course, com- 
mits you to nothing. In fact, you'll never be 
committed to anything until you sign a 
contract and have been provided with full 
information relative to our condominium 
project as required by the statutes of the 
State of Florida. Our literature will tell you 
how to go about reserving your condo- 
minium by mail through a small, refunda- 
ble-at-will, deposit. It will show you how 
you may reserve an apartment of your 
choice and it will guarantee that you will 
have four full months to come to the prop- 
erty to exercise that reservation. We don't 
limit our guarantee to money refunds; we 
tell you also that the reservation you make 
by mail guarantees the reserved price, re- 
gardless of later increases that rising con- 
struction costs could bring about. 

And finally, at the risk of arousing 
your skepticism (you've heard this before, 
of course) we do tell you that we have 
planned only a limited number of prime 
condominiums, and that they are buys so 
patently outstanding that they will go very 
quickly. Thus, we urgently advise you to 
fill out the coupon and mail it right away. 
Our information first, your visit to SILVER 
SPRINGS SHORES later-these will permit 
you to judge for yourself the strict truth of 
what we've said. 



The Fairways At Silver Springs Shores Dept. M7A 
3500 E. Silver Springs Boulevard 
Ocala, Florida 32670 



Please send me without 
obligation your free port- 
folio describing the condo- 
miniums adjoining the 
Silver Springs Shores Golf 
& Country Club. 



I 

' © Copyrlglit 1973, AMREP Corporation "This offer is not made in any state where prohibited by law" 



■? I 




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the park also, and the patches of 
Acacia tort His forest are not 
likelv to sur\dve another ten vears 
under their foraging pressures. 

The kev to safeguarding these 
d%\ indhng game lands is to get them 
to provide a greater return for a 
larger number of people through 
wildlife protection than through al- 
ternative forms of land use. 

But as people in East -\frica 
become more hungry" for food and 
land, thev will look askance at 
anv further schemes for keeping 
chunks of the landscape locked up 
for the delight of foreigners. 
Lganda has . denied itself the hv- 
droelectric power of Murchison 
Falls for the benefit of tourist 
spectators who will not arrive in 
large numbers for a few years vet. 
Should Kenva. bv the same token, 
deprive a hundred Masai families 
of their rights in the hinterland of 
Nairobi National Park against the 
promise of better times for all of 
the Masai's fello-sv countrvmen? 
Should Tanzania have to continue 
subsidizing some ■ of the worlds 
foremost ■(vildlife spectacles when 
it is about the least able of the 
worlds countries to afford it? 

Kenva is trving to do some- 
thing about its population prob- 
lems. It has instituted an official 
familv planning program, and 
while this is far from the same as 
population planning, it is still an 
advance of the first order. But 
Kenva has onlv been able to allo- 
cate the equivalent of five cents 
per capita to familv planning, or 
0.25 percent of its health budget 
and 0.02 percent of the national 
budget. The compelling reason be- 
hind such paltrv funding is that 
there is onlv one doctor for ever>' 
11,000 people and the medical 
profession's priorities are to keep 
people ali\"e until the ripe age of 
fortv-five. and to keep at least 
three out of four children alive 
until puberty. The task of pre- 
venting children being born in the 
first place has been subordinated 
to immediate health needs. Tliis is 
why the familv planning program 
reaches onlv one. or at the most two. 
out of every. 100 women of child- 
bearing age as compared with In- 
dia's ten. Studies done bv the Popu- 
lation Council of New York indicate 
that further programs must be 
greatly increased before fertility can 
be stopped from rising. 



Advice from outsiders, however, 
is going to be suspect, especially 
when that advice, tied to a philos- 
ophy that focuses on the intrinsic 
beauty of a rhinoceros, apparently 
undercuts the basis of their pre- 
carious subsistence. Until East. Af- 
ricans can believe that con- 
servation is to be undertaken for 
local people, not despite them, re- 
actions to proposals made bv for- 
eigners could become increasingly 
hostile. Appeals for population 
controls may be met with uneasy 
thoughts of genocide, and all wild- 
life viewed simply as attainable, 
protein. 

Continuing to rely on the faulty 
assumption that the increasing in- 
flux of tourist dollars and con- 
servation donations will assure the 
survival of the waterbuck and 
cheetah is inviting their ex- 
tinction. Not onlv do the people 
most directly affected bv wildlife 
conservation programs receive the 
least direct benefit from them, but 
the increasing impact of thousands 
of tourists and their landscape-al- 
tering vehicles may create more 
havoc in some local environments 
than any poacher ever did. Ra- 
tional efforts at conser\-ation, 
based on the premise that only 
governments that can satisfv the 
basic needs of their citizens can 
afford the liucirry of conserving 
wild animals, are desperately 
needed. To this end, nations like 
the United States should at least 
restore their recent foreign aid 
cuts, considering the funds as. in 
part, the rest of the worlds share 
of the costs of protecting the 
worlds wildlife. 

Aid aimed at agricultural and in- 
dustrial development could also 
help, in that the recipient nation 
wtU be eventually better able to 
provide for its citizens. It is possible 
that the new United Nations envi- 
ronmental agency based in Nairobi 
could effectively set up multilateral 
programs aimed at achieving cer- 
tain forms of economic devel- 
opment and population control in 
a relatively short period of time. 
But action is needed soon: after 
millennia of evolution, the animals 
may become extinct during the next 
twenty critical years, because the 
growing, land-hungry popula- 
tion will be forced to settle the 
last open areas of a once vast 
continent. * 




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Discoveries about genetics that could 
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Sky Reporter 



Black Holes a^nd Galaxies 



One of the problems with big bang cosmology 
has been to explain how the galaxies accreted from 
radiation and matter streaming out evenly in all di- 
rections from the initial blast. Present theories post- 
ulate small inhomogeneities in this outward stream, 
in which slightlv denser portions of the stream be- 
gan to exert gravitational pull on nearbv matter. 
But it is hard to show how verv small differences 
could account for the accretion of matter equal to 
100 milhon suns in our galaxy, for example, in the 
10 billion vears or so we believe have elapsed since 
the big bang. 

But if black holes existed very early in the his- 
tory of this universe, perhaps since the explosion it- 
self, thev could more than account for the grav- 
itational attraction necessarv to form large galaxies. 
Michael P. Rvan, Jr., of the Universitv of Texas has 
computed that a black hole of one to nine million 
solar masses could account for the accretion of our 
galaxy. Writing in Astrophysical Journal Letters, he 
goes on to suggest that every galaxy with a mass of 
10 million suns or more may have a black hole at 
its center. Smaller galaxies could have accreted in 
the last 10 billion years without the help of a black 
hole. There is some physical evidence pointing to a 
large black hole at the center of our galaxy. The 
gravitational waves detected by Joseph Weber at the 
University of Maryland appear to be coming from 
the center of oiu- galaxy, and a number of astrophy- 
sicists have ascribed them to a black hole. 

A Joto for Amateurs Serious meteor ob- 
servers are invited to join a new International 
Centre for Meteor Observations being established by 
the British Astronomical Association. Amateurs are 
needed to take over some of the jobs professionals 
have been forced to abandon. 

At a meteor conference held by the International 
Astronomical Union in Albany in 1971, the profes- 
sionals pointed out that some of the sophisticated 
photographic and radar programs started since 
World War II have been curtailed. They added that 
amateurs, if properly coordinated, could provide a 
worldwide patrol to keep a routine watch on meteor 
activity. During periods when unusual and inter- 
esting activity was expected, an almost continuous 
24-hour watch could be maintained. 

Keith B. Hindley, director of the BAA Meteor 
Section, emphasizes that the new center is not de- 
signed to replace existing meteor organizations, but 
to complement their work and lead to better inter- 



national cooperation. Members will receive informa- 
tion through the section Bulletin, the magazine Me- 
teor Neivs, edited bv Karl Simmons and published 
in Jacksonville, Florida, and through the lAU Circu- 
lars. 

The ideal of worldwide coverage is limited by the 
location of the world's land masses. Even so, some 
places are better covered than others: England and 
eastern North America are well covered; most of 
Asia is not. There are essentially no observers near 
the Equator, although the highest rate of meteor ac- 
tivity can be expected in that region. Because mete- 
ors, unlike celestial objects, cannot be seen more 
than a few tens of miles away from where they en- 
ter the universe, more observers are needed almost 
ever\Tvhere on the globe. 

Meteor observers, whether organized in groups or 
acting as individuals, are invited to contact the in- 
ternational center through Dr. Keith B. Hindley, 
Department of Organic Chemistry, The University of 
Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. There is no charge 
for membership. Each member will receive the BAA 
meteor Bulletin, report forms, notes on observing 
methods, and advice on meteor work in general. 
The center will be run as an experiment for three 
years; if it succeeds, it will enable amateurs to 
make astronomical observations of scientific value. 

Southern Exposure Like their counter- 
parts in the United States and in Europe, Canadian 
astronomers want a better look at the still largely 
untapped riches in the southern sky. A group from 
the University of Toronto, working at Las Campanas 
in Chile, has made a couple of discoveries in recent 
months with a 24-inch reflector, a quite modest tele- 
scope by professional standards, and they want 
more. 

Robert F. Garrison, recording the spectra of lu- 
minous young stars in the southern sky as a part of 
a program to map the spiral arms of our galaxy, has 
found a very rare tvpe of star composed almost en- 
tirely of helium. Most new stars are composed pri- 
marily of hydrogen; thermonuclear reactions in the 
center of the star convert this to helium. When the 
hydrogen is exhausted, the core contracts, heating 
up in the process until it is hot enough for ther- 
monuclear reactions involving helium to take place. 

As such a star heats up again, it expands, with 
the outer surface remaining fairly cool. At this stage 
it is known as a red giant. The star found by Garri- 
son, however, is not giving the cool, red light of 



l3v John P. Wilev, Jr 




I isual observers record meteors from l/u; 
Springhill Observatory about 25 
miles south of Ottawa. Their results 
are combined with radar and 
spectrographic data by the National 
Research Council of Canada. 



such a giant, but a very blue, hot light more com- 
monlv associated with a white dwarf. Garrison feels 
this star could represent a missing link in our un- 
derstanding of stellar evolution. 

Report of the helium star is the second time the 
Toronto group has made the news from Chile this 
year. Last spring they photographed one of the 
brightest supernovae seen in this century ("Sky Re- 
porter," November, 1972). Neither object could be 
studied from the latitude of Toronto. 

Donald A. MacRae, chairman of the University of 
Toronto's astronomy department, commented that 
the southern sky has a great deal of excitement to 
offer. "Canada's astronomers," he said, "are hoping 
that thev will some dav have a larger eye in the 
southern hemisphere so that they will not have to 
leave to others the foUow-up work on their own dis- 
coveries." 

Outer Limits Ever since the British journal 
Nature split into three publications, the general Fri- 
day edition has carried teasers for the highly techni- 



cal physical science edition published on Mondays 
and the biological science edition published on 
Wednesdays. It is in these teasers, which always 
precede publication of the full paper, that an idea 
of the thinking at the outer limits of astrophysics 
can be acquired. 

In early November, for example, there was a 
teaser for a paper on the background radiation that 
seems to fill the universe. This microwave radiation 
is commonly explained as the remnant of the big 
bang from which our present universe emerged. But 
there may be another, gaudier explanation. Suppose, 
as many do, that the universe is oscillating: there is 
a big bang, expansion of the universe, a gradual 
slowing down, and then a collapse in on itself as 
gravity overcomes the outward expansion, until the 
entire universe compresses into one glowing mass, 
which then explodes in another big bang. No one is 
sure that the physical laws we know will remain 
constant in each succeeding universe. Perhaps elec- 
trons will have a positive, instead of negative, 
charge the next time around. 

The paper summarized in the Friday Nature sug- 
gested that in each successive universe, the direction 
of the arrow of time may be reversed. In the next 
universe after this one, time may have flowed in the 
opposite direction. Thus, the radiation we see today 
is the starlight of a universe that has yet to be, 
scrambled and made isotropic by having passed 
through a big bang. 

Such a theory explains the current coincidence 
that the background radiation we see matches the 
energy density of the starlight from this universe. 
And, as the editors of Nature comment, the theory 
"has the merit, not shared by many cosmologies, of 
being tied directly to a measurable physicd property 
of the universe." 

In another teaser later that month, I was disap- 
pointed to learn that it is not practical to extract 
energy from black holes by lowering things into 
them on ropes. It was a fascinating idea, because 
theoretically it was possible to exert energy of up to 
nuP' on the operator's end of the rope. But the pa- 
per to be published the following Monday was to 
show conclusively that even an idealized rope — one 
that would not be affected by the peculiar properties 
of space-time around a black hole— would break be- 
fore the lowered object reached the zone where its 
weight would become infinite. For a practical rope 
(the author considered piano wire), breakage occurs 
much sooner. Back to the old drawing board. ■ 

85 



Celestial Events 



l>v Thomas D. Nicholson 



The Moon At mid-January, you will find the waxing gibbous 
moon well up in the southeastern sky in the early evening. By the 
18th, it becomes full, rising well to the north of east at sunset, re- 
maining all night long, and setting to the north of west at sunrise. 
Thereafter, the waning gibbous moon rises after sunset, becoming 
the last-quarter moon on January 26. In the morning sky as a cres- 
cent in late January and early February, the moon becomes new on 
February 3. By the 6th of February, you will see the early crescent 
in the western sky at sunset, appearing higher nightly. First-quarter 
moon is on February 10, and the waxing gibbous phase remains in 
the evening skv through midmonth. 

Stars and Planets The bright winter stars are in full 
display now, filling the eastern half of the sky during the early eve- 
ning, Vising up into the south by midnight, and moving into the 
west as dawn approaches. The stars of the autumn, dominated by the 
Square of Pegasus, are in the west after sundown, but have just 
about gone below the horizon by midnight. If winter is beginning to 
tire you by now, a ghmpse at the morning sky may be heartening. 
Just before dawn, you will find the brightest of the summer stars— 
Ahair (close to the horizon), Vega, and Deneb— bright and high, 
forming their great triangle just to the left of east. 

Saturn, now the only planet to look for in the evening sky, is 
well up in the southeast among the stars of Taurus after sundown. 
Mercury is also an evening star after January 28, but not in position 
for viewing. In the morning, Saturn will still be visible low in the 
west until just before dawn. Mars rising in the southeast with 
Scorpius as the sky brightens. Jupiter and Venus, both morning 
stars, rise too late in the dawn to be seen, although by mid-February 
you may be able to see Jupiter rising about an hour after Mars. 

January 15: After sundown tonight, look for Saturn below and to 
the right of the waxing gibbous moon. You will clearly see the moon 
separating to the left from Saturn during the night. 

January 16: The moon is at perigee, the point in its orbit where 
it comes closest to the earth. 

January 18: A penumbral eclipse occurs at full moon today, but 
produces only a slight dimming of the moon's brightness. 

January 28: The moon is now at apogee, where it is most distant 
from the earth. Mercury is at superior conjunction and enters the 
evening sky. 

January 30: Mars will be above the rising crescent moon in the 
sky this morning. 

February 1: Jupiter and the moon are in conjunction, and the 
moon occults the planet over the North Pacific and northwestern 
North America. But Jupiter rises too late to be visible. 

February 11-12: You will see Saturn near the gibbous moon on 
both evenings, below and to the left of the moon on the 11th; 
above, to the right of the moon, and more distant on the 12th. 

February 13: The moon is at perigee, nearest to the earth. Saturn 
has been approaching the star Aldebaran, in Taurus, as it moves 
westward in retrograde motion. Today, the planet becomes stationary 
in Right Ascension, resumes its direct (easterly) motion, and begins 
to move away from Aldebaran. 

* Hold the Star Map so the compass direction you face is at the bottom; then 
match the stars in the lower half of the map with those in the sky near the hori- 
zon. The map is for 10:15 p.m. on January 15; 9:15 p.m. on January 31; and 8:15 
P.M. on February 15; but it can be used for an hour before and after those times. 




86 



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( 'February 7 



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87 



Books in Revie^v 



by Luther P. Gei'lacli 



The Prophet Speaks 



Where the Wasteland Ends, by 
Theodore Roszak. Doubleday & 
Co., $10.00; 492 pp. 

Let us boil down the history of 
the United States since the 
early 1960s to a few key aspects. 
First, there was the time of con- 
tentment; the United States 
seemed to bestride the world 
mightily and confidently. Some 
American leaders, including Presi- 
dent Kennedy, felt compelled to 
urge Americans to cast off their 
complacency and help change the 
world into the American image. 

Then, in the mid-sixties, 
spurred by the Vietnam war and 
by the rise of Black Power, Amer- 
icans in the established order be- 
gan to question and even to reject 
this order. Some dropped out 
from it, others organized against it 
and assaulted it. Increasingly, 
Americans found monstrous de- 
fects that laid the established or- 
der open to assault: racism, the 
military-industrial complex, 
counterinsurgency and intelligence 
operations, the dreadful war in In- 
dochina, and environmental rape 
and pollution. 

Across the country, people par- 
ticipated in myriad groups to pro- 
test these and other defects in the 
conventional culture. It was a ris- 
ing movement of national soul- 
searching and contravention of 
convention. Perceptively, Theo- 
dore Roszak called this movement 
"the counter culture" in his 1969 
book. The Making of a Counter 
Culture. He summarized many of 
its main features, dislikes, and de- 
sires. He indicated empathy for it, 
but also suggested that he was 
himself more interpreter than par- 
ticipant. 

Almost before counterculture 
became a household word, a new 
element had been added to the 
forces changing the United States. 
Americans moved forward from 



merely countering the established 
American system. They began to 
suggest myriad alternative lifeway 
patterns and to experiment in the 
implementation of some of these. 
Across the country, people ex- 
plored new modes of marriage, 
family, and community; new role 
behavior and different patterns of 
interpersonal relationship; new 
forms of education; new means of 
producing and distributing food; 
new political forms; new means of 
achieving religious experience; 
new technologies, such as those 
that will help conserve energy and 
resources; and new ways of relat- 
ing humankind to biophysical en- 
vironment. 

Some sensed — or at least 
hoped— that this was part of a dy- 
namic of change that would trans- 
form the Western world and bring 
it to a new era. But what kind of 
an era? On the heels of the alter- 
natives movement came the new 
"futurists." Unlike traditional fu- 
turologists, they do not wish to 
limit their projects to lineal extrap- 
olations from the past. They are 
willing to imagine many different 
types of social-cultural systems, 
considerably different from those 
the United States has experienced. 

But these new futurists seem 
unwilling just to let the myriad al- 
ternatives and experiments spin 
off in all directions. Instead, they 
seek to find the gestalt, or general 
principle, that already integrates 
or can integrate these diverse ele- 
ments. They have visions of a new 
Utopia or, at least, a better order 
of things. They project from these 
multiple social mutations and 
variations an immanent configura- 
tion. Some of these futurists, 
scrapping scholarly detachment, 
militantly crusade for the imple- 
mentation of their special image 
of what the United States— and 
the world— should be, must be! 

Roszak presumably shares the 



view that the United States, if not 
the entire Western world, is ex- 
periencing a time of transforma- 
tion. He presumably hopes that 
his most recent book. Where the 
Wasteland Ends, will not only ex- 
plain and exorcise the evils of the 
traditional American system, but 
will also set people on the right 
course to discover the way to the 
promised land. Now, however, he 
is no longer simply the sympa- 
thetic interpreter of segments of 
the counterculture. He has three 
new roles: (1) evangelist, who por- 
trays vividly the evils of the 
present and the desperate need for 
change to avert doomsday; (2) 
prophet, who foresees great new 
experience and special knowledge 
if change occurs and ruin if it 
does not; and (3) a cautious and 
humble, but visionary, leader, who 
suggests how the movement will 
make change and what form the 
future will assume. 

Let us examine these roles and 
their meaning: first and foremost, 
Roszak is the prophet who ex- 
plains to people the true and aw- 
ful significance of the established 
"technocratic" and "urban-indus- 
trial" order to which they are 
sadly "addicted." He warns them 
that this order keeps finding new 
ways to trap them in spirit-de- 
stroying affluence and to trick 
them into forsaking experience in 
the real and natural environment 
in order to wallow in the phony 
pleasures of the "artificial environ- 
ment." He explains that worship 
of this man-made environment is 
the true and awful idolatry. He 
finds use of the objective scien- 
tific method to be the most sinful 
activity of this technocratic order, 
for it imposes upon those who fol- 
low it a "single vision" that prevents 
them from seeing and experi- 
encing the world in other, more en- 
riching and enlightening ways. 

Most of the book is devoted to 



What's happening to the WORLD? 

An open letter to 
readers of Natural History. 



People have been asking ques- 
tions about WORLD Magazine- 
the magazine about ideas and the 
arts in a world setting. 

They want to know whether we 
have been able to achieve our stated 
purpose; namely, to finance our 
magazine primarily not through 
outside investors but through our 
readers. We hoped we could find 
enough readers who would be will- 
ing to take a chance on us by sub- 
scribing in advance at full-rate and 
for long-term. 

What happened? 

We have now published over ten 
issues. ( We appear every other week.) 

We began publication on Inde- 
pendence Day with more than 
100,000 paid circulation. More than 
half of our subscriptions were for 
three years. 

Every one of WORLD'S readers 
has subscribed at full rate. 

( So far as we know, this is the 
first time that any ma g azine has 
been launched without a single in - 
troductory offer or cut-rate sub - 
scription .) 

What about the magazine itself? 

The central editorial idea behind 
WORLD is that the biggest change 
of our time has happened inside the 
human mind. People think of them- 
selves not just as Americans or 
Russians or Chinese or Japanese, 
but as members of a human race 
now dependent on the same earth 
life-support system. They have an 
instinctive sense that their national 
governments are no longer able to 
perform their historic function, 
which is to protect their lives, their 
values, their property, and even 
their culture. 



And they know, therefore, that 
new world institutions have to be 
created to perform these functions. 

They know that war in an atomic 
age is suicidal holocaust. But they 
also know it is meaningless to decry 
the horrors of war without dealing 
with the basic causes of war. 

Similarly, people know that no 
nation by itself can protect the en- 
vironment. 

And they have a sense that the 
biggest issue of all in the years just 
ahead is not just the squandering of 
physical resources but the squander- 
ing of human resources. 

WORLD Magazine is concerned 
with such issues. 

But WORLD is not solemn. A 
large part of the magazine is de- 
voted to the enjoyment of living and 
to the life of the mind. The editors 
report on important books — 
whether they are published in New 
York or London or Rome or New 
Delhi or Buenos Aires or Manila. 
They also report on music, art, the 
motion pictures, drama, travel and 
photography. 

Humor fits easily into the pages 
of WORLD. Our magazine provides 
hospitality and a forum for the na- 
tions leading cartoonists. Goodman 
Ace and Cleveland Amory have 
regular departments which are fea- 
tured in every issue. 

In the field of personal commen- 
tary, WORLD is proud to publish 
the regular columns of John Ciardi 
and Leo Rosten. 

Buckminster Fuller, the archi- 
tect, philosopher and futurist, writes 
a regular department called Geo- 
view. U Thant, former Secretary- 
General of the United Nations, 



writes on peace and politics. 

We publish editorials on the 
human condition. 

Who are WORLDS editors? 
Mollis Alperl is Managing Editor. 
Horace Sutton is Iiditorial Director 
and also presides over the travel de- 
partment. Roland Gelatt is Inter- 
national Editor based in London. 
Richard L. Tobin is Executive Editor 
and also writes the Communica- 
tions Section. Midge Decter, for- 
merly Executive Editor of Harper's, 
is our Literary Editor. Hallowell 
Bowser and Roger M. Williams are 
senior editors. Katharine Kuh pro- 
vides regular coverage of the Fine 
Arts. Robert Craft, Stravinsky's long- 
time associate, writes on music. 
Margaret Weiss writes about pho- 
tography. Most of us have worked 
together before with genuine affec- 
tion and respect. 

As I said earlier, we hope to at- 
tract a substantial number of new 
readers during this next year. We 
hope we can find new subscribers 
who feel WORLD is worth the ask- 
ing price— $12.00 for one year, 
$20.00 for two years and $25.00 for 
three years. 

We emphasize the three-year 
subscription because of the prodi- 
gious savings in processing and re- 
newal costs. The savings belong to 
the readers. 

We hope you will feel WORLD is 
a magazine you will read, enjoy, 
and respect. 

Sincerely, 



WORLD: A Review of Ideas, the Creative Arts, and the Human Condition 

PO. Box 1226 

Flushing, New York 1052 

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this assault upon convention, this 
identification of our sins and of 
the demons that hold us in bond- 
age. And it is well done. Roszak 
knows his history of science, and 
he knows how to select from this 
history that which will advance 
his cause. He understands that the 
scientific method is at the driving 
core of Western culture and that 
it has given Western peoples great 
power. He identifies the root of 
this power as flowing from "a 
simple willingness to break faith, 
to harden the heait and abandon 
the fellowship of feelings." Science 
gives "you" an "ethic of alien- 
ation," by which you can "break 
faith with the environment, estab- 
lish between yourself and it an 
alienative dichotomy called objec- 
tivity," and treat people and envi- 
ronment as "mere things on which 
we exercise power." Strong stuff, 
this, with so much truth in it that it 
is bound to raise cries of anguish 
from those scientists who feel that 
they temper their objectivity with 
"humanism." 

Roszak is at his biting best 
when he goes after those who place 
their faith in measurement and 
methodology, and who promise 
their students that method, not 
other "indefinable attributes," such 
as "gifts of insight, of vision, of er- 
ratic imagination," is the guarantor 
of truth. Noting that both Des- 
cartes and Bacon stated that stu- 
dents can aiTive at truth simply by 
using the correct method, he says 
that "what we have here ... is 
surely the highest and most unwar- 
ranted tribute that genius has ever 
paid to mediocrity." 

He displays his own gifted in- 
sight when he explains that the 
next major task of the scientific- 
technical order will be to master 
the "artificial environment," 
which it created, just as its first 
major task was to master the 
"natural environment," which it 
has ruined. It is probably mis- 
leading to distinguish between 
"artificial" and "natural" environ- 
ment in this simple-minded way, 
but the basic thought is use- 
ful. 

Since Roszak is so hostile to 
the technocratic order, however, 
he feels that this next level of 
evolutionary control will simply 
perpetuate evil. The technocrats, 
having ruined the "natural world" 



and transformed it into a polluted 
and plastic environment, are up to 
their old tricks and now want li- 
cense to clean up the pollution 
and rehabilitate the land they 
ruined. Roszak warns us not to be 
fooled by this, although he admits 
that most people will continue to 
be beguiled by the impressive re- 
wards that the established order 
can dish out. We can interpret 
Roszak as warning us that "tech- 
nology and science are the opiate 
of the masses." 

It is not surprising, then, that . 
Roszak proclaims "religious" ex- 
perience to be the liberator of the 
human spirit. Indeed, the second 
role that Roszak assumes is that 
of prophet and advocate. He seeks 
not only to turn people from the 
old but also to tell them of the 
great new universe of thought and 
action awaiting them if they but 
leap out on faith and seek this 
liberating, religiouslike inspiration 
and experience. He implies that 
through this people will experi- 
ence real reality, not the counter- 
feit world created by technocracy. 
Somehow in this new life, humans 
will live in harmony with nature 
and with their fellows. 

Roszak suggests that humans 
did live in such harmony in the 
primitive and preindustrial so- 
cieties of the world. He explains 
that in the new Utopia to come, 
humans will be free in their 
minds to dream great dreams, 
imagine great things, spin out cre- 
atively. Again, he indicates that 
humans once did do this, but that 
the Western scientific paradigm de- 
stroyed the capacity. He feels that 
this capacity will again be un- 
leashed if we can return to the "old 
gnosis," or religious insight and ex- 
perience. 

Roszak's proposition requires 
careful consideration. Certainly it 
is true that the Western scientific 
paradigm does "close out" certain 
avenues of thought and action. All 
cultural systems narrow possi- 
bilities in some dimensions, even 
as they expand possibilities in oth- 
ers. Certainly, small-minded men 
can find support for their narrow 
vision in the characteristic use of 
formal methodology, or they can 
hide their ignorance in the dictum 
that "if you can't count it, it 
doesn't exist." 

But Roszak might just as well 



90 



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praise the humanitarian aspects of 
the scientific method in that it 
permits such ordinary persons a 
considerable measure of success 
and confidence. To be sure, their 
success could be at the expense of 
the more insightful persons who 
would otherwise easily gallop to 
startling new ideas (some of which 
would advance the very tech- 
nocracy Roszak dislikes). 

But the "scientific community" 
is not the monolithic thing Roszak 
makes it out to be. It has within 
it many a free spirit and certainly 
much debate over the issue of 
methodology and experiential un- 
derstanding. Just as some "scien- 
tists" pursue what appears to be a 
more rigorous, quantitative ap- 
proach, others will spin off more 
impressionistically, intuitively. And 
in some cases, both types of individ- 
uals will find ways to work together 
creatively in the "teams" that Ros- 
zak apparently dislikes. Probably 
most creative persons will break 
free froin the constraints their less 
imaginative colleagues seek to im- 
pose. 

Roszak also seems to have a 
rather romantic concept about the 
nature of "non-Western" and 
"preindustrial" societies. Can he 
not imagine how such societies 
also in many ways narrowed the 
vision and capabilities of their 
members, even as they opened 
them in yet other fashion? Belief 
in spirit forces may indeed give 
people a vast supernatural domain 
in which to meander, but these 
same beliefs may tell those who 
share them not to explore the 
nighttime sky or the dark forest 
or the deadly ocean. Such beliefs 
may give them a wonderfully ex- 
citing explanation of what they 
see in the world about them, but 
may make impossible yet other 
explanations— including those that 
have the potential of opening up 
even broader horizons. 

Equipped with the concepts of 
biology, look at what a questing 
child can learn and see as he ex- 
plores the environment about 
him— even the "man-made" envi- 
ronment. Or consider what won- 
drous worlds open to those who 
explore with microscope or other 
tools of our technology. And, al- 
though some social science con- 
cepts narrow vision, others 
broaden it and help people under- 




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92 



stand the lifewavs of their fellow 
humans. Even tourism, which 
Roszak maligns, can provide en- 
riching cross-cultural and cross-en- 
vironmental experience and under- 
standing, especiallv if the traveler 
is guided bv some of the tools 
and concepts of science. 

Roszak, like Lvnn White, 
whom he quotes, persists in the 
belief that non-Western and pre- 
industrial peoples characteristically 
have an ethic of environmental 
preservation. Both suggest that the 
West could be much improved if 
it onlv had a similar ethic. If they 
based their bit of wishful thinking 
on cross-cultural study, thev might 
find many examples in which non- 
Western people also treated the 
environment as something to con- 
quer, but were simply limited in 
their ability to conquer by their 
technology or their numbers. Con- 
sider, for example, how the classi- 
cal Chinese reworked their envi- 
ronment. If a Chinese emperor 
could not mobilize humanpower to 
build dams and keep the floods 
back, his people felt that he was 
losing his "mandate of heaven" 
and hence his authority. 

Accurate or not, Roszak is very 
persuasive in his evangelical and 
prophetic roles. Tellingly, he 
warns people that their lifeway is 
bad, that they sin by persisting in 
it. Then he suggests that wonders 
of new experience will open up to 
those who follow in the new path, 
while those who do not will labor 
along not knowing what they are 
missing. It might be logical to 
conclude that the third role he 
will assume will be that of archi- 
tect of the new order, and that he 
will prescribe as well as describe 
its form, its function, and the 
strategies that will bring it to life. 
And in part this is what he does. 
But he does it so cautiously that 
other reviewers have complained 
that he really leaves the reader 
hanging up in the air, unsure 
about how the new and better 
lifeway can be achieved. 

Roszak might like to be more 
definite, but one of the ideological 
underpinnings of the counter- 
culture and alternatives movement 
is that the future should be 
achieved through the multiple and 
unfettered strivings of many people, 
not handed down by one leader. 
Furthermore, it appears that the 




Her father gave her away 
when she was three years old. 

I I 

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Through our "adoption" program, you can help 
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Name of Country 
I will pay S12 a month ($144 a year). Enclosed is my 
gift for n a full year D the first month. Please send 
me the child's name, story, address and picture. I 
understand that I can correspond with my child. Also, 
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You can "adopt" a child from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Middle 
East, U.S.A.— Appalachian children or American Indian children. 
(Or any child of greatest need.) All gifts are fully tax deductible. 

Children^lncorporated 



93 



Singing cockles and mussels.. 



Photographs by Andreas Feininger 
Text by WiUiam K. Emerson 




Specially photographed from two 
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illustrations $27.50 
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reality of change approximates this 
premise. Countless social mutations 
burst into life throughout the 
United States and, through the 
pressures of selective adaptation, 
move toward a new model. Roszak 
sees this and mentions that "we 
can see the postindustrial alterna- 
tive emerging in a thousand frag- 
ile experiments throughout Amer- 
ica and Western Europe. ..." 
The new society is "piecing itself 
inventively together within the in- 
terstices of the old." He wants 
the postindustrial order to be 
changed in this way, not by some 
centralized and master-planned 
revolutionary arm or invading 
force. 

All well and good, and one is 
apt to look at his critics and say 
that they should not expect him 
to lay it all out for them. But 
then, just at the end, almost as an 



afterthought, he summarizes the 
character of all of these "fragile ' 
experiments" in a way that is 
grossly oversimplified. He declares 
that nearly all "blend into the tra- 
dition of anarchist socialism." He 
prejudges their character by put- 
ting a label on them— one that 
represents a pre-existing social-cul- 
tural model and that implies 
boundaries to their behavior and 
potential that others might find all 
too limiting. But then, he is an 
evangelist, whose powerful mes- 
sage, so wonderfully woven and 
elegantly written, will be widely ^^ 
read and debated both by foes 
and followers. 

Luther P. Gerlach is professor of an- 
thropology at the University of Minne- 
sota. His most recent book, Lifeway 
Leap: The Dynamics of Change in Amer- 
ica, will be released in February. 



The Big Thicket, by A.Y. Gun- 
ter. Jenkins Publishing Co. and 
The Chatham Press, $12.50; 172 
pp., illus. 

It has often been said that indi- 
vidual initiative— thoughtless, 
prompted by profit motive, and 
channeled into unbridled corpo- 
rate enterprise — is what is wreck- 
ing our country today. True. But 
it is equally true, more so now 
than ever, that if what remains 
decent and humane in us is to be 
rallied for the common cause, we 
will need to rely increasingly on 
the efforts of individuals who can 
set the pace and lead the way as 
they act alone. Worthy causes, 
more often than not, are defined 
and initially fostered by individ- 
uals, not institutions. 

Dr. A.Y. Gunter is such an in- 
dividual. An articulate, knowl- 
edgeable, and dispassionate au- 
thor, he is precisely the kind of 
spokesman that the conservation 
movement needs. His cause: the 
Big Thicket area of Texas, a 
sprawling wilderness north of 
Beaumont and Houston, which is 
being ruthlessly depredated by 
lumbering industries and is in des- 
perate need of preservation. Gun- 
ter's book is the best chronicle 
ever set forth about this fascinat- 
ing region. 



Once encompassing an area of 
3.5 million acres (roughly the size 
of Connecticut), the thicket has 
been reduced to a series of partly 
disjointed enclaves totaling less 
than a tenth of the original ex- 
panse. Owned almost entirely by a 
few lumbering companies— Inter- 
national Paper, Owens-Illinois, 
Champion, Santa Fe, and Eastex 
are some of the names— this mag- 
nificent pine-hardwood forest, 
truly extraordinary in its floral 
and faunal diversity, is being sys- 
tematically chopped down. Clear- 
cutting is the method of the day, 
and the techniques are efficient. 
"Soil shredders," for example, are 
now in use "to destroy not only 
all stumps, vines, grasses and 
flowers above the ground but all 
root networks from three to four 
feet below the surface." 

And for what? Tree farms. Pine 
after pine, in row after Germanic 
row, so that we may have more of 
the graceless stands of monocul- 
ture that already figure as ersatz 
in most of our once splendorous 
southeastern forests. "Reforesta- 
tion" is what the editors of Life 
magazine hypocritically called this 
sort of planting in a footnote to 
an article they recently published 
on the thicket, in which mention 
is made of the Eastex Company, a 
lumbering subsidiary of Time, 



94 



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The American Museum 

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Portraits from North 
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Photographs by 
Edward S. Curtis 
Introductions by 
T. C. McLuhanand 
A. D. Coleman 
$25.00 until December 
31, then $30.00 
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Costumes of the East 

Text by Walter A. 
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Photographs by 
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Hard cover $15.00 
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Ancient Mexico and 
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Introduction by 
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Photographs by 
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Inc., with holdings of more than 
100,000 acres in the Big Thiclcet. 

Aside from the established fact 
that long-range reliance on mono- 
culture is ecological folly (Gunter 
makes this point nicely), it seems 
downright absurd that the fate of 
one of America's last remaining 
biological wonders should rest in 
the hands of a few corporation ex- 
ecutives who are neither biologi- 
cally enlightened nor concerned, 
and who direct their operations 
from New York, Chicago, Toledo, 
and seemingly anywhere but the 
thicket. Interestingly, the one 
lumbering company that appears 
to have shown some consistent 
ecological respect in its cutting 
practices is Temple Industries, a 
firm based in Texas. 

But there appears to be some 
hope for the thicket these days. 
Thanks largely to the political ef- 
forts of former Senator Yarbor- 
ough and of Congressman Eckhart 
of Texas, a national park may be 
in the making that, hopefully, will 
save a significant chunk of the 
thicket. Congressional hearings 
were held in Beaumont this past 
June, and it is now generally con- 
ceded by lumbermen, politicians, 
and conservationists alike that 
there will be a Big Thicket Park. 
But whether it will encompass suf- 
ficient acreage of what is ecolog- 
ically most valuable in the area, 
or merely what little the lumber- 
men are willing to do without, is 
the big question. 

It is essentially to this question 
and to the prospects for a favor- 
able solution that the book directs 
itself. By describing the biology, 
history, and politics of the region, 
and the conflicts, paist and 
present, between the lumbermen 
in power and those less powerful 
who confront them, Gunter brings 
us to a closer appreciation of a 
complex issue that is, as the sub- 
title of the book properly under- 
scores, "a challenge for con- 
servation." A fair amount has 
been written about the thicket 
over the years, all of it interesting 
and much of it good. But Gunter's 
account, aside from its appropriate 
timing, is clearly the most com- 
pelling and literate. One can only 
hope it will have the political im- 
pact so urgently needed if the 
thicket is to be saved. 

Nature lovers concerned about 



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96 



man's niindloss encroachment upon 
nature will like the book and will 
be enliu;htened (and depressed) bv 
it. Rov Hannics black-and-white 
photographs are beautiful and add a 
mournful touch to an already iiaunt- 
ing and moving narrative. The 
book, unfortunatelv, is too ex- 
pensive to be bought and kept. I 
suggest that vou buy it and read it, 
then pass it on to vour local library 
for conspicuous display. And do ask 
vour senators and congressmen to 
back a Big Thicket park of appro- 
priate size. The consensus among 
scientists who recently petitioned 



the government— almost 1,000 of 
them, including some of the mosl 
prominent biologists in the coun- 
try—is that at least 200,000 acres 
will have to be set aside if the pre- 
serve is to survive in the long nan. 
Lumbermen speak of possibly relin- 
quishing 35,000 acres, and legisla- 
tors appeal" willing to compromise 
at 100,000 acres or even less. This 
is the last chance for the Big 
Thicket. Unless it is saved now, 
there will be nothing left worth sav- 



ing- 



Thomas Eisner 
Cornell University 



The Foxfire Book, edited by 
Eliot Wigginton. Doubleday & 
Company. $8.95 ($3.95 paper); 
385 pp., illus. 

This book's elaborate subtitle. 
Hog Dressing, Log Cabin 
Building, Mountain Crafts and 
Foods, Planting by the Signs, 
Snake Lore, Hunting Tales, Faith 
Healing, Moonshining, and Other 
Affairs of Plain Living, outlines 
its content and hints at its drift, 
but it is neither the book's topic 
nor its tone that makes it unique 
or brings our attention to it. 

The book is made up mostly of 
light, disconnected accounts of the 
way living is carried through by 
the aged and poor at the southern 
tail of the Appalachian region. 
These accounts are generally 
framed in how-to-do-it fashion, in- 
terrupted by constant assurances 
that doing it is not difficult. In 
this respect the book brings to 
mind much of the copy that filled 
the fine little magazine Mountain 
Life and Work for years before 
Foxfire^s editor was born. 

It comes, then, as a handy 
guide for the person who would 
like to play— like Versailles' little 
queen played at being a milk- 
maid—at being a mountaineer. 
But the person following the di- 
rections for constructing a log 
cabin or butchering a hog would 
finish with a built-up cabin or a 
chopped-up hog only hazily remi- 
niscent of the product that would 
be achieved by a carrier of the 
Blue Ridge culture. 

A decade cigo our reader, more 
interested in music than in handi- 



crafts, would have bought Pete 
Seeger's banjo book. After absorb- 
ing it and endlessly repeating the 
right-hand patterns, he would have 
taken himself to Washington 
Square to bang out melodies in a 
manner far removed from that of 
the gentle old men who taught 
Pete; men in modest cement-block 
and linoleum homes along the Ap- 
palachian rivers who still send 
skylarks in silver off the necks of 
their instruments. 

By assuring us that we can do 
it too, Mr. Wigginton undermines 
his philosophic intent: saying that 
mountain ways are simple sets 
them crudely on an evolutionary 
plane below our own. It is, in 
fact, no easier to be a mountain- 
eer than it is to be an astronaut 
or a college professor, and it 
would take a book twice the bulk 
of The Foxfire Book to explain 
adequately any of the traditions 
that have been isolated here for 
presentation. As we are constantly 
and convincingly reminded by 
linguists and anthropologists, a 
culture's logic is wonderfully com- 
plicated, too variegated and inter- 
twined to treat in descriptive snip- 
pets. 

The complexity of the mountain 
people's transactions with natural 
givens is shadowed throughout the 
volume in reports of recorded tra- 
ditions. In these strings of infor- 
mation—lists of superstitions, 
sketches of craft processes— it is 
occasionally difficult to sort out 
sources, to determine whether the 
spokesman is the editor, his stu- 
dents, his "contacts," the authors 
of uncited books, or park rangers 





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97 



Man: 

the human animal, 
-the human being. 

This book is concerned with 
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a human being. It concen- 
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of man. The author ties to- 
gether the findings of biol- 
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geology, and anthropology 
to orient man in place and 
time. The book is basically 
for the non-science student. 

The Natural 
History Of Man 

CARL P. SWANSON, The 
University of Massachusetts 

1973 app. 416 pp. $9.95 

(013-610022-8) 

for further information: 

Robert Jordan, Dept. J-524 

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biographic dimensions of two 
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by John F, J. Douglas 
From Malmo, Sweden to Kirkenes, 
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geography, landscape, S8.95 

THE EGIMATIAIM WAY 

by Firman O'Sullivan 
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notorious for whimsy. Although 
the lists are regularly animated by 
apostrophe- wracked transcriptions 
of dialect, there is none of the 
over-all design we have come to 
request humbly of ethnographers 
and other professional writers of 
travel literature. 

When it is not instructing us 
how to carry on like mountain- 
eers, the book is exactly like the 
works that were flung out during 
the early years of folklore as a 
discipline or like any of the many 
books written about the old ways 
of mountain folk during the past 
century and a quarter. 

The third of the book's modes 
is the character sketch, built 
mainly out of quotation and 
straightforward description. In 
these, there is an unknowing revi- 
val of the genre of reportage that 
characterized the WPA writers 
projects, although the intensity 
and latent political thrust of the 
thirties is absent. 

The book, rich in photographs, 
looks different from some that 
have preceded it, but it is neither 
better nor worse than the others 
in a long shelf of books on south- 
ern Appalachian existence. Those 
who pleasure in cataloging folk 
beliefs and stories will find many 
here to work on. Those who enjoy 
reading friendly descriptions of 
mountain folk life will like it too, 
but it is unfortunate that there is 
no bibliography to lead such a 
reader to the many similar works. 

What, then, does the book 
show? That another generation has 
stumbled over the insight that 
struck Rousseau, that progress is 
not all good, and that an alterna- 
tive to its destructive energies 
may be found in the wisdom of 
poor people who, by choice or 
fortune, have been left behind in 
the rush to improvement and 
doom. Indians provide the usual 
model for the contemporary roman- 
tic, but a decade ago it was the self- 
sufficient, musical mountaineer, 
and he may be in for a revival. 

It is not the work's none-too- 
deep ethnography or its unformu- 
lated romanticism that makes it 
special; its own history is what 
sets it apart. Its editor's collegiate 
sensibilities led, not to a beard 
and a commune, but to a Victo- 
rian elitist's dedication. This mod- 
est American Ruskin went up to 



the mountains to teach and came 
down with a homegrown publica- 
tion. He guided his students back 
to their grandparents and on to 
the production of a rich and en- 
joyable magazine. Foxfire. 

For decades, students in Eu- 
rope and America— especially in 
the Upland South— have been uti- 
lized as collectors of folklore, but 
this is the first time they have 
been given so much rein. They 
have leai-ned to write clear, short 
pieces; but more important, by 
far, for a small group of teen- 
agers Mr. Wigginton has helped 
to diminish the special brand of 
alienation currently called the 
generation gap. I would hope that 
the work of his students will ma- 
ture past affection into the kind of 
seriousness with which James 
Agee went into Alabama or 
Claude Levi-Strauss came away 
from the Amazon. The future, per- 
haps, will find the students see- 
ing the old people not merely 
as sources of information or 
as warm and lovable personalities, 
but as human beings with complex 
intellects whose very existence artic- 
ulates a harsh critique of the pattern 
into which the students themselves 
are snuggling. 

It is the pedagogic actuality of 
The Foxfire Book and the social 
potential it suggests that demand 
that we give it our close attention. 
Henry Glassie 
Folklore Institute, Indiana University 

The American Museum is open to the 
public every day during the year, ex- 
cept Thanksgiving and Christmas. 
Your support through membership 
and contributions helps malce this pos- 
sible. The Museum is equally in need 
of support for its work in the fields of 
research, education, and exhibition. 

The list below details the photogiapher 
or other source of illustration by page. 



COVER -Lee Boltin 

12-Norman Myers, 
Bruce Coleman Inc. 

14-16-AMNH 

18— Vogue photograph 
by Alexis Wal 
deck; ? 1968 by The 
Conde-Nast Publica- 
tions Inc. 

20 24— The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art Cos- 
tume Institute; except 
22-23-The Harry T. 
Peters Collection, Mu- 
seum of the City of 
New York 

30-AMNH after Galston 

32-43-Cary S. Wolinsky 

44— Steve Meyers 

46— Albert Jensen; ex 
cept bottom left, Rob- 
ert Bringham 

48-51-Robert Bring- 
ham, U.S Fish & Wild, 
life Service; except 
48-bottom and 49- 



right, AMNH 

52.53-Lynn Rogers 

54-AMNH after Bran- 
der and Books 

55-David Costello 

56-57— Maxham Films 

58-Scala 

60-63-The Nev» York 
Botanical Garden 

64 66-Lee Boltin 

67— top. National Mu- 
seum of Canada, Ot- 
tawa; bottom, Twomey 
Collection, Manitoba 

68 59-Tom Prescott; 
except 68— bottom, 
Lee Boltin 

70-T.D.F. 

72— Richard Compans 

73.75-AMNH after Kil 
bourne 

76-AMNH after Impe- 
rato 

85— Photo Features. Ot- 
tawa 

87-Helmut Wimmer 



98 



Yes^ I Would LikE to SpoT Saturn or 
Mars-Even pROiviTkE MiddlE 
OfNEwYoRkCiTy! 

Enter my subscription, which includes an Associate 
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'SPECIAL BONUS: Two-year and three-year subscribers receive, at 
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It's true that sky- viewing conditions are 

not ideal in New York City every night 
i of the year. Or even many nights of 

the year. But when it happens! 

Some Sunday night when New 

Jersey's factories have been -~ 

turned off for two days. And 

a storm front moves down i 

from Canada, with rains 

washing out the air, rinsing 

off the trees and build- , 

ings...even hosing down 

the sidewalks and gutters. 
^And behind it comes the | 

crisp, fresh air of a polar "^ i 

high. And the sun goes ^ • V . • 

down over the Hudson. -^ 

And you're walking along '" \ 

Riverside Drive, or down A 

Fifth Avenue beside Central ' 

Park and you look up and there '- 

they are...a heavenful of stars 

and planets hanging out, ready 

to grab. But will you be ready for them, 

New Yorker? If you subscribe to Natural 

History you will. Just flip to the back of the 

book, open up the two-page sky map of the 

month, hold it above you with the top pointed north 

(that's uptown), and you've honed in on an airway 

map of the stars. If you live elsewhere in the ' 

Northern Hemisphere, the same directions apply. 

But be careful. A lady from Georgia stepped 

out of her backdoor with our magazine and a 

flashlight and tried to find Mars. Instead, she 

fell off the porch and broke her leg. In the 

hospital she read the other fascinating 

articles that appear about wildlife, 

the sciences, and man— with beautiful color 

pictures -in Natural History each month. 



NATURAL HISTORY 6NA3 

P.O. Box 2927, Boulder, Colorado 80302 

Please enter a subscription to NATURAL HISTORY, which in- 
cludes an Associate Membership in The American Museum of 
Natural History. Benefits include: Free admission to the Museum 
and use of Members' Reception Room. 2 free bonus books a 
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1 year $8 Q 2 years-$15* Q 3 years $21* Q 

'SPECIAL BONUS: Two-year and three-year subscribers receive, 
at no additional cost, a soft-cover copy of Rene Dubos' latest 
book, A God Within, in which the famous scientist discusses the 
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Payment enclosed n Please bill me D 

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2ity State Zip 




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l/o<U4fR€€! 

(when you send 10< for mailing) 

40 RED CHINA 
STAMPS 



Be among the first to get these 
valuahle Red China postage 
stamps - banned to American 
collectors from the very be- 
ginning by the U.S. Gov't! Now at last you can 
legally ovun them - but supplies are strictly hmited 
so act fast. We'll also include 1 10 aMlinnal Stamps 
from Britain's Lost Empire (alone worth over S3 at 
standard catalog prices!) plus an Illustrated Album 
and other unusual stamps from our Approval Serv- 
ice for Free Examination. You can keep the Album 
and 110 British Empire Stamps as an ADDED 
BONUS should you buy SI worth from our 
approval selection! Or return Album and 110 
Stamps with selection and pay nothing. Cancel 
service anytime. But in either case, the 40 scarce 
Red China Stamps are yours to keep FREE - as 
an introduction to the World's Most Rewarding 
Hobby. Send 10c for mailing today! 
KENMQRE CO., Milforrl RC 309, l\l. Hamp. 03055 



I Send 2^v' for Preston's new 144 page 

J li Authoritative 

Catalog of 

SHIP 
MODELS 
6 Decorative 
Nautical Ideas 
for the Home 

OUR ^ 

g2ND \ Fully Illustrated; Historic 
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for Catalog to' PRtSTON S 

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Boys 9-16 PIONEER CAMPING in setting of great 
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Each camper elects: w/ilderness canoe trips. 
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RECEIVE AN INTERESTING AND 

DIFFERENT MINERAL SPECIMEN 

EACH MONTH! 

Write today for Free Details and 
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Sug-g-ested 
Additional Reading 

THE PEOPLE CRUNCH 

COMES TO EAST AFRICA 

Kenya. J.C. Likiman. Country Pro- 
files, The Population Council, New 
York, May, 1971. 

The Long African Day. N. Myers. 
The Macmillan Company, New 
York, 1972. 

Population, Migration and Urbaniza- 
tion IN Africa. W.A. Hance. Co- 
lumbia University Press, New 
York, 1970. 

LAND SHARING 

IN RURAL INDIA 

Behind Mud Walls. W. and C. 

Wiser. University of California 

Press, Berkeley, 1966. 
India As a Secular State. D.E. 

Smith. Princeton University Press, 

Princeton, 1963. 
The Continent of Circe. N.C. Chaud- 

huri. Oxford University Press, New 

York, 1966. 

ARCTIC RENAISSANCE 

Artists of the Tundra and the Sea. 

D.J. Ray. University of Wasliington 

Press, Seattle, 1961. 
Eskimo Sculpture. J. Meldgaard. 

Metheun, London, 1960. 
A Retrospective Glance at Cajnadian 

Eskimo Carving. C.A. Martijn. The 

Beaver, Autumn, 1967. 

RETURN OF THE FISHER 
The Fisher. A chapter in Lives of 
Game Animals, Vol. II, Pt. II. E.T. 
Seton. Doubleday, Doran & Com- 
pany, Inc., New York, 1929. 



The World of the Porcupine. D. 
CosteUo. J. B. Lippincott Company, 
Philadelphia, 1966. 

MEDIEVAL BEASTIES 

Herbals, Their Origin and Evolu- 
tion. A. Arber. Hafner Publishing 
Company, Inc., New York, 1970. 

Folklore and Symbolism of Flowers, 
Plants, and Trees. E. and J. Leh- 
ner. Tudor Publishing Company, 
New York, 1960. 

HiERONYMus Bosch. L. von Baldass. 
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 
1960. 

THE COD: A CASE 

OF SUPERVISED NEGLECT 

The Sea Against Hunger. C.P. Idyll. 

Thomas Y. CroweU Company, New 

York, 1970. 
Conserving American Resources. 

R.L. Parson. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 

Englewood Cliffs, 1972. 
Our Changing Fisheries. S. Shapiro, 

ed. U.S. National Marine Fisheries 

Service, Washington, 1971. 

MAN'S ADAPTABLE PREDATOR 

The Evolution and Eradication of 
Infectious Diseases. A.T. Cock- 
burn. The Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity Press, Baltimore, 1963. 

The Great Epidemic. A.A. Hoehling. 
Litde, Brown and Company, Bos- 
ton, 1961. 

Design and Function at the 
Threshold of Life. H. Fraenkel- 
Conrat. Academic Press, Inc., New 
York, 1962. 



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AUTHENTIC ACUPUNCTURE MODEL 

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FEBRUARY 1973 • $1 



MtJRAL HISTORY 



INTRODUCING 

SQUIRB 

GOLDEN BOUNTY 



%m/i, 







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Vitamin E I — ^*"'^ 






Now there's a whole Une of natural- 
source vitamins on your druggist's shelf 
from Squibb: Golden Bounty* 

And the "Squibb" part is important. 

What's in a name? 

When you buy vitamins, you're buy- 
ing the company name that's on the bot- 
tle too. You're making an investment in 
confidence. 

When it comes to vitamins, you 
deserve that kind of confidence. 

If you want natural-source vitamins 
you should be able to buy them from a 
source you can trust. From a company 
that knows vitamins. Squibb has mar- 
keted vitamin products since 1875. 



What's in the Hne? 

Golden Bounty'" products contain 
natural-source ingredients* and are made 
for Squibb to our exacting specifications. 
You'll find vitamin A, vitamin E, wheat 
germ oil, rose hips with C, cod liver oil, 
brewer's yeast, protein tablets, B complex 
with vitamin C, and protein powder— in 
assorted strengths and sizes. 

And we have a booklet for you that 
tells more about Golden Bounty, with 
specific strengths, sizes and sources. Get 



OiDlden HDunty 



one in drugstores that show the colorful 
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A special offer. 

Buy Golden Bounty now and get 
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Vitamins containing natural-source ingredients. 
From SQUIBB, a source you can trust. 



SQUIBB 



NATURAL HISTORY 



liicurponiliiif; i\iiliir<: Miifiiiziiu 
Vol. LXXXII, No. 2 
Febman' 1973 



t'lir Aiiifrii im Musfuiii oj !\tilunil llislorv 

Gardner D. Sloul. I^rcsidi-nt 

I'homas D. Nicholson, Director 



Alan Temes, Editor 

Robert E. Williamson, Managing Editor 

Thonias Page. Art Editor 

Frederick Hartmann, Associate Editor 

Christopher Hallowell. Associate Editor 

Carol Breslin, Book Reviews Editor 

Florence G. Edelstein, Copy Chief 

Toni Gerber, Copy Editor 

Ernestine if eindorf. .4dniinistrative Asst. 

Angela Soccodato. Production 

Diane Pierson. Editorial Asst. 

Lillian Berger 

Dorothy Naylor 

Rosamond W. Dana, Publications Editor 

Hartley Oshinsky, Advertising Director 

Gordon Finley 

Hany R. Jeter 

Vic Asselin 

Eileen O'Keefe, Production 

Roberta Zelem, Asst. 

Dinah Lowell, Promotion 
Joan Mahoney 
Harriet Walsh 

Editorial Advisers: 
Dean Amadon 
Dorothy E. Bliss 
Mark Chartrand 
Niles Eldredge 
Vincent Manson 
Margaret Mead 
Thomas D. Nicholson 
Gerard Piel 
Richard G. Van Gelder 



2 Authors 

6 Letters 

8 A New Age for Aging 
Bernard L. Streliler 
This generation prepares a priceless gift for the next. 

20 The Human Strategy. Riddle of the Pig. II 

Marvin Harris 

The original answer wasn't 'hogwash." 

26 Bios: A Basic Unity of Life 

.Arthur W. Galston 

At the cellular level, both plants and animals send messages in similar ways. 

30 The Silent Ordeal of a South Atlantic Archipelago 
Ian J. Strange 

Remoteness failed to protect the Falklands' fauna and flora, but a groiving ecological 
consciousness might. 

40 From Mother Goddess to Dishwasher 

Dena Justin 

Why do witches and evil stepmothers stalk through fairyland? 

46 Phineas T. Barnum's Charming Beast 

Harvey A. Ardman 

The amazing life and times, and the sad end. of Jumbo. 

58 Secrets of the Coelacanth 

Keith S. Thomson 

The "fossil" fish seems to defy the efforts of scientists to understand it. 

66 Unveiling the Black Widow 

John A. L. Cooke 

You might ivell read this before you idly sit down in an outhouse. 

76 Moments in the Mud 

Photographs by Maureen Bisilliat 

In the glare of the tropical sun, merry maidens become voluptuous mud-coated sculpture. 

86 Social Systems, Sex, and Survival 

A review by Daniel H. Janzen 

The fabric of a primitive society in the Amazonian jungle has many familiar threads. 

99 Sky Reporter: Back to the Backyard 

John P. Wiley, Jr. 

100 Celestial Events 

Thomas D. Nicholson 

102 Suggested Additional Reading 

Cover: On the flats of the Paraiba River, a Brazilian girl pauses during her playful, 
but serious, work in the mud. Photographic essay on page 76. 



Publication Office: TIlc American Museum of Nalural Hislon. Cenual Park llesl al 79lh Sireet, Netc Jort N.Y. 10024. PuUislwd 
monMy, October lltrougli Mar: bmonthly June to September Subscriptions: $&00 a year. In Canada and alt other countries: 89.00 
a year. Singh copies Sl.OO.' Second-class postage paid at ^^ew York. N.Y.. and al additional offices. Copyright © 1973 by The 
American Museum of Natural Hustm. No pan of this periodical mar be reproduced without the written consent o/ Natural Hisloiy. 
Manuscripts and iUustrations submitted to the editorial office ivill be handled with all possible care, bat we cannot assume responsi- 
bility for their safety. The opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of The Am 
Museum. Nalural History incOTJorodng Naturi 



: ts indexed in Reader's Guide to Periodica] Lit' 



Authors 



Ten years ago, Bernard L. 
Strehler was pessimistic about the 
possibility of substantially extend- 
ing the healthy middle years of 




Bernard L. Strehler 

people's lives. Today he feels that 
"this is indeed a possibility"; that 
"indefinite life— that is, immortal- 
ity—is not beyond the edge of the 
possible." Strehler, who received 
his Ph.D. in cellular biology from 
Johns Hopkins University, is pro- 
fessor of biology at the University 
of Southern California and author 
of Time, Cells and Aging, Aca- 
demic Press, 1962. 



Free-lance conservationist Ian J. 
Strange made his first visit to the 
Falkland Islands fourteen years ago 
and has since studied, photo- 
graphed, and painted much of the 
wildlife on that small cluster of is- 
lands in the South Atlantic. Born in 
Peterborough, England, Strange 



holds a British qualification certifi- 
cate in agriculture, botany, and hor- 
ticulture, and is a wildlife and con- 
servation adviser to the Falkland 
Islands government. He has written 
many conservation articles for vari- 



tained an M.A. degree in 1966. She 
is currently at work on a book that 
will project a new theory for the un- 
solved mystery of the Roman poet 




Ian J. Strange 

ous British publications and has 
just completed a book. The 
Falkland Islands, Stackpole 
Books, Harrisburg, 1972. 



Dena Justin's "avid interest" in 
archeology and prehistory com- 
plements her teaching and research 
as assistant professor of classics at 
lona College in New Rochelle, New 
York. Born in Nikolaev, Russia, 
she has studied literature and clas- 
sics at New York University and at 
Columbia University, where she ob- 




Dena Justin 

Ovid's exile to Tomis, on the Black 
Sea, by the Emperor Augustus in 
A.D. 8. 



Harvey A. Ardman has long 
been a collector of historical memo- 
rabilia and ephemera, especially 
items made between the years 1850 
and 1930. He first became inter- 
ested in Jumbo after seeing the 
Book of Jumbo, which P^ T. 
Barnum issued in 1882 to publicize 
the huge elephant— a major attrac- 
tion of the recently merged Barnum 
and Bailey circus. Ardman, who 
holds a master of science degree 
from Columbia University's School 
of Journalism, was formerly Science 
and Technology Editor for the Re- 
search Institute of America and is 



McGraw-Hill 

Color Slide Program 
of the Great Masters 

invites you to enjoy this entirely new 

Color SUde 
Art Lecture 



in your own home for 



1 




View 20 masterpiecel 
by Leonardo da Vinci| 
Read fascinating 1 
commentary about I 
the artist and eacli 
painting. j 

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McGraw-Hill Color Slide Program 

of the Great Masters, Dept. AY-125 

1221 Ave. of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020 

PLEASE enter my trial subscription to this 
completely new Color Slide Pjogram and 
send me the Leonardo da Vinci Album (includ- 
ing 20 color slides and 40-page illustrated lec- 
ture). Bill me only $1, plus a few cents shipping. 
If I am not delighted with this introductory 
package, I may return everything within 10 days, 
cancel my subscription, and owe nothing. 

If I do continue, you will send me a new 
Color Shde Album approximately every six 
weeks (for 10 days trial examination) and bill 
me at the subscribers' low price of $6.95, plus 
shipping. I may take as few or as many Albums 
as I like, and may stop whenever I wish. After 
my fourth shipment I will be given a choice of 
receiving all remaining albums in one conveni- 
ent shipment, or continuing with single-album 
shipments. 

Name 

Address 

City 

State Zip No 

□ Check here if you wish the Kodak Carousel 600 
Projector Included and remit $48.95. plus tax. 
with this card in envelope addressed to McGraw-Hill 
Color Slide Program of the Great Masters. If not de- 
hghted, return projector within 10 days for full refund. 
This otter avvlies to U.S. and Canada only. A 




Imagine thethruiof 

viewing the famous "Mona Lisa" in the true colors of the 
artist's palette and the same size as the original in the 
Louvre! This work is just one of the priceless paintings 
by Leonardo da Vinci you and your family will enjoy 
when you receive your introductory Color Slide Album. 

MAIL ATTACHED CARD TODAY 

SEND NO MONEY-NO POSTAGE REQUIRED J 



ENJOY THIS SPECTACULAR NEW 

Color Slide Art Lecture 

IN YOUR HOME FOR $1 





You will view 20 famous 

masterpieces by the great 

LEONARDO DA VINCI 

each one projected on your wall in 

THE FULL GLORY OF THE ORIGINALS 

You will receive fascinating commentary 
on each painting and its place in the 
life of the artist. You will discover a new 
way to increase your enjoyment and 
understanding of the world's great art. 



A special demonstration offer from the new 



Color Slide Program of the Great Masters 



THERE IS NO EXPERIENCE in the world of 
art more thrilling than to stand before a 
magnificent painting— and to learn about it 
from someone who knows the work well. 
Suddenly everything you see takes on new 
meaning, as you begin to understand fully 
what the artist is communicating through 
his particular choice of color, form, brush 
stroke, and theme. 

Now, your family can share this exciting 
experience— and important cultural advan- 
tage—at home, through the entirely new 
Color Slide Program of the Great Masters. 
You view world-famous works of art pro- 
jected on your own wall in the full glory of 
the original canvases— w\i\\t a noted author- 
ity points out the significant aspects of each 
painting, and gives you fascinating back- 
ground on the man behind the masterpiece. 
This method of art education— the color 
slide art lecture— is widely used by leading 
museums and universities. It has never be- 
fore been made available to families at home. 
A new way to deepen your appreciation of art and artists 
As a subscriber, you are offered a series of un- 
usual albums, each containing 20 color slides of 
priceless paintings by a celebrated master. These 
superb 35mm slides were created by specialists 
in art photography working in leading museums 
and collections throughout Europe and Amer- 
ica. The authentic colors of the original paint- 
ings, every subtle line and detail, are brilliantly 
revealed on these slides. They can be shown on 



any standard home slide projector. (If you do 
not own a projector, you may obtain one at low 
cost with your trial Album. See the special offer 
at the right.) 

The color slides, however, are only one part 
of the Album. Bound into the center of each 
Album is an illustrated 40-page guided lecture 
which discusses the artist's life as well as each 
of the 20 paintings presented; its place in the de- 
velopment of the artist, its importance in the 
history of art. its reflection of the tastes and atti- 
tudes of the period. 

As you view the paintings projected on your 
wall and read the absorbing commentary, you 
and your family will discover a whole new di- 
mension in the enjoyment of art. If you have 
been disappointed by the inadequacies of small 
prints and art reproductions, you will be de- 
lighted with the thrilling visual experience of- 
fered by the Color Slide Program of the Great 
Masters. It is very much like taking your own 
"private tour" with an art expert guiding you 
through the world's finest collections. 

The Program is flexible— tlie cost is low 
Approximately every six weeks, you are of- 
fered a complete new Color Slide Album of 20 
distinctive slides and an illustrated lecture. Forth- 
coming Albums will be devoted to the lives and 
works of such great masters as Michelangelo, 
Rembrandt, Goya, Gauguin, and Picasso, as 
well as Rubens, Van Gogh, Lautrec, Chagall, 
and other outstanding artists from every major 
period. 

If the slides were available from museums, 
you would expect to pay as much as $15 a set. 
Yet, as a member of this new Program, you pay 



only $6.95 for each complete Album— including 
20 color slides and 40-page illustrated lecture. 
You may take as few or as many as you like, 
and may stop whenever you wish. 

Accept this $1 demonstration offer 

To introduce you to the Color Slide Program of 
the Great Masters, we wiU send you the Color 
Slide Album, Leonardo da Vinci (described 
above), for 10 days trial. If you are delighted 
with the demonstration, send only $1, plus a 
few cents for shipping. Thereafter, you will be 
offered a new Album approximately every six 
weeks at the low price of only $6.95. You will 
also be given the opportunity to elect to receive 
remaining volumes. If not thrilled, however, 
simply return everything within 10 days, and 
you will be under no further obligation. Mail 
the attached card today. 



IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A PROJECTOR, heres an unusual op- 
portunity. We can offer you the sensational Kodak Car- 
ousel 600 Projector supplied with a 500-watt lamp, and 
3-lnch //3.5 Ektanar lens. This top-rated projector shows 
all regular 2"x2" 35mm slides. 
It has dependable gravity feed 
and you have instant access to 
any slide at any time. List price 
$64.95 — subscribers' price only 
$48.95. plus tax. Remittance ' 
must accompany trial subscrip- 
tion form. If you are not com- 
pletely delighted with the pro- 
jector, you may return in 10 
days for a full refund. 



If Reply Card has been removed, write Color 
Slide Program of the Great Masters, Dept. AY-125 
1221 Ave. of the Americas. New York, N.Y. 10020. 




SMALL . . . 

perhaps a bit backward . . . 
BUT TRULY EXTRA ORDINARY 



After almost 100 years of doing it, 
we're still processing meats up here in 
the BERKSHIRES just as wt did long 
before pumps and needles and artificial 
flavorings were invented. When meat 
processing was an art, not a race. 

And in our own slow way, we've man- 
aged to develop a rather full and, if you 
ask us, exciting line of MEAT products, 
each with its own full-bodied flavor. 
BANGERS (the distinctively different 
British Sausage ) . . . smoked M UTTON . . . 
old-time smoked HAMS . . . CROWN 
ROASTS of smoked PORK LOIN . . . 
smoked CAPONS, TURKEYS and 
GAME HENS... smoked TROUT, 
and more. 

McArthurs SmokeKouse 

Box7II-Millerton,N.Y. 12546 



We're very proud of our wares (and of 
our brisk and lively service ) and 
offer you our sampler . . . half of a 
FULLY-BAKED HAM (5 to 6 lbs.), 

a pound of lusty BACON, all liberally 
seasoned with nostalgia, (or $16.50 de- 
livered anywhere in the continental U.S., 
generally by United Parcel Service, with 
your unbridled delight always uncondition- 
ally guaranteed by us. 

If you've never experienced BANGERS, 
we'll ship you a pound free with your 
first order, just for your edification. 

Or at least ask for our CATALOGUE 
. . . such as it IS. 




ORDERAVOLVO FROM EUROPE NOW AND 
WE'LL HELP YOU SAVE YOUR SAVINGS. 



When you visit Europe and buy a 
new car, you save. 

But the savings you expect can get 
badly dented by customs duty and port 
charges. 

Unless you pick a Volvo and order 
it through a U.S. dealer Then we pay 
those items for you. 

How much you save depends on 
which Volvo you pick and where you 
pick it up. 

Our least expensive model, shipped 
direct to the U.S. from our factory, 
can cost you 9.6% less than the U.S. 
list price. 

If you drive your Volvo in Europe, 
you 11 save somewhat less. But you 
won 1 have to pay a bundle for renting 
a car. 

We can most likely deliver your 
Volvo to any country you're visiting 
in Western Europe (except Greece 
or Spam). 

Clip the coupon now, though, and 
give us all the notice you can. 

Volvos aren t flung together at the 
last minute. 



TO: Tourist Delivery Sales Dept. NAS 1 j 

Volvo of America Corporation I 

Rockleigh, N.J. 07647 

Please send me full details of your European I 

Delivery Plan. 

1 plan to be in Europe on or about , 

(date) 



[H Please have my nearest Vblvo dealer I 





Harvey A. Ardman 



presently working on a number of 
film scripts, including one based on 
the lite of Jumbo. 



Keith S. Thomson is associate 
professor of biology at Yale Univer- 
sity and associate curator at the 
Peabody Museum of Natural His- 
tory in New Haven, Connecticut. 
Born in Derbyshire, England, 
Thomson completed his doctorate 
in biology at Harvard University in 
1963. In studying the evolutionary 
transition between fish and tetra- 
pod, Tliomson has collected fossil 
vertebrates in northern Kenya and 
Australia. In 1969 he participated 
in the Royal Society's experimental 
deep-slope fishing expeditioii in the 
Indian Ocean. Thomson, who orga- 
nized the American contribution in 



^ 


^^^ 


1 




' 'VP 


c 

^ 



Keith S. Thoi 




'■* •i=aaiej6SK--^s 



the 1972 three-nation coelacanth 
expedition (United States, France, 
and the United Kingdom) is now in- 
vestigating the possibihty of a deep- 
subraersible survey and study of 
coelacanths in the Comoros. 




John A.L. Cooke 

Author of more than fifty papers 
on spiders, and coauthor of the Ox- 
ford Book of Invertebrates, John A. 
L. Cooke holds a doctorate in 
zoology from Oxford. Cooke, an as- 
sociate curator in the Department 
of Entomology of The American 
Museum of Natiu-al History, has 
been on arachnological expeditions 
to Turkish Kurdistan, Tanzania, 
North Africa, Jamaica, Mexico, and 
Trinidad. He is now studying the 
roles of the defensive urticating 
hairs of tarantulas. 



4 Deluxe Orient Holidays 

from the airline that 

was born in the Orient. 



See the Orient through 
the eyes of Orientals. 

On JAL's Deluxe 
HappI Holidays, the 
quoted price includes 
your round-trip fare 
on JAL from the West 
Coast, deluxe hotels, a 
la carte dining,services 



'h't'} l^vl.' '^*i I * ^1 of an experienced tour 
" ' director, luxury sight- 
seeing, transfers, tips. 

(Prices based on dou- 
ble occupancy in hotels 
and G.I.T. Economy 
basic season air fare. 
Add$54,July-October, 
for peak season.) 




Select the tours below which appeal to you most and we'll send you complete 
information, plus our 1973 "World Festival of Tours" booklet. 

'sender ^u^ou^oTder^u^u^his reply form along the dotted line, ^l 

THEN FOLD AND SEAL AS INDICATED. J 

Please send me information about the tours I have checked below: 



n#3102. Grand Japan. Tokyo, Nikko, 
Hiroshima, Osaka— and more. 4 days in 
historic Kyoto, an Inland Sea cruise, Jap- 
anese ryokan living for 2 days in Beppu. 
Membership limited to 18-24 guests. 
20 days $2199. 

n #0114. World Carousel. From colorful 
Tokyo with its shrines and tea houses to 
"Shangri La"— Nepal. From Taiwan to 
Hong Kong, the Philippines, Bali, Singa- 
pore, Bangkok and Burma. And more: 
India, Pakistan, the Middle East, Greece. 
The ultimate. 48 days $3794. 



n #4105. Around the World. Classic first 
stop, Japan, followed by Taiwan, Hong 
Kong, Thailand, Bali, Singapore. Then 
on to Nepal, India, the Netherlands, New 
York. 26 days $2859.50. 



D #3106. Grand Orient. Unhurried days 
in deluxe hotels (Tokyo's Imperial, the 
Bali Beach Inter-Continental, Hong 
Kong's world-famous Peninsula). Your 
itinerary: Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, 
Bali, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, 
Hong Kong. 44 days $4285. 



Name 

Address_ 
City 



_State_ 



_Zip_ 



Please have a travel consultant call me at_ 
My travel agent is 




_NH 0273 JAPAN AIR LINES 



FOLD BACK AND DOWN HERE. 



FIRST CLASS 

PERMIT NO. 6712 

New York, N.Y. 



BUSINESS REPLY MAIL 

No postage necessary if mailed in the United States 



Postage Will Be Paid By 

JAPAN AIR LINES 

P.O. Box 618 
NewYork, N.Y. 10011 



I SEAL ENTIRE EDGE. DO NOT STAPLE. 



Letters 



T>vo China Opinions 

Re: "Peking Man (and Woman) 
Today" in your November issue. 
Between that and the previous in- 
stallment, all I can say is that Dr. 
Galston apparently left his critical 
faculties at home when he made 
that trip. 

Charles H. Chandler 
GaithersbuTg, Maryland 

I am most pleased to have read 
the articles by Arthur W. Galston 
on his experiences in China. I cer- 
tainly hope that he will continue to 
contribute to Natural History so 
those of us less fortunate and un- 
able to personally experience life in 
China can vicariously experience 
through his words and descriptions. 
He writes beautifully and vividly 
projects and describes his trials, 
tribulations, and experiences with 
human beings representing a cul- 
ture quite different from ours. A 
most worthy paper; thanks for 
presenting him. 

Leon J. Pinsker, D.D.S. 
Mill Valley, California 

Quebec's Wolves 

In your "Letters" of December, 
1972, there appeared a most unjust 
and unfair opinion signed by Kath- 
erine Raynor. In her letter she tells 
your readers that "the Government 
of Quebec has launched a new ex- 
termination program for wolves, 
which includes hunting, traps, and 
poison bait." For her guidance and 
that of your readers, here is the offi- 
cial answer of the Government of 
Quebec to the public statements re- 
cently made on this subject: 

"Following a recent wave of pro- 
tests coming from various con- 
servation groups in North America, 
the Quebec Fish and Game Depart- 
ment wishes to clarify its policy on 



predator control. ... A very lim- 
ited trapping program has been 
planned to reduce the wolf popu- 
lation in ten or fifteen white-tailed 
deer yards within a larger area of 
about 5,000 squaie miles. Deer 
have been suffering severe prisdator 
damage in these specific areas last 
year and the previous year. Special 
efforts are now being made to help 
this deer population to recover, not 
only by local predator control, but 
also by curtailing the hunting sea- 
son and manipulating the winter 
habitat. 

"The use of poison is not being 
considered. The control areas are 
determined by trained biologists 
and the trapping performed by ex- 
perienced game wardens. The wolf 
range covers more than 500,000 
square miles in Quebec, which 
means that the present control ap- 
plies to much less than 1 percent of 
this area. This is far from an exter- 
mination program. 

"When compared with most of 
the Canadian provinces and Ameri- 
can states, Quebec has a very pro- 
gressive predator control policy; it 
has no bounty on predators, it does 
not plan to use chemical toxicants, 
and it controls its predators on a lo- 
cal and temporary basis where the 
need has been certified by trained 
biologists. Endangered species are 
completely protected by law but the 
timber wolf or coyote cannot seri- 
ously be considered as endangered 
in Canada." 

Guy Poliquin 

Delegate General of Quebec 

New York, New York 

Double-Edged 
Hatchet 

I feel I must take exception to 
the "hatchet job" done on author 
Peter Matthiessen and photogra- 



pher Eliot Porter by Eliot Elisofon 
in "Books in Review," December. 

Mr. Elisofon appears to lack the 
sensitivity necessary to appreciate 
Matthiessen's "well-tempered" 
prose. This leads to such blunders 
as asking, "Wliat does that mean?" 
when presented with the author's 
description of the mbira as an in- 
strument "that produces soft swift 
wistful rhythms of time passing." 
As has been pointed out by e.e. 
cummings and others, "Art doesn't 
have to mean." 

Elisofon 's irritating tendency to 
criticize for what people didn't do 
reaches its peak in his harping on 
subjects that he feels are worthy of 
Mr. Porter's attention. This gives 
him a chance to rhapsodize about 
what a fine fellow he is and how he 
would shoot thus and so. Frankly, if 
he were all that good, chances are 
Porter would be reviewing a book 
by Elisofon! 

J. M. Dyer 

York College 

York, Pennsylvania 

IVacirema Decoded 

I read with considerable tseretni 
about "The Mysterious Fall of Naci- 
rema" [December, 1972]. I was 
able to rehpiced all but one of the 
lausunu terms because these were 
spelled drawkcab. 

The only unusual word I couldn't 
decipher was "mcnahulesque," 
which appeared in the tenth line on 
page 81. Spelled backward, it 
would read "euqseluhancm," which 
is quite wen to me, so apparently a 
different yek is indicated. Would 
you please etalsnart this one word 
for me into hsilgne? 

J. E. WORDEN 
Washington, D.C. 
Rotide's note: The translation is 
"McLuhanesque. " 



Life mask taken 60 days before Lincoln's death. The hand was cast in 1860. From the collection of Clarence Hay 



The pain and exaltation .. . . the wit and 
wisdom ... the doubts and the 
monumental courage — every important 
word he ever wrote or uttered ... 



THE COLLECTED WORKS OF j 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN 

NINE VOLUMES (PUBLISHER'S LIST PRICE $115.00) YOURS FOR ^5^^ 

WITH TRIAL MEMBERSHIP IN THE HISTORY BOOK CLUB 



ONLY OFFERING THIS YEAR-'m observance of LINCOLN'S BIRTHDAY 



TODAY a century of legend blurs our image of Lincoln the man, but the human 
Lincoln now speaks to us clearly in these nine handsome volumes containing 
6870 private and public papers, half of them never before in print. 

Collected, indexed and richly annotated by a team of our foremost Lincoln 
scholars, headed by Dr. Roy P. Easier of The Library of Congress, the set was 
26 years in preparation. It carries a Publisher's List Price of $115. But, in observ- 
ance of Lincoln's Birthday, The History Book Club offers it to you with trial 
membership at the extraordinary price of just $5.95. The Club consistently offers 
fine permanent editions of the most important and readable works in history and 
world affairs, always at dramatic savings. (Last year, members enjoyed savings of 
over 50% on the books they chose to take.) 

With your Lincoln set, choose your first membership book from those listed 
below at reduced Member's Prices. You must be delighted with all books or return 
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offer will not be repeated for at least a year. Mail the coupon today. 
START MEMBERSHIP WITH ANY ONE OF THESE BOOKS 
(First price is Publisher's List; boldface shows Member's Price.) 



/■ ^ 




» 9 volumes • 4924 pages 

• 6870 documents • 43 Lincoln 

photographs, engravings and manuscript facsimiles 



239. GEORGE WASHINGTON: Anguish 
and Farewell (1793-1799) B\ James 
Thomas Flexner. Fourth .ind fin.il 
volume-just published. $15.00/$9.75 

215. EISENHOWER AND THE AMERI- 
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64S. THE GREAT TERROR: Stalin's Purge 
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tory, archaeology, and ethnology of 
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7S9. GOLD, GLORY, AND THE GOSPEL: 
Lives and Times of the Renaissance 
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Drawing on newly discovered source 
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205. MARY TODD LINCOLN: Her Life 
and Letters By Justin C. and Linda L. 
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856. THE CIVIL WAR DAY BY DAY: 
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with Barbara Long. Foreword by 
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THE HISTORY BOOK CLUB Stamford, Conn. 06904 

Please open Trial Membership and send me the S 1 15 COLLECTED 
WORKS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN plus the membership book 
choice shown below. Bill my LINCOLN set at S5.95 and my mem- 
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I understand that I may return the books within 2 weeks if I am 
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every 4 books I purchase thereafter. 

(NOTE: A small postage and packing charge is added to each 
shipment.) 



MY BOOK CHOICE IS NUMBER, 



City_ 
State 

In Cani 



.Zip_ 



ime savings. Shipment of books and all services 
U be handled within Canada. Bonus plan differs slightly. NH 30L 









i]fm .t-,^ . *<«^wi<i,-«^) />^o „,,. j aJ^,; 



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ilWAlfrt^-. (I'Hgyii Y« Ai^ '-'"T"} 










^r. 













Y- 






A INew Age 
for Aging 

After 30, everyone begins a steady, predictable 
decline toward death. Now we are on the brink of an alternative 

by Bernai-d 1^. Strehler- 



Growing old is a process thai few 
people care to ponder; indeed, most 
people skirt the issue b\ spending a 
surprising amount of time and ef- 
fort tr\ing to remain youthful. We 
greet long-lost friends with com- 
ments about how well they look 
(meaning: vou haven't aged much), 
^e automaticaUv categorize people 
according to whether they are 
vounger or older than we are 
(meaning: I envy your youthful 
vigor and appearance or you ha\e 
deteriorated more than I have). Bil- 
lions of dollars are spent every yeaj 
on cosmetics (meaning: we want to 
look voung). Men dutifully jog 
around their suburban neighbor- 
hoods before leaving for the office 
(meaning: mavbe this wUl slow 
down the deterioration of mv cir- 
culatory system). We adulate vouth 
and respect age (meaning: I would 
like to be voung again: but there 
must be something good to look for- 
waid to— wisdom, perhaps). We ad- 
vise friends to stop smoking (mean- 
ing: vou may be shortening your 
life). The point is tlial every human 
being, whether he admits it or nol, 
is at least vaguely apprehensive 
about the slow deterioration of his 
structure and functions that eventu- 
ally ends in death. 

Concern about aging and death is 
an important component of our sub- 



conscious life and n]a\ contiibule 
more than is (jbsious to the in- 
<Teased mental disease among the 
middle-aged and elderly. Anxiety 
about the changed role in life that 
follows the female menopause or 
vague fears about potency in aging 
males are stresses that nearly every- 
one endures in silence despite the 
reassuring witticism of gerontolo- 
gist Alex Comfort: "People give up 
sex tor the same reasons tiiey give 
up bicycling— it looks sillv. arthritis 
makes it painful, or one has no bi- 
cycle!" 

With all of the deep and hidden 
concerns about the processes that 
cause this sense of impermanence, 
it seems surprising that society has 
not invested more in trying to un- 
derstand, control, arrest, or even re- 
verse the underlying causes of ag- 
ing. On the face of it, nothing 
would seem more appealing as a 
goal for the average person than an 
extension of the healthful years of 
life. Ceitainly most men are more 
carious about the reasons behind 
theii" own ephemeral existence on 
this globe than about the constitu- 
tion of the rocks on the moon or 
whether life is present on Mais. But 
to date, less has been spent on the 
entire spectrum of research efforts 
in biological aging than on a single 
moon shot. 



Tlic reason, of course, is that 
men have become so accustomed to 
believing that their individual lives 
are hnite, and that death is the in- 
evitable price we pay for living, 
that they have refused to consider a 
biological alternative to individual 
extinction. After all, if death is in- 
evitable—and unpleasant as well- 
why waste time, thought, and re- 
sources on a hopeless and depress- 
ing pursuit? Maybe if we don't 
think about it, it will go away. 

Ironically, the same generation 
that learned to split and hainess the 
atom, cracked the genetic code, and 
sent men to the moon may be the 
very one that will not bejiefil from 
the eventual amelioralion of the ag- 
ijig process - a possibility that C(juld 
become a piactJcal reality before 
the end of this century. The t ontrol 
of the atom was the product of the 
urgencies of war; the understanding 
of how we are specified in long 
strings of genetic "beads," which 
each of our i:eUs contains, was the 
culmination of a century of effort to 
understand the modes and mechan- 
ics of inheritance and gene ex- 
pression: the conquest of space was 
prompted bv the preceding suc- 
cesses of om- competitors' Sputniks. 
But until now, the conquest of time 
itself has not been a social objec- 
tive, and the President's recent 



pocket veto of a bill to establish a 
National Institute for Research on 
Aging may postpone effective pur- 
suit of this goal for another decade. 

Implicit in the drive for federal 
support of reseai'ch in this area is 
the possibility that men will be able 
to control— and perhaps reverse- 
part or all of the aging process. But 
the only way we can accurately pre- 
dict what the chances are is to un- 
derstand the nature of the events 
that lead to human aging. The 
transformation of life from a young 
state to an old one encompasses 
more than the mere passage of time, 
but the biological processes in- 
volved are not generallv understood 
by the public. Perhaps if the basic 
principles and the rapidly growing 
body of new data were more openly 
discussed, there would be gi^eater 
public support for the needed in- 
vestment in fundamental research. 
Only such research, now or in the 
very near future, may make greatly 
extended lifetimes available for 
present generations of humans. 

There are two generalizations to 
keep in mind about the events that 
occur as we age. The first is that 
many, although not all, bodily func- 



tions decrease gradually as aging 
takes place. This will not be news 
to anyone: all schoolboys know they 
can outrun their giandfathers and 
that the aged are less active, usually 
less alert, and more subject to dis- 
ease than young adults. But this 
knowledge had not been put on a 
quantitative basis. During the last 
thirtv years, however, Nathan 
Shock, the father of American ge- 
rontology, and his associates have 
described the exact rate at which 
different kinds of bodily functions 
fail. The essence of these findings is 
that most functions decrease gradu- 
ally, at a rate of about 1 percent of 
the original capacity per year after 
age thirty. This means that the re- 
serve ability to do all kinds of work 
will run out at about age 120. It is 
not surprising, therefore, that about 
118 years is the greatest age at- 
tained by any human for whom 
good records of birth and death are 
available. There are occasional 
claims that individuals in certain 
parts of the Caucasus Mountains of 
the Soviet Union attain ages twenty 
or more vears greater than this, but 
in the absence of records most such 
claims can probably be dismissed as 




30 40 50 ^ 75^ 70 80 90 Age 

Based on distance a nerve impulse travels in one second. 



folk fables. Once one attains great 
age, there is a great temptation to 
exaggerate it. 

The second generalization is that 
the chance of dying does not in- 
crease in proportion to the amount 
of function lost. This was discov- 
ered and formulated into a simple 
mathematical law in about 1832 by 
an English insurance actuary, Ben- 
jamin Gompertz. The Gompertz law 
states that the chance of dying dou- 
bles about every eight years, irres- 
pective of the environment in which 
one lives. This means that the 
chance of dying is about 1,000 
times greater for a man of 100 than 
for a man of 25. If we did not age- 
that is, if we kept the physiology of 
a 15-year-old indefinitely— the aver- 
age human life-span would be in ex- 
cess of 20,000 years. This would 
mean that the oldest members 
among us could tell stories about 
the last Ice Age and give personal 
accounts of the entire span of re- 
corded human history. 

The basic question, of course, is 
not do we age, but what is the un- 
derlying mechanism. This can be 
summarized as follows: we age pri- 
mai'ily because the cells in our bod- 
ies that cannot replace themselves 
either die or lose a small part of 
theii" function every year. This law 
applies to most of the tissues of the 
body, although some cells and tis- 
sues seem immune to the effects of 
the passage of time. These nonaging 
tissues include those covering the 
surfaces of the body (the skin and 
the lining of the digestive system) 
and the circulating cells in our 
blood. The skin forms a new layer 
of cells every four days or so, the 
lining of the gut is replenished ev- 
ery day or two, and the red blood 
cells are replaced on a regular 
schedule everv four months. 

Other body cells, such as those of 
the liver, replace themselves more 
slowly, although the liver (of ex- 
perimental animals) can regrow to 
its original size within a week or so 
if part of it is removed surgically. 
Parts of the kidneys and the con- 
nective tissues are able to replace 
themselves more or less on demand. 

Key organs and tissues in which 
cell replacement is either absent or 
inadequate are the muscles, heart, 
brain, and certain endocrine and 
immunity-conferring tissues. The 
nonreplenishing, or postmitotic, 
cells involved exhibit two major dif- 



lO 




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NAME 

ADDRESS- 
CITY 



II 




.:« 



I 



vCiVi 



ruly.wouldntlp 



.ovelierorniore 
peaceful than 
Costa Rica... 

sphere areiio beaches 
^ more superb than 

Pacific Coast and 
^s unspoiled... 

I? Here toyour own homesite at 



BEilGIIES ol NOSARA 



Truly, wouldn't you like to run away here to this garden of 
ours? Doesn't your bruised spirit need the soft touch of loving 
people, your tense body the pure spray of clean, clean air fil- 
tered by sunshine? Don't you long for a place where every day is 
gentle summer, where tree-wrapped mountains stretch 12,500 
feet to the sky, where tumbling streams and waterfalls and wave- 
lapped t>eaches beg to heal you? 

In all truth, isn't it a sort of self-destruction to accept with- 
out demur (as maybe you do) the dank cheerless clutch of winter 
cold— the wintry faces of cheerless people? 

So we ask you again: wouldn't you like to run away here to a 
place of your own in this nature-blessed country, inhabited by a 
people who deserve every bit of the beauty they've been given? 

For the astonishing fact is that the Costa Rican people- 
perhaps like none other on earth— live in peace. All of them, each 
with the other, live and work in PEACE! 

Consider them, the 1% million of them: handsome, gentle, 
literate, industrious and (phenomenon of our times!) kindly— a 
European-sprung people who are constantly embracing, shaking 
hands, even with strangers, a people to whom law and order is 
symbolized by a smiling policeman armed with nothing more 
menacing than a whistle, directing traffic with a murmured "por 
favor." The phrase "law and order" doesn't have an ominous 
meaning here. It's incredible for a foreigner to learn that there 
is no army in Costa Rica (without an army, Costa Ricans say, 
there is no danger of a military take-over). The only military 
uniforms worn are by police and there are more schools in Costa 
Rica than there are uniforms. Not alone more school-children or 
more school-teachers but actually more schools than military 
uniforms! Amazing? No wonder that Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, 
having undergone a rather stormy Latin American tour in 1968, 
exclaimed happily when he finally got to simpatico Costa Rica: 
"This perfect jewel of a country!" The NEW YORK TIMES in an 
editorial on February 5th, 1970 headed "Costa Rica's Example" 
praises the solid democracy of this tiny country and says in part: 
"Doing what comes natura//y, a half-million voters have brought 
off (Costa Rica's fifth successive) peaceful presidential election 
in twenty years." 



Yet, it isn't only each other whom Costa Ricans like. There is 
no xenophobia here at all: foreigners are warmly welcomed and 
North Americans, especially, are cherished. Nearly 15,000 of us 
from the U.S. live and prosper in Costa Rica. English is widely 
spoken, and the word has been gradually slipping out that in 
this "jewel of a country" lies the fulfillment of the wistful dream 
of so many harassed Americans: the mind picture of that perfect 
retreat where climate and man are in gentle harmony with each 
other. 

It's rather astonishing that this spectaculariy beautiful coun- 
try, really not that distant from the States, is much less familiar 
to Americans than the islands of the Caribbean. Almost every- 
one knows, and many have visited, the grouping of tropical Edens 
called the West Indies— their fabled greenness, the sparkling 
waters in which they are set. Yet Costa Rica's climate has all the 
balm of its island neighbors and is more exhilaratingly varied. 
The sea that stretches along the east coast of this slender strip 
of Central America is the Caribbean. Go west less than 150 miles 
and there is the Pacific: nowhere does this greatest of oceans 
wash more beautiful shores than Costa Rica's, incongruously, 
some travel writers have called this country "The Switzerland of 
Central America"; still it is true that Costa Rica's mountains are 
as glorious in their tropical setting as the Alps in their ambience. 
And it is further a fact that these mountains aid in making the 
climate the delight it is. San Jose, the capital, is in the central 
plateau, 3500 feet above sea level, and about midway between 
the Caribbean and the Pacific. The city's climate is simply noth- 
ing less than perpetual Spring with the mean temperature steady 
at 70° every month of the year. But even at Pacific coast sea 
level — at our BEACHES OF NOSARA, for example - even here, 
the mean annual temperature is only 78 degrees accompanied 
by humidity so low that it can't be matched by the Caribbean 
islands. And not to put down the exotic West Indies, there's a 
good deal more of Costa Rica that the islands can't match. Nature 
thrives on an immense scale here. Naturalists have identified 
762 species of birds (in all of the United States, 130 times 
Costa Rica's size, there are 725 varieties). And such birds! 
Partridge, parrots, cuckoos, toucans along with the wrens. 



(Advertisement) 



12 



thrushes, orioles, finches. We have deer, raccoon, monkies. Costa 
Rica's soil is so fertile that Texas cattle ranchers are incredulous 
that what would be prized crop acreage in their state is used 
casually as cattle-raising land here. (It has been reported by the 
WALL STREET JOURNAL that Lyndon Johnson bought a ranch 
on the Pacific side of Costa Rica.) And what lush growth springs 
from the soil! Great forests of majestic trees; lignum vitae can 
be so huge that a single tree's branches may shelter an entire 
herd of cattle. There are groves whose boughs bend under the 
weight of fruit— citrus, mangoes, bananas, coconuts. Costa Rican 
coffee is unparalleled. Hundreds of varieties of orchids grow wild. 
We produce vegetables of a size and flavor such as few North 
American housewives have seen (our portfolio, if you'll send 
for it, has photos taken in a market and you'll find hard to believe 
those giant radishes and scallions). 

Costa Rica has a record of steady economic progress and 
every foreigner who has come here is instantly aware that this 
progress is mounting toward affluence. Clearly, a country of 
such natural richness and with so extraordinary a people, puts 
fresh meaning into the overworked word opportunity. Oh. oppor- 
tunity is here, all right. And for none better than for North Amer- 
icans. There are no restrictions against private investment and 
the list of American businesses, small and large, is long. For you 
who simply want to retire, there are special privileges if you are 
not a Costa Rican, all you have to prove is a guaranteed income 
of $325 monthly for you and your wife and you are exempt from 
paying taxes. San Jose has everything— for the soul as well as 
the stomach. Opera, symphony, splendid movie houses, theater 
(its National Theater, marbled and mirrored, is a graceful replica 
of L'Opera in Paris). Many doctors and surgeons are from U.S. 
medical schools; the hospitals are excellent. You can buy any- 
thing in the handsome shops and the cost of living is joyfully 
low. T-bone steak, eggs, vegetables, fruits are far below U.S. 
prices. An elegant Spanish architectural 3 bedroom house can 
presently be constructed for less than $10,000, and a live-in- 
maid and a gardener will service it at a combined monthly wage 
of $80 for both. 

Education is a positive obsession in Costa Rica. There are 
2,379 elementary schools with 350,000 children attending, and 
112 high schools, art academies, business schools, etc. The 
beautiful complex of the University of Costa Rica has an enroll- 
ment of 12,000 students. And the academic standing of the 
English language private schools is very high. The most prestig- 
ious of these accommodates North American children at a tuition 
of $38 a month. And that includes busing to and from school! 

San Jose has a fine airport, one of the largest, most con- 
venient and modern in Central America, and the jet flight from 
Miami via LACSA or TACA takes about iVi hours and presently 
costs $182 round trip. For the autoist the drive from the States 
along the Pan American Highway is a memorable one; south of 
Cartago In Costa Rica, the famous road climbs to its highest 
elevation— 10,931 feet. 

So it had to happen: Here we were, a group of Americans- 
land developers. We'd heard of Costa Rica and we came here, 
instantly to be entranced by its beauty and won by its people. We 
knew quite soon— almost like the original Spanish discoverers 
who gave it the name "rich coast"— that this was the country 
we'd been looking for. All that remained now was to find the 
quintessential tract of land that had everything— natural loveli- 
ness, serenity, climate, beaches. We found it. We found it in the 
peninsula of Nicoya directly on the Pacific. And we named this 
tranquil place . . . BEACHES OF NOSARA 

We've employed many superlatives in this ad— maybe, you'll 
suspect, even extravagances. Yet at the risk of once more stretch- 
ing your bounds of credibility, we say this: that nowhere in the 
world will you find more glorious beaches than the two miles 
of beautiful white sand and unimaginably clean, clear sea that 
front our property. There is one section that is modestly com- 
pared to the best surfing Hawaii has to offer; and, wonderfully 
for the less adventurous, there is a long piece where the sea is 
quiet and where even infants can play in the water as it rolls 
gently onto the sand. If you're a shell collector you'll find, day 
after day, specimens you've never before seen. And out from 
shore are the boating and the skin diving, the fishing. A world 
of fish, a treasure-house for you, if that's your passion: tuna, 
dolphin, wahoo, grouper, snapper— the whole catalog, believe it. 



How rare to discover that today— a pure sea teeming with healthy 
fish. Yes, as much as anything it was the ocean and the beaches 
that caused us to choose NOSARA. 

But then one turns his back on the Pacific and looks out at the 
land and isn't that something to see— this rich soiled, lushly- 
covered sculpture of hills and valleys! It is big— 3300 acres— but 
we intend to convert only a part of it to homesites. We've brought 
in ecologists and other scientists to help us preserve the natural 
beauty of this place. We have laid about 35 miles of horseriding 
trails, all within the boundaries of our property. If a precious tree 
stands in the way of a bulldozer the tree stays; we bend the road 
around it. If it's to be a match-up between "progress" and nature 
we'll ride with the trees and the birds. 

But of course we've brought in the machines and used them. 
Every site in BEACHES OF NOSARA fronts a road. Every home is 
guaranteed electricity and pure delicious water. We hope to build 
a superb golf course with 9 holes to be completed next year in 
1973. and we expect to build the first of our tennis courts shortly. 
We've built a charming hotel with club facilities and an airtield 
to bring you here quickly from San Jose. 

We're not new to this profession. We've been developers in 
the West Indies and we do appreciate those magical islands. 
But this is the simple truth: no island in the Caribbean can claim 
what we have in this ad. And when one realizes that some im- 
proved sites in the West Indies have now soared to fantastic 
prices— that one dollar a square foot, $10,000 for a quarter-acre 
is now becoming the rule, then BEACHES OF NOSARA becomes 
almost too good to be true. For the price of our homesites is only 
400 a square foot, $4000 for a quarter-acre, 4% down and 2% a 
month, with no interest charges! And that includes roads, elec- 
tricity, water, one year free golf membership and the unlimited 
use of the natural paradise that we've inherited and are pre- 
serving for you. 

We're running out of space and there's so much more to tell 
you. Some of you may visit us after reading this message. Most 
cannot. For those we have prepared a thick portfolio. It includes 
a large color brochure, maps, house plans, and a 96 page con- 
densation of Prof. Donald Lundberg's authoritative book "COSTA 
R(CA." All this is FREE. 

Our portfolio also tells you how to go about reserving a home- 
site in BEACHES OF NOSARA and spells out our money-back 
guarantees: an unconditional 60 day deposit refund warranty; 
and a full year after signing contract to visit the property and 
see for yourself whether it delights you. If not, every penny 
you'd have paid in is refunded without a word. 

We're quite certain that we have something very special In 
BEACHES OF NOSARA and we already know that the response to 
our advertising is going to be quite lively. We sincerely urge you 
—if you wish to be in time for the choice lots— to fill out and 
mail the coupon right away. Our portfolio is free and you are 
under no obligation at all. Indeed, no one will ever phone you 
or call on you. .It's only the mailman you'll see* 



BEACHES OF NOSARA 

Dept. M-8A, 1199 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10001 

Please send me without obligation your complete port- 
folio Including color brochure, maps, and Prof. Lundberg's 
book "COSTA f?/CA." 



I 

I Name. 
I 



City. 



.Zip. 



ng. A copy nf the offering state 



a offering statement has been filed with the Dept. o( Slate of the Slate of N.Y. The. filint does not constitute approval of the sale 
ale or lease by the Dept. of Slate or any officer thereof or that the Depl. of Slate has in any way passed upon the merits of such offer- 



lilable, upon request, from the subdivider."NYA #1042-1 



13 



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ferences from those in other parts 
of the body: many of the cells that 
remain in the tissues of an old ani- 
mal are either larger or smaller than 
usual and the resultant irregular ap- 
pearance of many old tissues is one 
of disorder; the second, obvious 
change is the accumulation of yel- 
low-brown colorations known as 
cige pigments. These materials accu- 
mulate slowly with age, and in the 
very old they may occupy nearly 
the entire cell body. They are be- 
lieved to be produced by the reac- 
tion of oxygen with unsaturated fats 
in the membranes within cells. This 
reaction is similar to the one that 
causes varnish to harden and turn 
yellow as it dries and ages. 

The rate at which it occurs can 
be reduced, in the test tube at least, 
by adding substances called antioxi- 
dants to the mixture. In this process 
the antioxidants trap intermediate 
molecules, called free radicals, and 
prevent such reactions from becom- 
ing self-perpetuating. Vitamin E is 
one antioxidant that occurs in na- 
ture, and BHT, a synthetic com- 
pound used to prevent various food 
products from turning rancid, has 
similar effects. One group of studies 



by Denham Harmon of the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska indicates that it is 
possible to extend the lives of ex- 
perimental animals by adding an- 
tioxidants to their diets. Whether 
the increased longevity is due to the 
suppression of antioxidative reac- 
tions within cells and tissues is not 
yet certain. 

Recent studies also indicate that 
cells cultured artificially eventually 
lose their ability to divide or renew 
themselves. In his careful and imag- 
inative work in this area, Leonard 
Hayflick of Stanford University has 
shown that human cells such as em- 
bryonic fibroblasts can only un- 
dergo about fifty divisions under ar- 
tificial conditions. Whether such 
limitations occur in the body itself 
is not yet clearly settled. It seems 
likely that skin and gut cells, for ex- 
ample, are able to divide hundreds 
or thousands of times during the 
lifetime of a human. Some recent 
research suggests that all cells man- 
ufacture and accumulate materials 
that tend to prevent their division 
when the concentration of these 
substances is large enough. One 
class of such substances, called cha- 
lones, only inhibits the growth of 




30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Age 

Based on volume of air inhaled and expelled in one minute. 



H 



the tissue Iroin which it is e\- 
traeled. 

Lack of inateiiais that iiihil)il cell 
iii\ision mav contribute to the dc- 
velopnient of cancer— a disease that 
primarily affects the elderly. One 
reason that cancer develops could 
be that the natural inhibitors, per- 
haps "chalonelike" substances, are 
either not produced in adequate 
amounts or no longer have a 
growth-stopping effect on cells that 
have become malignant. This is an 
oversimplification of the origin of 
cancer, but several lines of evidence 
indicate that it is at least a part of 
the picture. 

The key to understanding aging 
is to be found in the mechanisms 
that control and prevent the divi- 
sion of cells. Much information may 
fall out of the understanding of can- 
cer, but it seems unlikely that all of 
the needed facts will result from the 
pursuit of studies directed toward 
other goals. What is needed is to 
focus an adequate research effort 
specifically on those processes that 
cause cells to lose vitality with age. 

A law of nature states that all 
systems tend to become more dis- 
organized as time passes unless en- 
ergy is expended to generate order. 
Stars burn themselves out; un- 
tended gardens go to weed; social 
institutions become more unman- 
ageable as they age. This also ap- 
plies to the cells and molecules that 
make up the individual human 
being; unless molecules are stored 
at absolute zero and shielded from 
all kinds of radiation, they will 
gradually revert to less ordered ar- 
rangements of their atoms. 

In one sense, living systems are 
an exception to this rule, for plants 
and animals do create order out of 
chaos. These living organisms are 
special kinds of machines, which 
harness the matter and energy 
about them in order to make more 
of their kind. 

The basic reason that living 
things are mortal is that this must 
have favored their evolutionary suc- 
cess. One explanation for this para- 
dox—the death of individuals favor- 
ing the perpetuation of the 
species— was suggested by Peter 
Medawar, a Nobel laureate in medi- 
cine and physiology, who pointed 
out that some kinds of successful 
adaptations carry with them side ef- 
fects that indirectly lead to aging 
and death. For humans, three such 



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adaptations are particularly impor- 
tant: man is best able to function if 
he has a particular size; man's brain 
serves as an information storage de- 
vice, as well as in other ways; our 
ancestors evolved in competitive 
environments, which placed a pre- 
mium on the efficient use of raw 
materials. What unites these adap- 
tations is that they all involve the 
"switching off' of certain inherited 
abilities at specific times in the life- 
cycle, and it is this process that ulti- 
mately causes the system to fail. 

The limitation of the human 
body to a certain optimum size is 
achieved by the turning off of the 
genes that would lead to continued 
growth. The stabilization of 
memory elements in the brain is 
achieved, in part, by suppressing 
the ability of nerve cells in the 
brain to divide (nerve cell division 
is a great rarity after birth). Econ- 
omy in the use of raw materials re- 
quires that only those parts that de- 
teriorate rapidly— the skin, gut 
lining cells, blood cells— are regu- 
larly replaced. Tendons, muscles, 
heart, and brain cells stop replacing 
themselves as maturity is ap- 
proached. 



Tlie consequence of this switch- 
ing off of genes is to remove the af- 
fected cells from the 'living sys- 
tem" category, as defined earlier, 
with aging and death eventually fol- 
lowing. Yet all cells, whether in a 
functioning or switched-off state, 
contain the necessary genetic in- 
structions to replenish themselves. 
When we discover how to unlock 
the information hidden in the DNA 
of each nonreplenishing cell, man 
may indeed possess the knowledge 
necessary to convert himself into an 
immortal. 

Before the present revolution in 
biological thinking— the result of 
understanding how DNA stores the 
instructions to put the body's parts 
together— we had exceedingly cum- 
bersome ideas about the regulation 
of gene expression. It had been 
thought that each specific event in 
each kind of cell was controlled by 
a huge set of genetic instructions. It 
seemed inconceivable that man 
could devise nondestructive means 
for interfering with the enormous 
complexity of the regulating sys- 
tems involved. 

But it has now been demon- 
strated that the genetic code is 




50 60 70 80 90 Age 

Based on blood pumped by the heart per square meter of body surface. 



i6 



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17 




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really very simple. It was proved 
that it is a sequence of just three 
consecutive "beads," the nucleotide 
bases in the DNA, which code for a 
given kind of building block in the 
working parts of cells. (The build- 
ing blocks are the body's total of 
twenty different kinds of amino 
acids, and the working parts are 
proteins, which are simply long 
chains of amino acids arranged in 
very specific ways according to the 
instructions provided by the DNA.) 

It also has been shown that only 
two different types of control loca- 
tions are involved in the regulation 
of which kinds of genes are ex- 
pressed. These sites, on the surfaces 
of the DNA and of the ribosomes, 
control the copying of the informa- 
tion in specific segments of DNA— a 
process called transcription— and 
the decoding of this copied informa- 
tion—a process called translation. 
In other words, cells can select 
which of the many products they 
will make by either controlling the 
kinds of DNA copied or the kinds 
of messages decoded. 

The importance of these discov- 
eries in terms of the potential con- 
trol of human aging is enormous. 
Instead of an imponderable curay of 
control points, the number may be 
quite small, perhaps only a few 
dozen. This implies the possibility 
of producing chemical agents that 
will selectively change the controls 
of switched-off cells, thus releasing 
the latent genetic information 
needed to produce replacement 
parts— just as it is possible to pro- 
duce antibiotics that will destroy in- 
fective bacteria without materially 
harming the body's functions. And 
far from being an unattainable goal 
in this generation of humans, selec- 
tive production of new cells and tis- 
sues through pharmacological inter- 
vention is on the verge of being 
tested; at least the basic technology 
is at hand. 

Whether this optimistic view is 
justified will depend on the results 
of experiments designed to test a 
theory of gene regulation proposed 
about ten years ago. Harvey Itano, 
now a professor at the University of 
California at San Diego, suggested 
that certain genetic diseases are due 
to the inability of cells to translate 
some of the code words present in 
genetic messages. (He was inter- 
ested in a blood disease, thallas- 
Continued on page 82 



SCULPTURE 

207076 :Horu>F>lcon. 
Eftvplian. 378-32-1 B.C. Oricinal 
in ihc Louvre. List $15. Intro, 
price $6. 7S. 

20t)i75 : Bee. Gaston Lachaisc. 
.Abstract. S'.- " hifih includinR 
marble base. Original in 
Philadelphia Museum of An. 
List $18.75. Intro, price $8.50. 

206235 : Girl Bathing. Bonnard. 
12 " high. Original bronze in the 
AlbriRhl Kno.x Galler\-. 
List $27.50. Intro, price $13.00. 
BOOKS 

107128: The Movies. From 
Birth of a Nation to Easv Rider. 
Over 1.300 illustrations. 
1 ist $19.95. Intro, price $-1.00. 

105346: Collaiie.BvHerta 
Wcscher. First major treatment 
andsur%evofcolIaseasanart 
form. 396 illustrations. 40 hand- 
tipped fullcolor plates. List $35. 
Intro, price $13.50. 

105338: Georges Braque. Text - 
Pierre DescarRues, Francis 
PonRe. Appreciation — Andre 
Malrau.x. 152 illustrations. 96 m 
full color. List $45. Intro, 
price 51 5.00. 

103341: Edward Hoppei 
16"x 13". 226 illustrations. 
81 in full color. Foldouts. 
List S50. Intro, price $15.00. 

102632: Dali. 271 illustrations. 
80 color plates. List S35. 
Intro, price 510.50. 

105320: Lost America. Edited 
by Constance M.Grciff. The 
demolished architectural 
treasures of the countp,'. 0\er 
250 structures illustrated. List 
517.95. Intro, price 55.75. 

103796: The World Alias of 
Wines. By Hugh Johnson. The 
labels, the vintages. 1 30 photos 
plus maps and drawings. 
ListS25.00. Intro, price $7.75. 

108969: The Shell: Five 
Hundred Million Years of 
Inspired Design. Sea shells 
203 illustrations. 82 color. 
List525.00. Intro, price 59.71 

107672: American Indian Art. 
Bv Norman Feder. 302 
illustrations. 60 in color. 
Lists;5. Intro, price 51 1.75. 

108019: Erotic Art Today. Bv 
Volker Kahmen. Illustrarions." 
List514.50. Intro, price 56.00. 

102772. The Pin-up: A Modest 
History.By Mark Gabor. Examples 
from Beardsley to Penthouse- 
List price 520. Intro price 56. 

101519: Picasso: The Artist of 
theCentury.ByJeanLcymarie.Thc 
most comprehensive book on his 
work.617 illustrations.lOS in color. 
List price 537.50. Intro price 512. 

106161: The Hudson River and 
lu Painters. By John K. Howat. 
V\'hcn it was clean. 102 plates. 
72 in color. List 525.00. 
Intro, price 57.50. 

109157: Modem World 
Drama: An Encvclopedia. Bv 
Myron Matlaw. List 525.00.' 
Intro, price 57,50. 
RECORDS 

307249: Bessie Smith. 3 albums. 
6 stereo records. List 517.94. 
Intro, price 58.75. 

306258: The World's Most 
Famous Concertos. Performed by 
such artists as the Oistrakhs 
Scherbaum. Anda. Askenase. 
Ferras. Conductors include 
Von Kar^jan. Szell. Stepp. 
Goossens. 10 stereo records. 
List529.75. Intro, pnce 514.75. 

307751: Casals Conducts 
Mozart: The Last Six 
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ListSll.98. Intro. price55.75. 
JEWELRY 

201459: Double Figure. Pre- 
Columbian figures from original 
in gold (crafted Costa Rica, 
1000-1500 AD.) at American 
Museum of Natural History. 
ListS18.75. Intro, price 58.75. 
GRAPHICS 

Because all Seven Arts graphics 
are signed limited editions, it is 
impossible to offer them in a 
public a 




lEn nirrs sociEry is fOR 

L PHIPliE UIHO inHERITED GOOD THSTE 
^ BOT ROT RECESSRRlby HIOREy. 



THE Mi 
SEVEnilRTS 
SOCKTy 



74 



■'^ 



There are millions of Americans 
who appreciate great art. But few who 
can afford it. 

To help rectify this injustice, 
The Seven Arts Society was bom. 

The Society offers sculpture and 
jewelry replicas from the world's 
leading museums and private 
collections. Limited editions of signed 
graphics. A varied collection of superb 
recordings. Plus beautifully illustrated 
art books. 

To join the Society, choose any 
one of the items listed. It's yours at a 
low introductory price. And Atlantic 
Brief Lives: A Biographical Companion 
to the Arts (a $1 5 value) is yours free. 

Once a member, you need 
purchase only three more items during 
the next twelve months. 

And we don't nag you with 
refusal cards or automatic shipments. 



You buy what you want when 
you want it. For 15 to 30 percent 
below bookstore and gallery prices. 

So join The Seven Arts Society. 

And enjoy your inheritance. 







The Seven Arts Society 

95 Ea^ Putnam Avenue, Greenwich, Conn. 06830 

Please enroll me as a trial member of The 
Seven Arts Society. Send me my free copy of 
"Atlantic Brief Lives" f reg ularly $15 )along 
with the selection I've indicated below and 
,r bill me the special introductory price plus 

postage and handling. (Note: "Atlantic 
Brief Lives" and your mtroductor\' 
selection may arrive in separate packages.) 

Selection Number 



City 



State 



Zip 



I understand that appro.ximatelyevery 4 weeks I will receive free the 
Seven Arts News which fully describes the latest main selection 
and alternates. From it, I can order whatever I prefer by returning 
the order card that accompanies the News. No items will be 
ship ped to me automatical l y, and there are no refusal forms to 
return each month. All I agree to purchase during the first year I 
am a member are three additional selections or alternates—always 
paying special members' prices plus shipping and handling. I have 
the right to cancel my trial membership any time thereafter. 



19 



The Human Strategy 



by Marvin Harris 



Riddle of the Pig, II 




''Pronouncements about the inexp lie ability 

of human events . . . are themselves often the chief obstacle 

to the advance of anthropological knowledge" 



A number of readers were criti- 
cal of last October's column, 
"Riddle of the Pig" ("Hogwash," 
wrote one wag). I hope that the fol- 
lowing discussion will clarify the is- 
sues and meet some of the objec- 
tions that have been raised. But 
first, let me recapitulate what seems 
to be a plausible explanation of why 
pork was banned by the ancient He- 
brews and also by the followers of 
Mohammed. 

In the arid Middle Eastern heart- 
lands the subsistence agriculture 
practiced by the semisedentary pas- 
toralists and grain farmers was eco- 
logically incompatible with large- 
scale pig production. Pigs need 
shade and copious amounts of ex- 
ternal moisture when temperatures 
rise above 99 degrees. Some suit- 
able small niches— river banks, 
swamp borders, and remnant up- 
land forests— were available for 
swineherding. But the intensive ex- 
ploitation of these zones for pig 
raising was incompatible with the 
system of grain farming and rumi- 
nant (goat, sheep, cattle) pastoral- 
ism. The antipork taboos may there- 
fore be viewed as an ideological 
defense against the temptation to 



divert substantial inputs from a 
highly efficient farming and pasto- 
ral complex to an inefficient and 
marginal luxury product, valuable 
only for its delectable, fatty meat. 

In objecting to this theory, sev- 
eral readers insisted that the reason 
for the taboo was simply that the 
pig is, in fact, a dirty and disgusting 
animal. Pierre Gringoire, for ex- 
ample, reminded me of "the pig's 
habit of eating with great relish and 
many delighted grunts human ex- 
crement." Another correspondent, 
even more graphically inclined, told 
of once being surrounded by pigs 
before he could leap back over the 
stone wall behind which he had 
chosen to squat. Other com- 
mentators pointed out that pigs will 
even eat carrion, "which obviously 
seems unclean," as Dorothy Muegel 
put it. Reader Paul Squibb neatly 
summed up these sentiments with 
the observation that "the Mosaic in- 
junction was something like: 'You 
mustn't eat any part of your sewer 
system.' " 

The reason I didn't mention this 
aspect of "piggishness" is that, 
among domestic animals, it is 
scarcely peculiar to the pig. In 



South American Indian groups, for 
example, the role of fecal and car- 
rion scavenger was monopolized by 
the dog. Friends who have studied 
among the Eskimo tell of Rabelai- 
sian encounters between themselves 
and their host's huskies whenever 
they had to step outside the igloo 
during the winter night. Dogs, of 
course, are eaten in many societies 
throughout the world. So the eon- 
sumption of carrion or human feces 
by a domestic animal is not by itself 
sufficient reason for placing a ban 
on the consumption of its flesh. 

Nothing in nature "obviously 
seems unclean," least of all the pig. 
Millions of people in Latin Amer- 
ica, Asia, and Oceania enjoy eating 
pigs, even though they know the 
animals have consumed substantial 
amounts of carrion and humcin 
feces. In New Guinea and Mela- 
nesia, the pig, far from being re- 
garded as loathsome, is thought to 
be the most sacred and beautiful of 
all nature's creations. Incidentally, 
the conditions for raising pigs in 
such places— heavy rainfall and lots 
of trees— are the direct opposite of 
those in the Middle East. 

The assumption made by several 



20 




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48501. FIFTY YEARS OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

Edited by Hamilton Fisti Armstrong. Extraordinary 
collection-a panorama of the last 50 years. $12.50 

67611. PEACE IN THE BALANCE: The Future of 
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79560. SOUTH AFRICA: Civilizalions in Conflict. 

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j^ _ _ MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION — •- — | 
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TJpon acceptance of this order, please enroll 
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readers that pigs in the Middle East 
were loathsome because they were 
primarily fecal scavengers leads 
back to the ecological factors 
stressed in my theory. Restriction 
of pigs to rations consisting primar- 
ily of human excrement obviously 
imposes drastic limits on the size of 
the pig population relative to the 
human population. We would need, 
therefore, to explain why the pig 
was raised in this manner, rather 
than by extensive swineherding or 
by an intensive grain supplement. 
In other words, we would have to 
explain why the pig ate more sew- 
age in the Middle East than else- 
where. The explanation is the same 
as the one I gave for why the pig in 
the Middle East had to cool itself by 
wallowing in its own excreta rather 
than in fresh water: the pig is an 
ecological anomaly in the hot and 
arid Middle Eastern heartlands. 

Another group of correspondents 
dismissed my ecological solution to 
the riddle of the pig because it 
failed to explain all the other food 
taboos mentioned in the Bible. Wil- 
liam Alkus accused me of perpetu- 
ating the common error "that the 
forbidden food or those things un- 
kosher are primarily the pig." 1 
concede that I should have taken 
more care to explain why I was em- 
phasizing the pig. I was not una- 
ware that many other animals are 
banned in Leviticus and Deuteron- 
omy. But the ban on pork has al- 
ways seemed the most difficult to 
understand in rational and ecosys- 
tem terms. Of all the animals whose 
flesh is forbidden in the Five Books 
of Moses, the pig is the only one 
that is a domesticated animal bred 
primarily for the value of its meat. 
Therefore, the taboo on pork ini- 
tially seems utterly baffling and en- 
tirely a result of scientifically un- 
knowable causes. 

I fail to see why I should be ex- 
pected to explain all the other food 
taboos in the Bible as a reward for 
having offered a plausible solution 
to the riddle of the pig. Some years 
ago I offered an ecological ex- 
planation, which has since been 
largely confirmed, of the Hindu ta- 
boo on the consumption of beef (see 
'"The Myth of the Sacred Cow, " 
Natural History, March, 1967). 
"Ah!" said the skeptics. "But what 
about the Chinese aversion to 
milk?" And when I showed how 
that, too, could be given an ecologi- 




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cal explanation, I was told. "Oh, 
yes. But what about the Hebrew 
and Moslem taboo an;ainst poikV" 
Unfortunately, 1 just don't seeni 
able to resist these ehallenges, so 
here comes an ecological ex- 
planation for the entire set of crea- 
tures whose flesh is forbidden in the 
Mosaic code. 

Cultural ecological theory pre- 
dicts that religiously supported food 
taboos seldom, if eyer, decrease to- 
tal energetic and nutritional effi- 
ciency; actually, such taboos often 
constitute ideological barriers 
against food practices that might 
tend to degrade specific ecosystems 
or impair their bioenergetic produc- 
tivity. I maintain, in conformity 
with this principle, that the great 
majority of forbidden flesh in Leyi- 
ticus and Deuteronomy belongs to 
feral mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, 
and insects whose retention in the 
ancient Hebrew diet would not 
have significantly raised, and could 
easily have lowered, the capability 
of the seminomadic pastoral and 
farming complex to support human 
life. 

Let us start with the interdiction 
against eating beasts that have 
"paws." The animals most likely to 
have been included in this ban con- 
sisted of predators, such as weasels 
(specificallv mentioned), wildcats, 
foxes, and wolves, plus domestic 
cats and dogs. It seems unlikely 
that a people who raised large num- 
bers of sheep, goats, and cattle 
would often want to be in a position 
to dine on carnivorous predators. 
The whole object of pastoral man- 
agement is to exterminate predators 
or at least to keep th^m far away 
from one's herds and flocks. Dogs 
in such ecosystems are used primar- 
ily to herd and hunt; for meat pro- 
duction, anything fed to a dog 
would be better put into the mouth 
of a goat. As for cats, which were 
primarily house pets, they are a 
sorry source of protein under the 
best of circumstances. 

Among animals specifically men- 
tioned in Leviticus 11 we find the 
chameleon, lizard, and mole, and, 
by implication, the snake. Avoid- 
ance of such difficult to catch 
and/or calorically insignificant tid- 
bits cannot conceivably constitute a 
nutritional loss for people who keep 
meat- and milk-producing rumi- 
nants—although such animals might 
very well constitute a net caloric 



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loss if they were the object of seri- 
ous culinary attention. 

Another large category of forbid- 
den creature, which is not desig- 
nated by species, consists of water 
dwellers without fins or scales. By 
implication, the interdicted species 
are usually understood to include 
eels, shellfish, whales, porpoises, 
and several "scaleless" fish, per- 
haps including sturgeons, lump- 
suckers, lampreys, hagfish, and cat- 
fish. It seems to me that pastoralists 
were well advised to forget about 
hunting for whales or sturgeon or 
collecting clams or devoting much 
effort to ditficult to catch, difficult 
to eat, or relatively rare fish. Sim- 
ilar observations apply, I believe, to 
the tortoise and snail, which are 
mentioned specificallv. 

I come now to birds, the largest 
group of specifically identified for- 
bidden creatures. The list is domi- 
nated by such unlikely sources of 
human food energy as eagles, os- 
preys, vultures, ravens, hawks, 
swans, storks, herons, and lap- 
wings. Bats are included among the 
birds and exemplifv the same prin- 
ciple of nutritional triviahty. 

Turning to the category "in- 
sects," we find a surprising ex- 
ception to the general taboo. Four 
kinds of locusts are specificallv rec- 
ommended as good to eat. Is it an 
accident that locusts also happen to 
be nutritionally significant in the 
biblical heartlands? I think not. Lo- 
custs were not only abundant but 
they also tended to become avail- 
able under circumstances that rec- 
ommended they be consumed with- 
out ado; namely, when swarms had 
stripped the fields and locusts were 
the only thing left to eat. 

The remaining category consists 
of the animals that "part not the 
hoof," or "chew not the cud." Al- 
though not mentioned specifically, 
the domesticated horse and donkey 
are usually thought to have been 
among the species implicated by 
that formula. I find little to ponder 
in the case of the horse. This animal 
was bred for aristocratic and mili- 
tary purposes. It was a great luxury, 
even for the royalty of Egypt and 
Babylonia, and could never have 
provided meat for more than a tiny 
fraction of the ancient Hebrew pop- 
ulation. I am less confident of the 
status of donkeys; still, these ani- 
mals were bred for portage, not for 
food, and I am unaware of any cul- 



24 



tiire in which donkev meal is letiii- 
larly on the menu. 

That leaves, among domesticated 
species, the camel, whose flesh the 
Bible specificallv prohibits. Several 
corrcspotulcnts were particularly 
concerned about what the taboo on 
camel flesh did to niv ecological ex- 
planation. ("Can Professor Harris 
dare sav the camel is not ada[itcd to 
tiie Middle East?") 

Although some of the ancient 
Hebrews kept flocks of camels, 
tiiese animals are pre-eminently 
creatures of the deep desert. They 
are associated with a fully migra- 
torv Bedouin life-style, not with the 
semisedentarv adaptation of the an- 
cient Hebrews. Throughout most of 
the Mosaic period, camel flesh was 
probablv no more abundant than 
horse flesh. But the camel is an ex- 
tremely important test of the eco- 
logical approach in another sense. 
Mohammed specifically reaffirmed 
the Mosaic taboo against only one 
animal, the pig. And he specifically 
rescinded the Mosaic taboo against 
only one animal, the camel. 

This was no mere whim. Indeed, 
it is difficult to imagine how the 
subsequent history of the world 
could have been quite the same had 
Islam maintained the ban on camel 
flesh. The Arabian tribesmen who 
were Mohammed's earliest support- 
ers were camel nomads. They de- 
pended upon the camel for their en- 
tire livelihood; camel flesh was for 
them an emergency ration without 
which they could never have ven- 
tured forth on their spectacular 
journeys across the desert. 

I have not quite exhausted all the 
animals that were specifically inter- 
dicted in the Mosaic code (the tax- 
onomic identity of several species 
remains unresolved). But in any 
case, I do not intend the preceding 
analysis to be anything other than a 
series of hypotheses that merit con- 
sideration before one finally con- 
cludes, along with several of my 
correspondents, that "no logical ex- 
planation of food taboos is pos- 
sible." It has been my lifelong ex- 
perience with pronouncements 
about the inexplicability of human 
events that such pronouncements 
are themselves often the chief ob- 
stacle to the advance of anthropo- 
logical knowledge. 

Columnist Marvin Harris teaches an- 
thropology at Columbia University. 




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25 



Bios 



by Arthur W. Galston 



A Basle Unity 
of Life 



As biologists delve further into the mechanisms of nerve transmissions, 
they uncover striking similarities in the plant and animal kingdoms 



Last month I discussed the prob- 
able significance of, and the basic 
physiological processes controlling, 
the sleep movements of leaves. Now 
I want to focus on the biochemical 
mechanisms involved in the leaf 
movements of the leguminous silk 
tree, Albizzia. The leaves of this 
plant are subdivided into pairs of 
opposing leaflets, which lie open 
during the day and close up tight 
against each other at night. 

The main chemical event regu- 
lating the movement of these leaf- 
lets is the movement of potassium 
into and out of the motor cells of 
the pulvinus, the fleshy joint con- 
necting leaf stalk and stem. The 
leaflets are open when the upper 
cells of the pulvinus are rich in po- 
tassium. The potassium richness 
raises the osmotic concentration of 
the upper cells; they thus take up 
water and swell, forcing the leaflet 
to pivot down and away from the 
stem. When the upper pulvinal cells 
lose potassium and the lower cells 
gain it, the opposite changes occur, 
and the leaflets fold together, or 
close. The leaflets are generally 
open in the light and closed in the 
dark, although the major control is 
an internal clock that seems to 
work by controlling the "leakiness" 
of the pulvinal cell membranes to 
potassium and other solutes. 

Whether or not a leaflet closes on 
transfer from light to darkness de- 
pends in the first instance on the 
phase of the internal rhythm. Erwin 
Biinning suggested that the "photo- 
phile," or light-loving, half of the 
cycle begins when the light goes on, 



and that the "scotophile," or dark- 
loving, phase starts twelve hours 
later. Thus, a leaf that has been in 
light for, let us say, ten or eleven 
hours will close promptly upon 
being darkened, because each half 
of the circadian (daylong) rhythm 
lasts for about twelve hours. Even if 
left in light for more than twelve 
hours, such a leaf will start to close, 
but if transferred to darkness it will 
close much more rapidly and com- 
pletely. 

On the other hand, a leaf trans- 
ferred to darkness after only one or 
two hours of light will not close 
very vigorously or completely. This 
is "explained" by saying that the 
clock that keeps time for the plant 
in the measurement of the daily 
rhythm is still in the photophile set- 
ting, and is thus not in the correct 
state for dark reactions such as clos- 
ing. This is not really an ex- 
planation, but simply another way 
of saying that the rhythm can be 
shown to exist, and can be mea- 
sured and even defined in terms of 
the changing ability of leaflets to 
fold together in darkness after hav- 
ing received varying periods of 
light. The 24-hour rhythm of ter- 
restrial plants has presumably 
evolved in response to the earth's 
24-hour day. Thus, if plants are 
ever discovered on other planets 
with different day lengths, they 
could be expected to have differ- 
ently timed rhythms if they have 
rhythms at all. 

All plants possess small quan- 
tities of phytochrome, a remarkable 
pigment that is very sensitive to 



light. When a plant is stored in 
darkness for several hours, the 
bulk, if not all, of its phvtochrome 
is in a form that absorbs red light 
strongly. Upon irradiation with or- 
dinary sunlight or any sort of mixed 
wavelength "white"' light, the pig- 
ment is transformed to another mo- 
lecular configuration, which no 
longer absorbs heavily in the red re- 
gion of the spectrum, but rather in 
what we call "far-red," or just 
barely visible longer wavelength 
light. During daylight, which con- 
tains more energy in the red than in 
the far-red part of the spectrum, 
phytochrome is kept predominantly 
in the far-red absorbing form. In 
darkness, this form spontaneously 
reverts back to the red-absorbing 
form. For convenience, the red- and 
far-red-absorbing forms of phyto- 
chrome are called Pr and Pfr- The 
transformation of Pr to Pfr by 
light— and the subsequent reversion 
of Pfr to Pr in the dark— seemed to 
provide an obvious chemical 
"hourglass" mechanism that could 
furnish a basis for the alternating 
photophile and scotophile phases of 
a plant's behavior. Further investi- 
gations have shown that the timing 
mechanism is, in fact, much more 
complex. 

The change in absorption proper- 
ties of phytochrome as it changes 
from Pr to Pfr provides the labora- 
tory experimenter with a conve- 
nient handle. Because light, to be 
effective in producing any chemical 
change, must first be trapped by an 
appropriate absorbing pigment, 
phytochrome provides a convenient 



26 




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Iwo-way switch for turning off and 
on any process it controls. If con- 
version of phytochrome from the 
P,- to the Pfr form is responsible for 
I he opening of the leaflets as they 
are moved from dark to light, then 
red hght should cause opening and 
far-red light given immediatelv af- 
ter the red light should prevent it 
from acting. Although the state of 
phytochrome is not the prirnary 
regulator of leaflet opening, it does 
closely regulate the closure of leaf- 
lets when they are transferred from 
light to dark. 

This relationship can be shown 
bv the following simple experiment. 
If after the initial, natural light pe- 
riod (phytochrome is now present 
as Pfr), the plant is briefly irra- 
diated with far-red light (Pfr will 
now be reconverted to Pr) and then 
put into darkness, the leaflets will 
not close rapidly. If the far-red light 
is omitted before transfer to dark- 
ness or if red light is administered 
after the far-red and then the plant 
is put into the dark, the leaves will 
close promptly and vigorously. 
Thus, phytochrome can control leaf- 
let closure, but only if the circadian 
rhythm permits any closure at all. 
The rhythm may be thought of as con- 
trolling a master valve and phyto- 
chrome a subsidiary valve that works 
only if the master valve is open. 

Recalling that leaflet movement 
depends ultimately on the transport 
of potassium from one set of pulvi- 
nal cells to another, we can now ask 
how phytochrome regulates potas- 
sium movement. One provocative 
suggestion, put forth by M. J. Jaffe 
of Ohio University, is that phyto- 
chrome somehow regulates the 
quantity or release of acetylcholine 
at the membrane of the motor cells 
of the pulvinus, and that this, in 
turn, accounts for the movement of 
potassium out of a cell. This mecha- 
nism is clearly borrowed from the 
animal world, for it is known that 
acetylcholine is one of the sub- 
stances that transmit stimuli from 
one nerve cell to another across the 
synapse, or gap separating the two 
cells. Because transmission of neu- 
ral impulses is correlated with 
changes in the sodium and potas- 
sium balance of the cells, the pro- 
posed mechanism would appear to 
be logical. The postulate was also 
supported by the fact that root tips 
can be shown to change their surface 
electrical charges reversibly upon ir- 



radiation with red and far-red light, 
l(>ading them to adhere to, or be re- 
leased from, negatively charged sur- 
faces. This change in surface charge 
can be related to secretion of positive 
ions like potassium. 

Using the beating of an excised 
clam heart to measure the amount 
of acetylcholine in plant extracts, 
Jaffe was able to find correlations 
between the amount of the sub- 
stance and the state of phyto- 
chrome. In support of his views, 
several other investigators found 
that the application of acetylcholine 
to plant tissues can cause effects 
thai mimic the action of light ab- 
sorbed by phytochrome. But the is- 
sue is not yet settled, for still other 
workers, including some in my own 
laboratory, have come up with some 
negative evidence. The answer to 
this problem will probably not be 
definitely obtained until new kinds 
of experiments are devised. 

Acetylcholine is not the only 
neurotransmitter substance that 
could be involved in this plant re- 
sponse. Not only does acetylcholine 
exist in plants, together with the en- 
zymes that make it and break it 
down, but so do other active neuro- 
transmitter substances, such as se- 
rotonin, epinephrine, and norepi- 
nephrine. We are currently investi- 
gating theu- possible role, in leaf 
movements and other rapid plant 
responses. Attention has also re- 
cently focused on a substance called 
cyclic adenylic acid, which acts as a 
"secondary hormone" messenger in 
many animal responses and appears 
to be able to elicit numerous re- 
sponses in plant tissues as well. Fi^ 
nally, the fact that the well-known 
plant growth hormone indoleacetic 
acid is chemically closely related to 
serotonin has not escaped notice. 

It would be poetic justice if sub- 
stances discovered by animal bio- 
chemists and pharmacologists were 
to play an important role in solving 
problems in the physiology of 
plants, whose numerous products- 
such as atropine, curare, LSD, and 
digitalis— have been of such aid to 
animal physiology and medicine. 
And if one of the neurotransmitter 
substances of animals should prove 
to explain plant leaf movements, 
the unity of basic biological mecha- 
nisms would be further emphasized. 

Columnist Arthur W . Galston teaches 
biology at Yale University. 



28 



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As you read America by Car you will discover thrilling tours that take 
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You wUl discover how. without leaving a U.S. highway, you can drive 
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Take a leisurely drive to sample the flavor of the Ozarks — the odd 
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Relive history in a swing through Revolutlonar> and Civil War country 
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Norman Ford, America's leading travel expert, has selected the very 
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FABULOUS MEXICO 



. . Where Everything Costs Less 



The land of retirement and vacation bargains — that*s Mexico. Where 

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There's a great deal more besides: everything from exploring ancient 
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Where to Retire or Vocation 



At What Look Like Prewar Prices 
These are America's Own Bargain Paradises 



In Oif-the-Beaten Path, the big book by Norman Ford, you read of 
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Mail to HARIAN PUBLICATIONS, 173 Walnut Drive. 
GREENLAWN (Long Island), New York 11740 

I have enclosed $ (cash, check, or money order). 

YOU WILL REFUND 



. . Fabulous Mexico — Where Everything Costs Less. $2.50 

. . America by Car. $3.50. 

. . Norman Ford's Florida. $3. 

. . Off-the-Beaten Path — America's own Bargain Paradises. $2.50 

Print Name 



Tlxe Silent Or-deal of sl 
Soutli Atlantic Arclnipelago 



The Falklands ' varied 

wildlife, threatened 

for two centuries 

by hunters and settlers, 

still struggles to 

adjust to man's presence 

t>y Ian J. Strange 



Isolated, bleak, and nearly void 
of human life, the Falkland archi- 
pelago rises in the South Atlantic 
Ocean some 250 miles off the 
southeast coast of Argentina. For 
years its ecosystem was disrupted, 
first by the crews of whaling and 
sealing ships, then by settlers. Its 
abundant wildlife was plundered 
and its soil was eroded because of 
man's carelessness and disregard 
for ecological values. 

Millions of seals were indiscrimi- 
nately butchered for their hides and 
oil. When they became scarce, pen- 
guins—whose eggs had been fre- 
quently taken for food— became a 
secondary source of oil. Introduced 
by voyagers and settlers, cattle and 
sheep overgrazed the predominant, 
soil-binding tussock grass {Poa Jla- 
bellata), and the soft, peaty earth, 
exposed to the characteristic strong 
wind and rain or snow, was blown 
or washed into the sea. Although 
more care is now being shown for 
the islands' ecology, the dominant 
sheep industry, which supports 
most of the archipelago's 2,000 in- 
habitants of British descent, still is 
more concerned with increased rev- 
enues from wool sales than it is 
with the future of the archipelago. 

The Falklands cover a total area 
of about 4,620 square miles and 
comprise some 340 islands, ranging 
in size from sea-lashed islets to the 
two main islands. East and West 
Falkland. It is a subtly coMred land 
of grays and biiffs, of treeless roll- 
ing plains and great rocky expan.ses 
of tundra; and the only exceptions 
to its generally low altitude are 
Mount Usborne on East Falkland 
with an elevation of 2,312 feet and 



Mount Adam on West Falkland, 
2,297 feet. 

Soil cover at the higher eleva- 
tions is usually thin, with grav 
quartzite ridges dating from the Pa- 
leozoic and Mesozoic eras breaking 
the line of the rolling landscape. 
Sweeping down from the higher ele- 
vations are "stone runs," a geo- 
graphical feature common to the 
Falklands. Composed of angular 
quartzite blocks, they appear on the 
landscape as huge gray rivers flow- 
ing down the hillsides and across 
the floors of valleys. 

Many changes have taken place 
in the natural vegetation and wild- 
life of the Falklands since man first 
settled the islands. The first re- 
corded landing was made in 1690 
by the British navigator John 
Strong, but it was not until 1764 
that the French established the first 
settlement under Louis de Bougain- 
ville. And it was not until 1842 that 
permanent colonization was begun 
under the British crown. Even prior 
to the 1840s. the cattle, pigs, 
horses, and goats introduced bv 
whalers and sealers drastically over- 
grazed the islands. With the devcl- 



Fur seals, once common 

throughout the Falkland 

Islands, were nearly 

exterminated by sealers 

during; the 1800s. Thev 

now number about 16.000 

and breed only in isolated 

areas of remote islands. 



3° 



3r*** 




i 








opment of the sheep industry in the 
1860s, this problem became more 
severe. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 
the botanist on Sir James Ross's 
Antarctic expedition, which visited 
the islands in 1842, described many 
native plants, some of which are 
difficult to find today, as being 
abundant. Bluegrass {Poa alope- 
curus), cinnamon grass (Hiero- 
chloe mageUanicus), and wild cel- 
ery were recorded as covering large 
areas of the main islands. The pre- 
dominant and valuable tussock 
grass, also known as "pen- 
guin grass," had already been de- 
stroyed in many areas of East Falk- 
land by the herds of wild cattle and 
pigs originally introduced by Bou- 
gainville, but it still grew in coastal 
belts often several hundred yards in 
width. 

Today, however, there remains 
little evidence to show the original 
extent of the tussock grass on the 
main islands and many of the other 
plants are now found only in iso- 
lated areas. Taking their place are 
coarser plants, such as white grass, 
red crowberry, and ferns. 

Without doubt, the most impor- 
tant natural vegetation in the 
Falklands, both to certain sections 
of the sheep industry and as a wild- 



life habitat, is the tussock grass; yet 
this grass now survives in only a 
few isolated areas of the main is- 
lands and on some smaller offshore 
islands. From a sui-vey made in 
1970-71 of pure stands of this 
grass on offshore islands, I calcu- 
lated that probably no more than 
12,000 acres remain. 



T, 



ussock is indigenous only to 
the coastal areas of the Falklands 
and other subantarctic islands 
where there is an abundance of sea 
spray and wildlife. The grass grows 
in soils enriched by bird and seal 
excrement, and the birds in turn 
greatly rely on its rich growth as 
a habitat. More than 50 percent 
of the Falklands' breeding species 
depend, either directly or in- 
directly, on tussock grass for their 
survival. 

With the elimination of the tus- 
sock grass from the main islands, 



bird and animal life was greatly af- 
fected. Species such as the tussac 
bird, Falkland thrush, and other in- 
sect-eating birds lost valuable feed- 
ing grounds. The gray-backed storm 
petrel, which typically forms bur- 
rows in the fibrous base of the 
plants, lost much of its nesting 
territory, as did other species such 
as the sooty shearwater and the 
white-chinned petrel. As the tus- 
sock grass was killed off and ero- 
sion began, nesting burrows were 
completely exposed. I have found 
shearwater eggs in almost entirely 
open burrows, subject to destruc- 
tion by both the weather and 
predators. 

The Magellanic penguin, al- 
though affected bv the loss of tus- 
sock, was able to adapt to the 
changed environment more easily 
than other birds. Where its nesting 
burrows were exposed, the bud 
tended to move farther inland or to 
other suitable open ground. It now 
uses two types of habitat: the areas 
where tussock still remains, such as 
the smaller offshore islands and a 
few areas on the mainland, and the 
open coastal areas of the mainland. 
In the latter areas, farmers are 
faced with the problem of soil ero- 
sion caused by the burrowing of the 



3^ 




FALKLAND 
ISLANDS 




itanlej^ 



Speedwell I.: 
George 1. <^ 



The undulating interior of 
East Falkland and the other 
large islands is broken 
only by hedges bordering 
pastures and sheep farms. 
The coarse grasses of these 
landscapes contain little of 
nutritional value for cattle. 



penguin. Ironically, the bird is 
being blamed for the same problem 
man originally created when he al- 
lowed unrestricted grazing of the 
tussock. 

Where dense stands of tussock 
grass are still found, the Magel- 
lanic penguin burrows beneath the 
hummocks. Here the burrows re- 
main stable, there is no erosion, and 
the plant and bird benefit from each 
other's existence. Under natural 
conditions, both seals and bu^ds in- 
tercultivate the tussock by their 



passage between the plants. Dead 
and decaying leaves are effectively 
broken down by trampling, and ni- 
trogen-rich residues in the form of 
excreta quickly form into highly 
fertile soil. 

Notable exceptions to the de- 
struction of the tussock occur where 
the grass has been preserved by 
farmers who see it as a valuable 
feed for stock. They also appreciate 
birds like the Magellanic penguin, 
which supply valuable nutrients to 
the grass. On a few offshore island 



farms the grass is carefully fenced 
off and during the summer season, 
when the penguins nest in the tus- 
sock, stock are not allowed to feed 
on the grass. During the summer 
the plant forms a leafy growth that 
remains green throughout the win- 
ter, at which time stock are allowed 
to feed upon it. 

As sheep raising brought changes 
in the islands" vegetation, the is- 
landers' attitudes towai'd certain 
bird species also changed. Large 
numbers of upland and ruddy- 



33 



headed geese have always been a 
feature of the coastal areas, and 
since the islands were first settled, 
they have been an important meat 
source. Until the late 1800s, the 
flocks of wild geese were accepted 
as a normal part of the Falkland 
scene. But changes were taking 
place in the natural pastures. Be- 
cause sheep were allowed to graze 
without restriction, the finer grasses 
disappeared and coarser shrubs and 
white grass replaced them. Con- 
sequently, sheep depended more 
and more on the finer coastal 
"greens," including tussock, the 
natural habitat of the wild geese. 
Since 1903, farmers, viewing the 
geese as competitors of the sheep, 
have made efforts to eradicate them. 

Sheep farmers do recognize that, 
unlike the goose, the gentoo pen- 
guin creates valuable grassland. 
Preferring the more open habitat of 
the larger islands, the gentoo pen- 
guin was affected little by the dis- 
appearance of the tussock grass 
from the mainlands. This penguin 
lives gregariously in colonies that 
may number many thousands of 
pairs. Each breeding season the col- 
onies move their nesting sites— 
sometimes only a few yards from 
the previous season's site— in search 
of new nesting material. Typically 
they take coarse vegetation, which 
they pull to pieces for nest con- 
struction. Wherever a new rookery 
is made, the vegetation is usually 
completely destroyed, and at the 
close of the breeding season all that 
remains is a mat of rotting nest ma- 
terial. The soil, now rich in excreta, 
quickly grows fine grasses, and 
rarely do such areas revert to their 
former covering of shrub and fern. 
Because this finer grass is of great 
value to their stock, some farmers 
are now making efforts to conserve 
the colonies of gentoo penguins on 
their land, even to the extent of pre- 
venting the collection of their eggs. 

Predictably, with the arrival of 
man on the Falklands there came 
rats and mice. On the larger islands 
their effect on the bird life was not 
too noticeable, but where they were 
deposited on small offshore tussock 
islands, they have profoundly af- 
fected both bird life and vegetation. 
Ground-burrowing petrels vanished 
from such areas, and passerines 



were reduced to a point where cer- 
tain insects, a favorite food of pas- 
serines, are now unchecked and en- 
danger the tussock growth. 

The introduction of rabbits, 
hares, and the Patagonian fox has 
in some regions created problems. 
The fox, fortunately, was in- 
troduced only to some offshore is- 
lands, where it remains a problem 
to the sheep farmer. During the 
1930s, when it was first introduced, 
its effect on bird life was devas- 
tating. With the disappearance of 
penguin colonies and ground-nest- 
ing birds from these islands, the fox 
was forced to adapt its feeding 
habits. It took to the shores, seek- 
ing shellfish and other marine life, 
supplemented by wild fruits from 
inland areas. Such food must now 
be accepted by these animals as 
their staple diet, for on some of 
these islands bird life is increasing 
with no apparent interference from 
the fox. 



Ti 



he destruction of the tussock 
grass, and its effect on many bird 
species, was achieved over many 
years. A gradual event, it was ac- 
complished at the hand of, but not 
directly by, man. Elimination of the 
tussock meant extermination for 
some species, but it was not out- 
right butchery. Yet butchery also 
took place. Following the first set- 
tlement of the islands in 1764, 
there began a plundering of wildlife 
that continued for well over 150 
years. 

Bougainville was probably the 
first to engage in whaling and seal- 
ing about the Falklands. Other 
French opportunists followed, and 
by 1774 American whalers were 
working around the islands. A few 
years later the archipelago experi- 
enced the first major blows to its 
seal rookeries. After the near 
decimation of the northern fur seal 
colonies in the North Pacific be- 
tween 1750 and 1775, sealers be- 



gan to look for new sealing areas. 
Adventurous skippers made their 
way to the South Atlantic and dis- 
covered that the southern species of 
fur seal was a near relative to the 
northern type and of equal com- 
mercial value. 

In 1784 the first experimental 
cargo of fur seal pelts, numbering 
some 13,000, appears to have been 
taken from the Falkland Islands by 
an American vessel from Boston. 
Complete decimation of the colo- 
nies was avoided only because 
larger fur seal colonies were discov- 
ered a thousand miles to the south 
on South Georgia Island and the 
South Shetland Islands. 

One of the first sealers to work 
the islands was an American, Ed- 
mund Fanning, who on a visit in 
1792 wrote in his journal, "On our 
arrival, we learned that the seals 
were up in great numbers on some 
of the outer islands. At Beauchene 
Island, for instance, the top of a 
rock forming the northeastern head 
of the island was . . . covered with 
fur seal. There were also at the is- 
land many other American sealers." 

Today Beauchene Island, the 
most remote island in the archi- 
pelago, some forty miles offshore 
from the main Falkland group, is 
the breeding ground for millions of 
seabirds but no fur seal. This formi- 
dable island, with its towering cliffs 
and unapproachable shores, had for 
many years been the home of thou- 
sands of seals. 

In 1963 I made my first visit to 
Beauchene Island, the second land- 
ing that had been made on the is- 
land in forty years. One of my prin- 
cipal pui'poses was to search its 
rugged but short coasthne for evi- 
dence of seals. Inscriptions cut into 
the rocks by early American sealers 
and later, by local exploiters, giving 
name, date, and number of skins 
taken, point to the steady decline of 
the Beauchene rookeries. The last 
inscription, cut in 1919, probably 
bears witness to the fate of the ani- 
mals on the island. No number is 
inscribed cdter that date. Records 
show, however, that after spending 
two months on the island in that 
year, the two sealers holding li- 
censes for the region returned with 
only eleven skins, doubtless the fi- 
nal remnants of what had been one 



34 







^jllBiaiiii.K'<^--<?'j°^"^'- 




Where gentoo penguins 

nest, the richly fertilized 

soil produces thick stands 

of fine grasses. Such 

grasses are of great 

value to grazing sheep. 



Rockhopper penguins, at 

right, find various forms of 

marine life in the kelp beds 

around the islands. Kelp 

is harvested commercially 

and ground into meal as 

a dietary supplement. 




of the Falklands' largest fur seal 
colonies. 

The South Georgia and South 
Shetlands seal colonies, while 
reaching the point of near ex- 
tinction, have apparently recovered, 
and the colonies are still increasing 
in size. Although also growing 
slightlv, the Falkland herds are still 
verv small. The 13;000 seals taken 
in 1784 would represent a large 
proportion of today's total fur seal 
population on the archipelago. Sur- 



veys I made in 1965-66 indicated 
that the population at that time 
numbered some 15,000 to 16,000 
animals. 

There are two other species ol 
seals in the Falkland Islands: the 
southern sea lion and the southern 
elephant seal. In the early days the 
latter was hunted extensively for its 
oil, and by 1871 it was thought to 
be extinct in the Falklands. Over 
the last thirty years, however, this 
seal has made a dramatic comeback 



and its population is increasing. 
The sea lion population, on the 
other hand, has shown a marked de- 
cline, which in all probability has 
worsened over the last nineteen 
years. A survey of this species made 
in 1936-37 estimated the herds at 
370,000, whereas a more recent 
survey I made in 1964-66 put the 
total population at not more than 
30,000, of which no more than 
6,000 were pups. Checks of specific 
colonies made in 1970 gave little 

35 



inilicalidii nl' aii\ rliaiif^cs in llii' 
status of the species sinee 1966. 

There appears to be no cleai-cLil 
reason lor this dechne. Certainly it 
is not due to exploitation by man. 
Initially, as the more valuable fur 
seal and elephant seal became 
scarce, the sea lion was taken for its 
skin and oil. Recently, however, 
commercial exploitation of the sea 
lion has been onlv sporadic, and all 
such ventures have ended in failure 
due to the shortage of the species. 



One reason for the dcrliiu' nia\ 
be that thi- species will not tolcrair 
a great deal of human interference 
and, in certain areas, disturbance 
by sheep-farming activities may 
have had an effect on some popu- 
lations. A larger reason may be that 
the complex food chains of the seas 
have changed. Evidence of the sea 
lion preying upon the penguin, 
which is not its usual food, has in- 
creased dramatically over the years, 
but whether this is an intlication of 



a food shortage is not entircK clear. 
Elephant seal and, to a lesser ex- 
lent, fur seal populations are in- 
creasing. Because both these spe- 
cies have different feeding habits 
from those of the sea lion, food 
competition is not a cause of its de- 
cline. Perhaps disease is a reason. 
Although we may be able to control 
the exploitation of such creatures, 
we should also remain mindful of 
any natural disasters over which we 
have no control. 




I'Voiii a \ c-r\ caiU ilalc. iIm' liiit;i' 
(■(iloiiics (>r iH'iiguiiis liiuiiil ill llir 
Falklands served a uselul puiposc 
to Nvhalers and sealers. The e^j!;s of 
lliese birds became a valuable ilciii 
of diet. In his journal Edmund Fan- 
ning describes how the eggs were 
[ireserved bv immersing them in 
seal oil and then storing them in 
wooden casks. At New Island I'rcws 
ot whaling vessels devclo|)ed a busi- 
ness of collei'ting. storing, and sell- 
ing enormous numbers of penguin 



iii^ t' 



and albalr 

or til,' U\r spe, 
breeding in the ar 
are connnini and re 
est group (il birds 



) \ isiling ships. 
■s ol penguins 
lipi'lago, three 



sen! the 
the islands. 
)cklioppcr is iIk' most abini- 
danl: aerial surveys. <'oupled wiili 
groinid counts, indicate thai die 
largest single colony in the Falk- 
lands exceeds two million birds. 
Other large rockhopper colonies 
exist in the islands, and a total |iop- 
ulation of some five to six million 



The rookery of black-browed 
albatrosses on Beauchene Island 
has pushed the tussock grass 
back from the shore. The clumps 
of dirt, right foreground, are 
the remains of tussock roots. 



.7<^-: 



.fe'f^-i: 



m^^m.'>,^s^. 



rjk'K 



m 




'Qn 




im 



m 



■ tuZj 



^HftT,- 









-J^ 



m 



^ 



K^ •♦ TJ 



^ 

^ 



;i-. > 



iM^ 






J- ' at. 










The striated caracara, a 
rare hawk species, lives only 
on the Falklands and several 
islands off Cape Horn. At left, 
an adult and two juveniles 
perch on tussock clumps, 
where the species often nests. 



birds would not be an unrealistic 
figure. 

The Magellanic penguin is also 
common, with a total population es- 
timated to approach that of the 
rockhopper. Tlie third most com- 
mon penguin is the gentoo, with an 
estimated population of some 
100,000 breeding pairs. The king 
and macaroni penguins are uncom- 
mon in the Falklands; my own fig- 
ures for the former species indicate 
fewer than fifty breeding pairs. 

In about 1820 the vast penguin 
rookeries came to the attention of 
sealers as an alternative source of 
oil. The American schooner Gen- 
eral Knox, lying in the harbor of 
West Point Island, is thought to 
have been the first to take this type 
of oil to top off her barrels of seal 
oil. So started another phase in the 
exploitation of island wildlife. 

How long penguin oiling lasted 
is not clear, but it reached its height 
in 1864 when seven vessels were 
being operated by local colonists. 
The rookeries on Bird, Speedwell, 
and Arch Islands were decimated, 
and from 1864 to 1866 some 
63,000 gallons of penguin oil were 
brought into Port Stanley for ship- 
ment to London and other Euro- 
pean markets. It is generally ac- 
cepted that eight rockhopper 
penguins produced one gallon of 
oil. 

The larger gentoo penguin was 
certainly taken from areas such as 
Speedwell, Grand, and Steeple Ja- 
son Islands. On Steeple Jason Is- 
land one can stiU foUow the low 
stone walls that run for over a mile 
in length, along which gentoo pen- 
guins were herded from the sites of 
their colonies to corrals where they 
were killed. 

How many birds were destroyed 



is not known. The oilers had little 
interest in statistics, but available 
records indicate that nearly two 
million birds were required to pro- 
duce the oil obtained. Through 
wastage probably some two and a 
half million birds were killed. 

No doubt following the habit of 
sealers and whalers, the collection 
of penguin, albatross, and other 
wild bird eggs developed into a tra- 
ditional activity of the Falkland set- 
tlers. In the early days of coloniza- 
tion such eggs were recognized as 
an important item of diet and, ironi- 
cally, when a merchant dealing in 
penguin oil threatened to extermi- 
nate the rookeries in the vicinity of 
Port Stanley, Governor Moore had 
legislation enacted in 1862 to pro- 
tect the birds that "provided eggs 
so necessary to the health and com- 
fort of the inhabitants." 



On 



"n Lord Mayor's Day, the is- 
landers would by tradition start egg 
collecting with an "egging picnic." 
One of these forays resulted in the 
collection of some 13,000 eggs 
from little more than a mile of cliff. 
For the children, the spree was 
lengthened into Egging Week. Over 
the yecirs many of the rockhopper 
penguin colonies could not stand 
the strain and eventually dis- 
appeared. One such rookery, which 
lay close to Stanley, the archi- 
pelago's only town, had an esti- 
mated total of 50,000 birds. Today 
that rookery no longer exists. In 
1911, a record of 85,000 eggs was 
collected from Kidney Island; in 
1952 the result of an extensive 
search resulted in the collection of 
only 1,000 eggs. 

Egging is still an annual event, 
but it is carried out under license; 
between 1965 and 1970 an average 
of 32 licenses per year were issued 
for an average annual collection of 
39,516 eggs. It is possible that 
more eggs are collected unofficially, 
for there can be little control. The 



indication is, however, that egg col- 
lecting is not popular. Certainly 
wild bird eggs are no longer re- 
garded as an important item in the 
islander's diet. 

Despite the plundering by 
sealers and the penguin-oil indus- 
tries, the Falklands remain rich in 
bird and animal life. A fairly large 
number of island sheep farmers ar- 
gue that since the fauna has sur- 
vived man's activities for more than 
150 years, it will therefore continue 
to survive. Sheep farming has re- 
mained the only stable industry of 
the Falklands, and as such, is of un- 
disputed importance to the survival 
of the islanders. Regrettably, it is 
this one industry that presents the 
greatest threat to the future exis- 
tence of the Falklands' wildlife. 
. Over the last ten years, however, 
the islands' population has made 
considerable progress toward cor- 
recting its 150-year history of wild- 
life exploitation. In 1964 two ordi- 
nances were brought into force by 
the Falkland government: one for 
the protection of birds and animals, 
the other for the establishment of 
wildlife reserves. By the end of 
1970, seventeen sanctuaries, cov- 
ering 9,500 acres, had been set 
aside. Two of these embrace exten- 
sive areas on East Falkland. The re- 
mainder are on offshore islands that 
vary in size from 42 acres to 946 
acres. 

There are also four wildlife re- 
serves totaling 1,306 acres. Private 
acquisition of two large islands in 
the Jason Island group has added 
another 5,424 acres to the reserve 
system. In 1972 I acquired an 
8,000-acre island, which is to be es- 
tablished as another reserve. For 
such a small land mass, these steps 
are encouraging. 

For many years the islands re- 
mained remote to the outside world. 
Many of their conservation prob- 
lems were internal, but now various 
forms of pollution are reaching 
their shores. The surrounding seas 
are being opened up to the world's 
fishing fleets, a new form of ex- 
ploitation aimed at the food so 
much of the islands' bird and ani- 
mal life depends upon. It is not 
known whether the Falklands can 
face and survive another round of 
exploitation. • 

39 



.,..J 


















From Motlier 

Goddess 

to 

Disti^vasliei:* 



by Dena Justin 



Sometimes she appeal's as Cinde- 
rellas cruel stepmother, sometimes 
as Hansel and Gretel's scheming 
witch or the adulteress-queen of the 
Arabian Nights or the jealous co- 
wife in an African folktale. While 
the nuances of her role vary, her 
identity remains the same. The sur- 
rogate mother, folklore's formulaic 
agent of evil, shares a common lin- 
eage with Eve. She is a debased 
manifestation of the Great Mother 
Goddess at whose altars the ancient 
world once knelt. 

In perpetuating the calculated 
distortion by males of the female 
principle, Cinderella's stepmother 
is, I suggest, a carefully pro- 
grammed conception in a manipula- 
tive process that began thousands of 
years ago with the advent of trade 
and bronze weaponry, urbanization 
and the dynamic state. Or, as 
mythology tells it, with the triumph 
of the patriarchal deities of the sky 
cults over the matriarchal deities of 
the earth cults. Today's feminist 
manifestos inevitably fall upon ears 
made deaf by what may be the old- 
est and most effective propaganda 
campaign in human history, a cam- 
paign transmitted across the eons 
through the powerful mass media of 
mythology, cosmology, and folk- 
lore. The Brothers Grimm, Andrew 
Lang, the anonymous compilers of 
the Arabian Nights, represent only 
the latter-day pirrveyors of the mes- 



sage that successfully restructured 
the fabric of our civilization and di- 
minished women to a "second 
sex"— their identities shaped and 
their roles defined by the social and 
economic needs of men. 

The earth as Mother, the womb 
from which all living things are born 
and to which all return at death, was 
perhaps the earliest representation 
of the divine in protohistoric reli- 
gions. The Great Mother Goddess, a 
more powerful incaination of the fe- 
male principle as life-force, reigned 
over the sky, earth, and underworld, 
and revealed herself to humankind 
in the ever renewing productivity of 
the earth and the ever recurring 
rhythms of the new, full, and waning 
moon. Her subordinate male-consort 
was the young god, alternately her 
son and her lover, who died with the 
harvest and was reborn with the 
spring seed. And woman, who 
shared the prodigious magic of pro- 
creation and nurture, whose men- 
strual cycle mysteriously coincided 
with the lunar cycle, was the terrest- 
rial link in this cosmic orbit of fertil- 
ity. 

How old is the Great Mother 
Goddess, and the religious revolu- 
tion that thrust her into the back- 
ground and subjugated her sex? 
Existing mythologies are of com- 
paratively recent vintage. Whatever 
information they yield concerning 
the former soddess comes to us 



With the aid of myth and folklore, 

men fought and won the hattle of the sexes 

thousands of years ago 



41 



carefully siphoned by the male vic- 
tors. Archeology digs deeper— and 
with less bias. Nude female fig- 
urines (the Venus of Willendorf, ca. 
25,000 B.C., is the best-known ex- 
ample) appear to have been the 
earliest cult objects of humankind. 
These fertility statuettes with pen- 
dulous breasts and bulbous loins, 
carved out of bone, stone, or the 
ivory tusk of the mammoth, have 
been found in widely scattered sites 
of the Aurignacian period. Uncen- 
sored, they tell us that for our Pa- 
leolithic ancestors, the generative 
force of the universe focused in the 
female body. 

Yet even among these earliest 
races of our species, Joseph Camp- 
bell notes the evidence of a shift 
"from the vagina to the phallus, 
and perhaps too from an essentially 
plant-oriented to a purely animal- 
oriented mythology." At the rock 
shelter of Laussel, in southern 
France, and in Paleolithic camps 
from northern Spain to southeast 
Siberia, nude female figures of 
obese proportions, dating from 
about 30,000 B.C., have been found 
shattered beyond restoration. By 
the close of the Aurignacian, the 
many fertility statuettes enigmat- 
ically disappear from the European 
strata, while the hunting murals in 
the men's "temple-caves" grow 
ever more predominant, reaching 
their highest development about 
20,000 B.C., in the Magdalenian 
age. Campbell suggests a deliberate 
design by men to break the "magi- 
cal" power of women by a "con- 
sciously contrived mythology"— a 
preliminary battle in what was to 
become a continuing war of the 
sexes. "It may be," he concludes, 
"that the main idea has been not so 
much to honor God as to simplify 
life by keeping women in the 
kitchen." 

Worship of the Great Mother 
Goddess peaked during Neolithic 
times with the development of agri- 
culture by women. This newly 
found capability of influencing the 
earth's fertility and insuring the 
rebirth of the seed gave woman a 
dominant position in the economic 
and social structure of early agricul- 
tiu-al societies. As cult priestess of 
the Great Mother Goddess, she pos- 
sessed the powerful knowledge of 



magic, rainmaking, and prophecy. 
It is remarkable how many leg- 
ends survive among preliterate cul- 
tures of an earlier matriarchal pe- 
riod and a violent uprising by men 
in which they usurped female au- 
thority. Rupture from the mother, 
both biological and religious, con- 
stitutes a basic motif in male pu- 
berty rites. Among the Papuans of 
New Guinea, the initiant treads 
over his mother's belly to symbolize 
the severance. Although in some so- 
cieties initiation rites entail no 
more than the means to clan mem- 
bership, in others, the ordeals of 
such rites often represent a spiritual 
journey into a higher state of being. 
To achieve his integration into the 
community of men, the novice must 
undergo ritual death in the mater- 
nal "profane universe" and be re- 
born into the paternal "sacred uni- 
verse." This mystic dichotomy— the 
maternal as profane and the pater- 
nal as sacred— follows an archaic 
and worldwide pattern. In the 
enactment of the rites, the adoles- 
cent male is often subjected to ho- 
mosexual practices by his elders, 
perhaps to condition him to scorn 
women and fear the female gen- 
italia, depicted as the "toothed va- 
gina." There are societies, however, 
where homosexuality occurs be- 
cause women are considered sacred 
and inviolable. 



X^. myth of the Selk'nam of 
Tierra del Fuego provides an illumi- 
nating preface to the rites. In the 
beginning the sorceress moon 
woman, Kra, taught women to 
dominate men through terror, trans- 
forming themselves into spirits by 
the use of masks. But the sun man, 
Kran, learned the secret and re- 
vealed it to the men. They promptly 
killed the women, sparing only the 
girls, and to legitimatize their seiz- 
ure of power, they took over the 
masks and the magic. According to 
Leo Frobenius, the nineteenth-cen- 
tury anthropologist, this type of in- 
surrection underlies the formation 
of all male secret societies in pre- 
literate cultures: the societies of the 
masks were an outgrowth of mat- 



riarchy, organized by men to main- 
tain their control. 

Literate societies have been more 
cryptic in dealing with the proto- 
historic struggle between the sexes. 
They have either cloaked it in 
mythological imagery or ignored it. 
The universe begins from a tension 
of moral opposites, defined by 
Pythagoras as the good principle, 
which created order, light, and 
man, and the evil principle, which 
created chaos, darkness, and 
woman. The form that this mi- 
sogynist doctrine takes in mythol- 
ogy and scriptural writings mani- 
fests a systematic division into three 
parts. 

First, there is the myth of the 
male as sole genitor, which would 
appear to bear out Eric Fromm's 
contention that the antagonism be- 
tween men and women arose from 
pregnancy-envy, not penis-envy. To 
oust women from their position of 
power and esteem, it was not 
enough for the paternal gods to de- 
pose the Great Mother Goddess 
throughout her vast domain, to take 
over her shrines, to shatter her im- 
ages, to fragment her prerogatives. 
These were only peripheral ele- 
ments of her hold on her wor- 
shipers. As bearer and nurturer of 
progeny, woman's focal role in fam- 
ily, tribe, and race survival was ob- 
vious. In order to achieve religious, 
social, and economic supremacy, 
man had to strike at the source of 
her pre-eminence, her biological 
role in procreation. 

Mary Jane Sherfey has recently 
reported on "the best-kept secret in 
the history of biology": the recogni- 
tion in the 1940s that all mamma- 
lian embryos are initially female, 
and that the penis is an enlarged 
clitoris. Mythologically speaking, 
the ancients scooped our modern- 
day biologists by unknown thou- 
sands of years in their recognition 
of the female principle as the pri- 
mal creative force. And they too 
buried the truth, restructuring the 
myths to accommodate male ideol- 
ogy. 

Both the old and the revised the- 
ory of creation, disavowing the fe- 
male principle, appear first in Su- 
mer, the Mesopotamian matrix of 
culture from 3500 to 1750 B.C. 
Samuel Noah Kramer affirms that 



42 



the Suiucrian.s rt'i;;n(lc(l llir |iiinic- 
\al sea as "a kind of lirst causi' ami 
prime mover." From iiis sliulics ol 
llie cuneiform texts, he has estab- 
lished that liie Siimerians consid- 
ered Nammu, the ijoddess of the 
primeval sea. as the primal iicner- 
ative force of the universe, the cos- 
mic mother who i!;ave birth to the 
male An, representing heaven, and 
the female Ki, representing earth. 
Thev in turn parented Enlil, the air 
god, who sep;u-ated the two and, 
uniting with his mother, completed 
the organization of the world. 

The Babvlonian creation epic, 
Eniima Elisli. dating from the earlv 
part of the second millennium B.C., 
and like most Mesopotamian nivths 
derived from Sumerian prototvjX'S. 
shows signihcant alterations. The 
poem casts Marduk, the Babylonian 
Enlil, as the primordial genitor who 
brings forth the universe and all it 
encompasses bv the divine force of 
his word. But the creation is, in ac- 
tuality, a re-creation, which takes 
place only after a cosmic battle be- 
tween Order and Chaos. The victo- 
rious Marduk-Enlil represents Or- 
der. The vanquished Tiamat, the 
Babvlonian Nammu, goddess of the 
primeval sea, incarnates Chaos. 
Marduk fashions the new heaven 
and earth out of Tianiat's severed 
body. 

From Egypt's earliest docu- 
ments, written about 3000 B.C., 
Rudolph Anthes has concluded that 
in prehistoric times the Egyptians 
also conceived the primeval sea as 
the ultimate generative principle. 
Out of the sea arose the primeval 
earth hill, a svmbol of the womb, 
akin to the Greek omphalos stone, 
the sacred navel. A female divinity 
was envisaged as the cow in the pri- 
mordial waters, and eventually 
identified in historic times with Ha- 
thor, the cow-goddess. Egyptian art 
depicts Hathor as the "waters of the 
sky," in the form of a cow: her 
body the starry firmament, her legs 
the four C[uarters of the horizon. 
Her role as primal creator, how- 
ever, is appropriated by the god 
Atum, who, rising out of the earth 
hill, mythically initiates the divine 
genealogy by masturbation. When 
Memphis was established as capitol 
of Upper and Lower Egypt during 
the First Dynasty, the Memphite 



llieologians proclaimed llicir male 
palron-goil. I'lali. (he lirsl |irinii|ilc. 
I'lah c()ncei\cd llii- inii\eisi' and all 
therein li\ the (li\ ine force of his 
lieail and longue. (he archaic FgV|)- 
liaii c(|ui\alcnls lui' mind and 
speech. 

When uc reach the Old Testa- 
nienl. llic leniale |)rinci|)lc has dis- 
appeared Irom the genesis of the 
universe. Indeed, woman herself 
becomes a supplement to the male 
issue. God fashions Eve, the Mother 
of All Living, from Adam's rib. 
Even her name attests to the de- 
meaning nature of her origin. The 
Old Testament says ". . . she shall 
be called woman, because she was 
taken from man." She is a lesser 
being, "a misbegotten female . . . 
made in the image of man, not 
God," declares Thomas Aquinas. 



H 



.esiod, the Greek mythogra- 
pher, relates that in the beginning 
there was Chaos, and then wide- 
bosomed Gaia, Earth, came into 
being, the ever immovable source of 
all the gods. Nevertheless, Athene, 
a former Great Mother Goddess, ac- 
quiescing to the demands of Olym- 
pian patriarchal mythology, 
emerges full-grown and helmeted 
from Zeus's head. "No mother bore 
me for her child," she states un- 
equivocally. The Greeks, who 
prided themselves on their devotion 
to knowledge by rational pursuit, 
felt constrained to buttress this 
blessed event with biological argu- 
ment. Apollo, the god of reason 
himself, presents the physiological 
basis in Aeschylus' Eumenides: 
"The mother of what is termed the 
child is not its parent, but only the 
nurse of the newly impregnated 
seed." 

Despite a timeless and exalted 
tradition of matrilinear succession 
to the throne, and the high status of 
Egyptian women throughout an- 
tiquity, Egypt echoed this dogma. 
"They [the Egyptians] maintain 
that the father is the sole author of 
procreation," Diodorus Siculus 
writes. "The mother only supplies 
the fetus with nourishment and a 
place to live; and they call the trees 



Ihal bear Iruil 'male' and liiosc that 
(III not 'female' 

Having established, through holy 
uril. both creation and reproduc- 
tion as the unique endowment of 
the male principle, the second ob- 
jective of male strategy— the sub- 
ordination of women in the social 
and economic spheres— would be 
comparatively simple to execute. 
Who shall dispute what the gods 
have willed? In Greece women were 
deprived of their political and social 
authority, not by the connivance of 
self-seeking men, but as the con- 
sequence of Olympian design. 
Athene, the "lost leader," defeats 
Poseidon, the sea god, for tu- 
telary control of Athens, but yields 
to male pressure. Descent will 
henceforth be patrilinear, not matri- 
linear. Children will no longer be 
called by their mother's name, but 
by their father's. Women will be 
disenfranchised and deprived of 
citizenship. Apollo seizes the oracle 
of prophecy and law-giving at Del- 
phi from the earth-goddess whose 
domain it has been since the begin- 
ning of time. Here, where the om- 
phalos stone, awesome symbol of 
the universal Mother, marked the 
earth's center, Apollo inscribes the 
precept of the new order: "Keep 
women under rule." 

In the Old Testament God in- 
forms Eve ". . . and thy desire 
shall be to thy hasband, and he 
shall rule over thee." Saint Paul de- 
clares the husband is the head of 
the wife even as Christ is the head 
of the church. And Thomas 
Aquinas defines woman's subjec- 
tion as the result of sin: 'Therefore 
it was decreed that she shall be un- 
der men's power." The Koran, too, 
states that "men are superior to 
women because of the qualities in 
which God has given them pre-emi- 
nence. " 

The Brahman juridical code, the 
Laws of Manu, proclaim that a 
woman may never act indepen- 
dently. In childhood she must be 
subject to her father, in youth to 
her husband, and when her lord has 
died, to her sons. "Even though her 
husband is totally devoid of virtue, 
or seeks pleasure elsewhere, he 
must nevertheless be worshiped as a 
god." The Jain Yogi is told that 
women cannot attain Nirvana be- 

43 



cause they are incapable of self-con- 
trol. Deceitfulness is as natural to 
them as teaching the law, to sages. 

The coup de grace in this system- 
atic decimation of the female image 
is the mythos of woman as the de- 
stroyer of mankind, prime cause of 
Paradise Lost, precipitator of the 
Fall, begetter of all evils. The bro- 
ken texts relating the Sumerian 
flood story make it difficult to assess 
the role of the mother-goddess, 
Nintu, or the love-goddess, Inanna, 
in the oldest recorded destruction 
of humankind by divine retribution. 
But Egyptian mythology leaves no 
room for doubt concerning Ha- 
thor's role. The solar deity, Re, 
king of gods and men, learning that 
the people are plotting evil, dis- 
patches Hathor, the cow-goddess, to 
punish them. She does so thorough 
a job that when night falls, the 
blood of her victims has inundated 
the desert. Re. appalled at the pros- 
pect of humanity's extinction, or- 
ders his servants to cover the fields 
with seven thousand gallons of beer 
mixed with red ocher. When Ha- 
thor returns at dawn to complete 
her grisly task, her heart fills with 
joy as she perceives the blood -red 
expanse. The irony of it— Hathor, 
the gentle cow-goddess who suckles 
the Pharaohs and nurtures the en- 
tire universe with her life-giving 
milk, whose eternal bounty over- 
flows into the Milky Way. Now her 
reflected face grows radiant as she 
slakes her heinous thirst for human 
blood. The goddess becomes in- 
ebriated by the beer, according to 
plan, and reels back to heaven, her 
monstrous mission unaccomplished. 
The ingenuity and compassion of 
the father god, Re, has saved hu- 
manity. 

Man's tragic expulsion from 
Eden, all our earthly travail, we 
owe to Eve. She, the Mother of All 
Living, ate the forbidden fruit, 
tempted Adam, and precipitated 
the Fall. It was then that they saw 
their nakedness, then that woman 
and sexuality became the formula 
for sin. Tertullian denounces her as 
the devil's doorway, one who 
should always go in mourning and 
in rags to expiate her wickedness. 

The ancient Greeks, too, in- 
vested woman with the guilt for 
human suffering and misfortune. 



Pandora, whose name means "all 
gifts," the beneficent source of na- 
ture's largesse, is one of the earliest 
of the Hellenic earth-goddesses. He- 
siod's patriarchal genealogy of the 
gods refashions her into a creature 
of clay, a wily seductress, who en- 
snares men by her beauty and 
brings gifts of sorrow to human- 
kind. Goaded by the willful dis- 
obedience and insatiable curiosity 
that characterize women in male an- 
nals. Pandora opens the gods' for- 
bidden jar and unleashes lust, 
plague, vice, and toil, all the mani- 
fold woes of human existence. For- 
tunately, the shrewd Olympians, 
knowing women, had also put hope 
into the fateful jar. Thus we mortals 
are not totally bereft. 

The Great Mother Goddess has 
been toppled from her throne, her 
role as cosmic genitor effectively 
erased from the world's cosmog- 
onies. The reason for woman's sub- 
ordinate status and "natural" infe- 
riority has been unequivocally es- 
tablished through the omniscient 
word of the divine or secular ex- 
planations of the divine intent. 



F„ 



olklore provides an ingenious 
capstone. Sigmund Freud was the 
first to observe that the symbology 
of myth and dream are the same, a 
common language of the subcon- 
scious spoken by all people the 
world over since the dawn of his- 
tory. Folktales employ this same 
symbolism, channeling the subcon- 
scious fears of childhood — of separa- 
tion, loss of love— into the realm of 
nightmare. The mother who loves, 
nurtures, and protects all her chil- 
dren, impartially, becomes the cruel 
stepmother, the plotting queen, the 
wicked fairy, the varied surrogate 
mother figures subsumed by folk- 
lore into "the witch." It is her pow- 
ers of sorcery that turn Prince 
Charming into a lion, a dove, a 
swan, a crab, a frog. The giants and 
dragons who bedevil hero and her- 
oine are also creatures of the earth 
mother. The giants, derived from 
the Greek gigantes, were born from 
Gaia, the earth-goddess. It was they 
who attempted, unsuccessfully, to 



overthrow the Olympians. 

Prince Charming, like the Meso- 
potamian Gilgamesh, the Hellenic 
Hercules and Perseus, and Maui, 
the Maori hero of Polynesian myth, 
must surmount the supernatural 
challenges of initiation in order to 
break the sorceress' hold and live 
happily ever after with the princess. 
The heroine of the fairy tale is 
sometimes the self-effacing, hearth- 
tending Cinderella or Snow White. 
More often, she is the pampered, 
self-centered "little princess," who 
feels the pressure of a pea under 
twenty mattresses. It is she who 
usually lengthens the prince's 
thralldom and their mutual suffer- 
ing by disobeying his orders or by 
yielding to her insatiable curiosity. 

So subtly have our nerve ends 
been twisted against our own reason 
that we accept the resolution of the 
Arabian Nights as a routine happy 
ending. The virtuous and talented 
Scheherazade has won her reward. 
She will share the bed of a psy- 
chotic sex-killer forever after. The 
sultan who rapes a different maiden 
nightly and murders her at dawn 
has become Prince Charming. 

Although the witch, incarnate or 
in surrogate mother disguise, re- 
mains a universal bogey, pejorative 
aspects of the wizard, her masculine 
counterpart, have vanished over the 
patriarchal centuries. The term wiz- 
ard has acquired reverential 
status — wizard of finance, wizard of 
diplomacy, wizard of science. 

A compassionate king named 
Urukagina, reigning in the Sume- 
rian city-state of Lagash about 2350 
B.C., instituted sweeping reforms to 
liberate his people from oppression 
by thieving bureaucrats and venal 
priests. Concerning these reforms, 
Kramer states that "we find the 
word 'freedom" used for the first 
time in man's recorded history; the 
word is amargi, which, as has been 
recently pointed out by Adam Fal- 
kenstein, means literally 'return to 
the mother.' However, we still do 
not know why this figure of speech 
came to be used for freedom." Per- 
haps Urukagina remembered a time 
when the motive force of human 
society was matriotism, concern for 
the individual, for the flesh-and- 
blood family, and this to him sym- 
bolized freedom. * 



44 



(^sywj-jrtj— *" ««*^ 





BARNUMlAillirXHUTCHINSONCllALLENGETHE WORLD INSlOO,000,00.that 



jX. 



46 



Phineas T. Barnunxi's 
Cliarmiixg Beast 

by Harvey A. Ardman 



The elephant that introduced jumbo into our language 

was also the center of one of the greatest disputes 
between England and America since the War of 1812 



On Monday. April 10, 1882, nine thousand people, 
most of them children, crowded into New York's 
Madison Square Garden to see a performance of the 
recently merged Barnuni and Bailey circus. Three 
thousand more were stranded outside, unable to get 
tickets. The crowd had come to see what that beloved 
old humbug, Phineas Taylor Barnum, had promised 
would be the greatest wonder he had eyer displayed: 
"the largest elephant in or out of captivity," the 
world-famous Jumbo. They were not disappointed. 

After the delays typical of a grand entrance, the 
band struck up a tune and the crowd's attention was 
directed to a door on the building's performance floor. 
Soon the giant animal appeared, led by his keeper of 
many years, Matthew Scott. The audience stared in 
disbelief. The newspaper stories had said Jumbo was 
large, but none of the spectators had ever seen a crea- 
ture this size. Barnum claimed that Jumbo stood 12 
feet high at the shoulder, weighed 10'/2 tons, and mea- 
sured 26 feet long, including his trunk. But being a 
showman, Barnum often exaggerated. More reliable 
sources indicate that the elephant stood 11 feet at the 
shoulder and weighed 6V2 tons. 

As the elephant began to move, his small eyes 
blinking, his enormous ears flapping, the crowd broke 
into prolonged applause. Urged on by his keeper. 
Jumbo ambled around the circus' three rings, his great 
head swinging from side to side. As the crowd threw 
handfuls of candy and nuts toward him. Jumbo would 
stop, reach down with his trunk to pick up a helping 
of goodies, shove them into his mouth, then stride ma- 
jestically on. After completing a circuit of the audito- 
rium, he would disappear through the same door by 
which he had entered. 

For the next three and a half years. Jumbo repeated 
his performance scores of times, for what Barnum said 
was a total of 9 million Americans. 

No one knows exactly where Jumbo was born, but 



when he was captured in Central Africa, probably in 
1861, he was a baby, only about four feet high. After 
being taken to the African coast by riverboat, he was 
sold to an animal collector, who in turn sold him to the 
Jardin des Plantes, the Paris zoo, with assurances that 
he would quickly turn into a monster. But African ele- 
phants only grow about five inches a year. By 1865, 
with Jumbo still well under six feet in height, the Jar- 
din des Plantes gave up on him and traded him to the 
Royal Zoological Gardens in London for a rhinoceros. 

For the Royal Zoological Society, Jumbo was a mar- 
velous acquisition. Because he was the first African 
elephant to be brought to England alive, there was 
great excitement when he arrived in London on June 
26, 1865. Three months later, he was joined in the 
Royal Zoological Gardens by another African ele- 
phant, a female named Alice. 

For sixteen years Jumbo was one of the zoo's prime 
attractions. During that time a million and a quarter 
children, including the offspring of most of the 
crowned heads of Europe," rode in the howdah 
strapped to his broad back. Tlieodore Roosevelt saw 
Jumbo when he visited England, and the young Win- 
ston Churchill had his picture taken with the animal. 

"Jumbo," wrote Harper's Weekly at the time, "was 
a universal favorite, as gentle with children as the 
best-trained poodle-dog, taking the proferred biscuit or 
lump of sugar with an almost incredible delicacy of 
touch, so that the most nervous child, having once 
overcome his alarm, never hesitated to hand a morsel 
to the waving trunk a second time." 

Yet as Jumbo approached his seventeenth year of 
residency at the London zoo, it became clear that all 
was not well with him. He was entering the musth, a 
difficult period common to male elephants. Even now, 
the musth is not well understood, but it appears to be 
related to sexual development. As male elephants 
reach maturity, two small glands, located between the 

47 




Jumbo readily accepted handouts. 



eyes and the mouth, exude a bitter, tarlike substance. 
Some experts beHeve that the substance, rubbed off on 
trees, signals female elephants that mating is desired. 
Occasionally, elephants become sexually aggressive in 
their musth period. 

Whatever its biological function, the musth lasts 
from one week to five months, and during this period 
the elephant is angry and irritable. If it is in captivity, 
it may become unmanageable. In late 1881, in the 
midst of his musth. Jumbo acted up, doing consid- 
erable damage to his stall. His howdah was put away, 
and for the next few months. Jumbo was kept away 
from the public. As a result of Jumbo's restlessness, 
Abraham Bartlett, the zoo superintendent, wrote to the 
Zoological Society's council to express his concern. 

I have for some time past felt very uncomfortable 
with reference to this fine animal, now quite, or 
nearly quite adult, and my fear of him is also enter- 
tained by all the keepers except Matthew Scott, who 
is the only man in the Gardens who dares enter this 
animal's den alone. I have no doubt whatever that 
the animal's condition has at times been such that 
he would kill anyone (except Scott) who would ven- 
ture alone into his den, but up to the present time, 
Scott has had, and still has, the animal perfectly and 
completely under his control. At the same time, I 
consider that the matter is of so serious a nature 
that I feel called upon to draw the attention of the 
Council to the subject, for in the event of illness or 
accident to the keeper (Scott) I fear I should have to 
ask permission to destroy the animal, as no other 
keeper would undertake the management of this 
fine but dangerous beast. In conclusion, I may ask 
that I should be provided with, and have ready at 
hand, the means of killing this animal, should a ne- 
cessity arise. 

It was the right moment for an agent of Barnum's to 
approach Bartlett and ask for how much the zoo would 
sell the beast. Today it is not entirely clear who took 



tiic iiiiliativ<', but through iiis agent, Barnuin ofli'red 
£2,000 (at tiial time equal to $10,000) for Junil.o. and 
Bartlett quickly accepted. 

The wav a London newspaper lold the story, how- 
ever, the zoo superintendent had no idea that 
Barnum's agent was serious about the offer. But soon 
after the conversation, Barnum's check arrived at the 
zoo and the agent asked to take possession of the ele- 
phant. The newspaper account went on: "The cheque 
dazzles the secretary and the council. They look at it, 
thev dream about it; they neglect to send it back; they 
keep it too long and then find out thev have legally ac- 
cepted the price placed upon poor Jumbos head." 

Of course, there had been more to the transaction 
than that. There was a signed contract between 
Barnum and the Royal Zoological Society, which 
stipulated that Jumbo "be taken as he stands." result- 
ing, as we shall see, in complications. 

At any rate, within a day or two after Barnum's 
bank draft arrived in London on February 16, 1882, 
the news of Jumbo's sale became public knowledge 
and all hell broke loose. London went Jumbo-crazy. 
Hundreds of letters mourning the sale of the elephant 
poured into the newspapers. Children collected pen- 
nies to buy him back. Romantic Britishers protested 
that the sale would separate Jumbo from Alice, who 
they claimed was his "wife." Actually, according to 
the most reliable sources, the two were rather indiffer- 
ent to one another, even during Jtimbo's musth. 

The London Standard compared the act of separat- 
ing Jumbo from his British public to that of a southern 
slaveowner selling the members of a slave family sepa- 
rately at auction. "Surely, to tear this aged brute from 
a home to which he is attached, and from associates 
who have so markedly displayed their affection for 
him, is scarcely less cruel. " In his autobiography, P.T. 
Barnum wrote that 

an excitement prevailed and increased throughout 
Great Britain, which, for a cause so comparatively 
trivial, has never had a parallel in any civilized 
country. The newspapers, from the London Times 
down, daily thundered anathemas against the sale, 
and their columns teemed with communications 
from statesmen, noblemen, and persons of dis- 
tinction, including Queen Victoria and the Prince 
of Wales, advising that the bargain should be bro- 
ken at all risk and promising that the money would 
be contributed by the British public to pay any 
damages which might be awarded. ... I received 
scores of letters from ladies and children, beseech- 
ing me to let Jumbo remain and to name what dam- 
ages I required and they should be paid. 

All England seemed to run mad about Jumbo. 
Pictures of Jumbo, the life of Jumbo, a pamphlet 
headed "Jumbo-Barnum" and all sorts of Jumbo 
stories and poetry. Jumbo hats. Jumbo collars. 
Jumbo cigars, Jumbo neckties. Jumbo fans and 
Jumbo polkas were sold by the tens of thousands in 
the stores and streets of London and other British 
cities. 

"Meanwhile," Barnum went on, "the London cor- 



n^spondcnts ol ihc Icadiiiji Aiiicricaii ncw^paitcrs ca- 
bled columns upon ihc subject, dcsciibiiii!; ibe senli- 
nicnlal jumbo cra/.c wldch had seized upon Great 
Biilaiu. These facts stirred up excitement in the 
I nited States and the American newspapers and 
siores ul letters sent to me daih uri;e(l mc not to give 
up Jumbo."" 

The drama reached its peak on Februar\ 22, when 
the editor of the London Daily Telegraph, Sir John 
.Merr\ Le Sase, cabled Barnum: ""Editor's com- 



psco Baking Po^,^, 

yjK^ PUREST CHEAPEST BEST. "^CJ 




pliments; all British children distressed at elephant's 
departure; hundreds of correspondents beg us to in- 
quire on what terms you wiU kindly return Jumbo." 
Barnum's reply arrived in London the next day and 
was printed in the paper: 

My compliments to Editor, Daily Telegraph, and 
British nation. Fifty-one millions of American citi- 
zens anxiously awaiting Jumbo"s arrival. My forty 
years' invariable practice of exhibiting the best that 
money could procure makes Jumbo"s presence here 



iniperalise. Ilundicd thousand pounds would be no 
inducement to cancel purchase. 

In December next, I visit Australia in person 
with Jumbo and my entire mammoth combination 
of seven shows, via California, thence through the 
.Suez Canal. Following summer to London. 1 shall 
then exhibit in every prominent city in Great Brit- 
ain. May afterwards return Jumbo to his old posi- 
tion in Royal Zoological Gardens. Wishing long life 
and prosperity to the British nation, the Daily Tele- 
graph and Jumbo. 1 am the public's obedient ser- 
vant, P.T. Barnum. 

The paper printed the telegram and under it com- 
mented, "Jumbo's fate is sealed. His mighty heart will 
probably break with rage, shame and grief; and we 
may hear of him, like another Sampson [sic], playing 
the mischief with the Philistines who have led him into 
captivity and dying amid some scene of terrible wrath 
and ruin." 

Tlie fuss over Jumbo continued, however, and the 
newspapers printed many more letters and poems 




S.;# 






about the animal. One was a poem by Lord Win- 
chelsea: 

But since in England's fallen state. 

She owns two things supremely great, 

Jumbo and Gladstone (each we find 

The most prodigious of their kind) 

And one won't budge. Then, Barnum make 

A fair exchange, for quiet's sake! 

Take the Right Honorable and go! 

He'll make the better raree show! 

Leave Jumbo! 

Eventually, the pressure was so great that the zoo 
trustees tried to break the contract through legal ac- 
tion. Berkeley Hill, a fellow of the Royal Zoological 
Society, asked the court for an injunction against the 
sale. He, together with the other trustees, held that the 



49 




^^^Sr B£ST. 



OWMBffS VIOLIN SOLD. 



Society had no right to sell "any article valuable for 
the study of natural history." But the hearing, which 
lasted two days, revealed that the Society had sold ani- 
mals before, in particular a gnu for $750. Con- 
sequently, the judge ruled that the sale was legal and 
binding. 

Barnum soon discovered that it was one thing to 
own Jumbo but quite another to get him to the United 
States. And according to the contract, the zoo was not 
obliged to help. 

To carry Jumbo across the Atlantic, Barnum had 




PATAPSCO 

BAKING POW&ER 

PUREST CHEAPEST BEST 



UCHRE »v'. 



modified a steamer, the Assyrian Monarch. To quiet 
those concerned with the animal's comfort and well- 
being, he wrote that 

the berth prepared for the elephant is down the sec- 
ond hatchway from the bows, where the pitching of 
the vessel will not be greatly felt. There is no room 



for him amidships, as the saloons and first-class cab- 
ins are there placed, and the after-decks are being 
fitted up for some 400 emigrants, mostly Jews from 
Russia, who are about to seek their better fortune in 
the land of the West. The elephant cage will stand 
upon the steerage deck; and it will rise through the 
hatch of the main-deck to the upper deck, where ex- 
cept in rough water, it will be open to light and air. 
The area assigned to it is about 20 feet by 15 feet 
and there will be a clear height of 18 feet. The ani- 
mal will thus see and be seen by the people on three 
decks and will be in no want of company. 

Barnum did not mention that the elephant would 
displace about 200 emigrants on the trip. 

The day before Jumbo was to leave the zoo, he re- 
ceived a large box of poisoned biscuits from an anony- 
mous source. It was a sadistic gesture, perhaps sug- 
gesting a desire that Jumbo remain in England— dead 
or alive. Jumbo took one sniff, however, and turned 
away from the treat. 

On the appointed day of departure. Jumbo's keeper, 



f0APSCO Baj^ii^q PoyfVt^ f""'^'' ""^^^Esx 1 




lAte^- 



Matthew Scott, led him out of the zoo and started him 
on the nine-mile walk to the Milwall docks on the 
Thames. But when the zoo gate closed behind him, the 
huge animal stopped short, trumpeted, and lay down 
in the street. To some of the crowd that had gathered 
to wish him farewell, Jumbo's trumpeting sounded like 
cries of grief at being forced to leave his home and Al- 
ice. Their hearts went out to him. 

Barnum later wrote, "My agent, dismayed, cabled 
me, 'Jumbo has laid down in the street and won't get 
up. What shall we do?' 

"I replied, 'Let him lie there a week if he wants to. 
It is the best advertisement in the world.' " 

But 24 hours later, the zoo gates were reopened and 
Jumbo immediately lurched to his feet and lumbered 



50 




Exxon explorers search 
for oil and gas around the 
world— the odds are 
usually agamst them. 

Drilling a single exploratory well 
can take more than a year. It can 
mean moving iiundreds of tons of 
equipment to the high Arctic or 
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they drill that rare well that opens 
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In the U.S. the Exxon explorers 
search from coast to coast and be- 
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shelf. They are drilling on every 
continent, with recent successes in 
Alaska, Australia, Canada, Flor- 
ida, and in the North Sea off 
Scotland. 

As a result of these efforts Exxon 
has over 20,000 oil- and gas-pro- 
ducing wells in the United States 
and another 7,000 abroad. 



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is moving 4.5 biUion gallons 
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lEJ^ON 




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J. K. Jamieson 

Chairman, 

Exxon Corporation 



C. C. Garvin, Jr. 

President, 

Exxon Corporation 




KE R R S S PO L COTTON . 

. . ^- ■'■'.■■■ . ; ■ .... y,. ■ . '^' ■ 




back inside. Barnuni's agents then set about figuring 
how to get the beast to the docks by some means other 
than his own power. 

What they came up with was a cage on wheels with 
doors at each end. One night they placed this con- 
traption at the door of Jumbo's stall, sinking its wheels 
into the ground so that its floor was level with that of 
the elephant house. After some initial suspicion, 
Jumbo walked through the tunnellike cage to take his 
daily stroll outdoors. 

Jumbo soon became accustomed to the new cage, 
and one dav as he slowly walked through it, Barnums 
agents slammed both doors shut. Jumbo tried to smash 
through the cage, hurling his body first against one 
wall, then the other. He stuck his trunk through the 
bars and tried to pull them apart. 

Scott, whom Barnum had hired to care for Jumbo in 
America, tried to calm him while Barnum's agents 
brought up a 40-horse team. It was going to be quite a 
haul, since, together, the elephant and the cage 
weighed 12 tons. 

Three hours after it started out, the cage arrived at 
dockside, having passed along a crowd-lined route. A 



slcani crane lillcd il onto a wailing liargc, which 
moved oul to meet the Assyrian Monarch. There, a 
block and tackle lifted the cage— and the elephant 
within— inio the section thai had been reserved for it. 

"The Society for tiie Prevention of Cruelty to Ani- 
mals hovered over Jumbo to the last," Barnum wrote, 
"and tilled ladies and little children brought to the 
siii|) baskets of dainties for Jumbo's consumption dur- 
ing the voyage." 

Fifteen days later, after a rough crossing during 
which the elephant was sick for at least two days, the 
Assyrian Monarch arrived in New York City on Eas- 
ter Sunday, April 9, 1882. A team of horses pulled 
Jumbo's cage up Broadway to Madison Square Gar- 
den, while thousands of New Yorkers watched in awe. 

Once on exhibit, "he created such a sensation," 
wrote Barnum, "that in the next two weeks, the 
receipts in excess of the usual amount more than re- 
paid us the $30,000 his purchase and removal had 
cost us." In Jumbo's first 31-week season, Americans 
spent $1,750,000 to see him. 





JU'-IBOb VACAT OS 



To be fair. Jumbo wasn't the only reason people 
flocked to the show. Barnum and Bailey had assem- 
bled an array of outstanding attractions, including, at 
one time or another. General Tom Tliumb, the midget; 
an eight-foot Chinese giant named Chang Wu Sing; the 
two "wild men" of Borneo (actually Hiram and 
Barney Davis of Long Island); Chang and Eng, the 
original Siamese twins, who between them had 21 
children; and the Fiji Mermaid (actually the em- 
balmed upper half of a monkey joined to the lower 
half of a fish). 

But Jumbo was the circus' greatest attraction. 
Barnum advertised him as "huger in his proportions 
than the monster which Ptolemaeus states was brought 
by Caesar to Britain in 54 B.C. and terrified the in- 
habitants greatly and probably more colossal than the 

55 



• V f/^ PUREST CHEAPEST BEST. *'C,f 




JUMBO AT LUNCH 



side, thiiii measure the ilistaiicc Iroiii these marks to 
the floor." 

According to Sanderson, there is one other wav to 
estimate an elephant's height— bv measuring tlic cir- 
cumference of his forefoot and mulliplving bv two in 
the case of Asiatic elephants, or bv two plus 10 per- 
cent in the case of African bush loxodonts, the ele- 
phant genus to which Jumbo belonged. 

As it happens, we do have an accurate measurement 
of Jumbo's forefoot. During the Jumbo excitement, Joe 
Howard, the London correspondent ibr the Phila- 
delphia Times wrote that Jumbo's feet were 20 inches 
in diameter, too large for an old-fashioned ottoman. 
That works out to 62.8 inches in circumference, or, 
using Sanderson's formula, 11 feet .5 inches in height. 



'elephant of enormous size' which was presented by 
the King of France [Louis IX] to Henry HI of 
England in 1255." 

"Jumbo," Bai-num said, "is today the largest known 
animal that walks the earth and manv well-informed 
persons believe he is as large as the mastodon of by- 
gone ages." 

For once in his life, perhaps, Barnum wasn't exag- 
gerating, at least not much. Contemporary sources 
tend to agree that Jumbo was the largest elephant ever 
seen up to that time in anv zoo or ciicus. Barnum's fig- 
ures for Jumbo's height and weight are hard to prove, 




Vl*^ PURE! 



Baking Pc 







JJKBO AT THE BAR. 



however, since he never allowed his prize to be care- 
fully measured by any disinterested parties. 

Measuring the height of an elephant is no easy 
trick. Ivan T. Sanderson in his book Dynastv of Abu 
suggests that the only way to accurately measure the 
height of an elephant is to "have the animal stand on 
firm ground in a doorway, lower a bar with a spirit- 
level on it till it just rests on the elephant's back, mark 
where the beam touches the door uprights on either 

56 . 



We shall probablv never know Jumbo's exact 
height. It is impossible, Sanderson savs, to accurately 
measure the height of dead elephants, since the weight 
of the body pushes the supple shoulder blades upward 
at the spot of greatest height in an African elephant, 
the shoulders. Asiatic elephants are tallest approxi- 



nialclv amidships, sinrc. unlike llic Alricaii \arii>tv, 
tht'v are slighlU liunipbaeked. 

Although a \erv larjje t^lephanl, juiiihii was nol ihe 
huiiest ever seen. In tlie eailv lyOOs, Major }*owell- 
( lotion sliot one in AlViea that, bv various measure- 
ments made after its deatli, was thought to he 12 feet 6 
int'hes high at the shoulder. Then, in 1955 .J. J. Feny- 
kovi shot an elephant in the Cuando River region of 
Southwest Africa that, after its death, measured 13 
feet 2 inches at the shoulder and weighed 12 tons. 
I^ater estimates of the elephant's weight, however, 
place it at 8 tons. That specimen was given to the 
Smithsonian Institution, where it went on public view 
in 1959. These are both postmortem measurements, 
but, even given some inaccuracy, both seem to surpass 
Jumbo in size. In 1882, however, when Barnum 
claimed that Jumbo was the largest elephant "in or out 
of capti\il\."' he had every reason to believe he was 
right. 

To provide Jumbo with company, as well as a size 
contrast, Barnum often displayed him with a young, 
small elephant named Tom Thumb. After a while, the 
two elephants became friends, and even traveled to- 
gether in "Jumbos Palace Car" in the circus train. 

Everv dav. Jumbo ate 200 pounds of hay, 15 loaves 
of bread, and an assortment of oats, biscuits, onions, 
and fruits, or so Barnum claimed. He also said the ele- 
phant drank five pails of water, a quart of whiskey, 
and an occasional stein of beer. 

Although Jumbo performed no tricks, he earned his 
keep bv strolling around the rings, accompanied by his 
keeper and a gaggle of tumbling clowns. He criss- 
crossed America, delighting millions of children here, 
but he never went on the European tour that Barnum 
had described in his cable to the Daily Telegraph. 

On September 14, 1885, after a performance at St. 
Thomas, Ontario, Jumbo died in a tragic accident. 
There are various descriptions of how the sudden trag- 
edy occurred, but the following account seems to be 
the most reliable. Most of the menagerie had already 
been loaded onto rail cars and the crew was striking 
the tents, when Matthew Scott led Jumbo and Tom 
Thumb over an apparently unused railroad spur. 
About 500 yards ahead, the spur went around a sharp 
bend and joined the Grand Trunk Railway. As they 
were crossing the track, a freight train came round the 
bend and bore down on them. Scott shouted at Jumbo 
and yanked his chain, but the elephant seemed para- 
lyzed with fear at the sight of the onrushing locomo- 
tive and its glaring headlight. 

The train hit Tom Thumb first, tossing him aside 
and breaking his left rear leg. Then it plowed into 
Jumbo almost head on. There was a tremendous crash 
and Jumbo was knocked to the ground, his skull 
smashed. According to eyewitnesses, before he died 
the elephant waved his trunk once at his keeper, who 
had jumped aside at the last instant. 

Nearby, the locomotive and two cars lay derailed; 
the engineer was dead. Tom Thumb eventually recov- 
ered and returned to the circus ring, but died several 
years later, apparently from apoplexy. 

"Tlie loss is tremendous," Barnum told newspaper 



reporters afterward. "Bui such a trifle never disturbs 
mv nerves. Long ago, I learned that to those who mean 
right and try to do right, there are no such things as 
real misfortunes." 

Barnum used Jumbo's death lo ilisplav his show- 
manship once again. He had the carcass haul(;d off Id 
Ward's Natural Science Establishment in Rochester, 
New York, where Carl Akeley and Prof. Henry Ward 
mounted it on a hardwood frame. The staff also studied 
Jumbo's teeth and bones and decided that, if he had 
lived, he might have grown as much as 15 inches 
more. In his belly they found many English pennies, 




Jumbo was killed by 

a freight train in Ontario 

on September 14, 1885. 



sixpences, and threepenny bits, plus a policeman's 
whistle and a ring of keys. 

There was no way Barnum could replace Jumbo, 
but he tried to use him even though he was dead. His 
agents went back to the Royal Zoological Gardens. 
This time, they bought Alice. For several months, 
Barnum exhibited Alice beside the stuffed hide of 
Jumbo, as his "widow." But the public showed little 
interest. 

Finally, Barnum presented Jumbo's skeleton to The 
American Museum of Natural History (where it will 
soon be on display in the Biology of Mammals Hall); 
the mounted hide was given to the Barnum Museum at 
Tufts University, in Medford, Massachusetts. 

Jumbo can no longer be seen meandering around 
the circus ring, gobbling up candv and peanuts, trum- 
peting and waving his trunk. But Jumbo, the elephant 
wonder that captured the imagination of two nations, 
gave us his name as a synonym for huge, and in this 
way he has outlasted all of Barnum's other wonders. ■ 

57 



Secrets 

of the 

Coelacantli 



Once known only as a fossil, a rare Indian Ocean fish has 

begun to emerge from geologic and oceanic darkness. But to learn more 

about it, ice may have to go down to where it lives 



i. Ttion^son 



LIVE COELACANTH CAUGHT THIS AM. lacaiilh wore comvllv ivrooiii/.,.,!. pods. 

MOVIES DISSECTION OK, STOPOVER an. I in 1855 Louis Aji'assiz.jiaw the coclai 

PARIS. HOME AROUND THE FIRST. oroup its formal name Coc-lacan- iiroup 

ihini. aflcr ihc Cai"l)oni(ri'ous jiciuis hirap 

'I'his cable, scnl a vear aijo from Coeldcanlhiis ("■jiolldw spine'")-. \\ hmjili: 

ihe Comoro Islands bv Rob(.'rl |)resenl. ibere an^ 28 known fossil fresbi 

(irillilli of Vale, marki'd ibe lalesi eoelaeanib genera, rankling in age sUid\. 

sueei\<s in researeb on ibe eoe- Irom ibe F.arlv De\-onian lo ibe ale eo 

laeanlb. ibe lisb ibal seienlisis once Lale CnMaeeous. Sini'e no fossil bas 'des w 



lions ol \ears. j'or Ibe lirsi lime a was 

eoelaeanib bad been eaugbl. kepi r\li 

alive for se\eral liours. and sludied will 



w<'re a larsieK 



neern in ibe searc 



7,en and eheniieallv preservf 
ba\"e since been senl lo scii 



ire receni age. il ami ampiiinian origins. 

b(^ group became Bui tben in December. 1938. a 

\ears ago. along living eoelaeanib was Irawb'd from 

una of ibe .\ge of ibe bav of ibe ('balumna River, 
near EasI London. Soulb .\lVica-. ll 

\"e al\va\s inler- was an evenl of speiiacular signili- 

:isls because of <-ance. worlbv of ibe Lm7 Wdr/d of 

al similaril\- and Sir .Vrlluir Conan l)o\le. 'I"be lale 

■lose relalionsbip Prof. .LL.15. Sinilb of r,rabainslow ii 

id lo die lvbi|)i- lni\(M-silv idenlifK'd ibe lisb anil 

fossil order. To- iniblisbed a seienlibc desi'riplion of 



•V Miss CourleiKiv 
Lasl London Mii- 



ibe li-Iro- after ibe place of ca[)lur( 



S^.' V, 



A coelacanlli e^ 
life-size. 



For roiirlfcn vrars [lie search I'm- 
liiitluM- <|)C(iiiirn:< <'onlinurcl. uiilil 
in Di'(fml)(-r. 1952. a snond spcii- 
mcii was broujihl to Sniilh's nolir(\ 
This OIK- had been caught on the is- 
lanfl of Anjouan in the small Coi'n- 
oroan gi-oup lo the noilliwcsi of 
Xhiilagascar. A local lishcnnan hail 
recognized il tVom a poslcr. which 
Smith had dislrihutcd widely up 
and down the east coast of Africa. 
He claimed th(^ reward, and Smith, 
in a plane loaned to him bv the 
South African prime minister, (lew 
lo ihe (lomoros in order lo collect 



The Comoro islands an' I- rench 
lerrilorv. and since 19.52 inlensixc 
research into ihe coelacanth. jirinci- 
pallv in lerms of descriplive mor- 
phologv. has heiMi conducted al the 
Museum Nalional d'Histoire Nalu- 
relle in Paris. Bv 1960 some 40 lo 
.50 s|jecimens had been caught, pre- 
ser\ed in formalin, and shipped lo 
Paris for slud\ . A long series of no- 
tices on the siruelure of Lalimcria. 
louelher with the first two volumes 



of a planned comprehensive anal- 
omv. has been published in Paris 
and clsinvbere since 195-5. 

Regrellablv. of all the specimens 
captured b<Tore 1972. oulv one 
lived long enough to be observed b\ 
scientists. In 1955 a specimi-n was 
belli in a submerged dinghv for 



About 1962. further s|)ecimens 
caught in the Comoros were offered 
for' sale to museum? around the 
world, and formalin-preserved spi'c- 
iniens have now been dislribuU^d lo 
Brilain. ihe Soviet Union, North 
America, and Australia. From this 
worldwide effort a dear picture of 
the (ish's analomv has emerged. 

Lalimcrin cluiluiuiuir is a largi^ 
(ish with a mouthful of shaip leelh. 



short, sharp spines, its color is a 
inuddv grav-blue. whiih rapidly be- 
■omes more brown aller dealli. The 
•ve is clear. Iiul in snecimi^ns 



■ retina. Ihe skull has a curious 
racranial joint, and the paired 
s are larHP. lobifd. and exIremcK 



on and muscle sysli 
ere are no true luni; 



evitlcnllv derived from th(> paired 
lungs of a distant ancestor. Thus, 
the hsh cannot breathe air. Then^ is 
no internal nostril. The stomach has 
a thick muscular wall. whi( h often 
results in ihe contents being voided 
during capture, thus depriving us of 
information about ihe lish's diet. 
The rest of the internal organs need 
no mention here excepl lor ihe re-. 
productive svsleni. Two gravid le- 
males have been caught, induding 
one in 1972 that conlained 19 eggs 
of enormous si/.e. more than 1 
indies across. Thev lad< anv pi-olec- 
tive shell or mc^mbrane. 



which came from off the coast of 
South Africa, Latimeria chalumnae 
has onlv been caught off the Com- 
oro Islands and in fact from only 
two of these— Anjouan and Grande 
Comore. Thev have been caught at 
depths from 100 to about 800 me- 
ters (but mostly above 400 meters). 
More than 70 specimens have been 
taken at a capture rate of two to 
four per year. 

To this bare catalog we could add 
a great mass of detailed anatomy, 
but there is a notable lack of infor- 
mation about the ecology and gen- 
eral way of life of these fish. This 
last affects not only our attempts to 
interpret what we have so far 
learned about the fish but also ques- 
tions regarding how rare the fish is 
and how it has sm"vived. 

One reason for our long igno- 
rance about the mere existence of 
living coelacanths and our con- 
tinued inability to learn their se- 
crets is the remoteness of the Com- 
oro Islands. Set in the Mozambique 
Channel, the archipel des parfums 
consists of four volcanic islands 
with small fringing reefs. Beyond 
the reef, the underwater profile is 
very steep, plunging down some 
2,000 to 3,000 meters. The geo- 
logic history and submarine topog- 
raphy of these islands may provide 
part of the explanation of how the 
coelacanth survived from pre- 
historic times. Two hundred million 
years ago coelacanths were a not 
uncommon part of shallow sea 
faunas worldwide. Is it a coinci- 
dence that some of the best-known 
fossil coelacanth specimens come 
from the Triassic beds of nearby 
Madagascar? 

There seems to be little to distin- 
guish the Comoros from other is- 
lands in the western Indian Ocean, 
such as the Aldabra series. An ex- 
pedition sent by the Royal Society 
of 1969 to some of these other is- 
lands showed that the fish popu- 
lations on their deep underwater 
slopes are almost exactly like those 
of the Comoro Islands (although no 
coelacanths have been caught 
there). 

Examination of the available sta- 
tistics on catches shows that, apart 
from the first South African speci- 
men, all coelacanths have been 
caught off Grande Comore and An- 




jouan, with a majority from Grande 
Comore. They are principally 
caught on the east coasts of these 
two islands and not at all from the 
other Comoroan islands of Mayotte 
and Moheli. The captures all come 
in the early hours of morning dark- 
ness. The majority are caught from 
January to March, but a large num- 
ber are taken during the rest of the 
year. To interpret these data, we 
must know much more about the 
nature of the fishing effort. One 
may be reasonably sure, for in- 
stance, that the reason for their ap- 
parent absence from Mayotte and 
Moheli is the lack of extensive fish- 
eries there. Could this also explain 
their apparent absence from all the 
other islands of the western Indian 
Ocean? 



The Comoroan fishermen work 
alone in outrigger canoes hollowed 
from mango logs. Thev fish with a 
single hook on a vertical line sent 
down to the bottom bv a chunk of 
rock secured by a slipknot, which is 
then released. They fish at, or very 
near, the bottom, normally in 
depths of up to 400 meters. Pre- 
sumably this is the deepest that can 
conveniently be worked in this 
fashion. Curiously, the months from 
January to March present the very 
worst weather in the Comoros. 

One needs to ask, therefore, why 



6o 




This fossil coelacanth 

ivas found on Madagascar. 

It is similar to the living 

coelacanths, but much smaller. 



thev bother to fish at this time, at 
night, and at these depths. The an- 
swer is that thev are not normally 
seeking the coelacanth itself, but 
rather food fishes, especially the oil- 
fish. Ruvettus pretiosus, which is 
relatively abundant at these depths 
around the islands, reefs, and banks 
in the western Indian Ocean. In the 
process they catch coelacanths, ap- 



parently largely by accident. Now 
when they ai'e asked to go after a 
coelacanth, they obviously go to 
where they have previously caught 
them— the oilfish grounds. Thus, to 
put an extreme interpretation on 
the catch data, we might sav that 
they present the coincidence of oil- 
fish and Latimeria distribution at 
the season when oilfish are sought. 



This may actually be a bit strong, 
but at least it seems clear that the 
catch data reflect only the fishing 
effort and that fishing is not di- 
rected principally toward the coe- 
lacanth itself. 

Given this unsatisfactory infor- 
mation, what can we say about the 
distribution and numbers of the 
fish? The sex ratio in the catch is 

6i 




The clouded eye shows that 

this coelacanth, caught near 

the village of Iconi, is near 

death. Below, a fisherman 

paddles his outrigger pirogue 

off the island of Grand 

Comore. Only local fishermen 

have caught coelacanths; 

prolonged efforts by visiting 

scientists have been 

unsuccessful to date. 



approximately 25 males to every 20 
females. The size range has re- 
mained more or less constant, and 
no fish of less than 34 inches (esti- 
mated to be at least four years old) 
has been taken. This suggests that 
the catch rate (steady for nearly 20 
years) has not significantly depleted 
the stocks. It seems likely that there 
are coelacanths around the other 
Comoroan islands that have not 
been taken at all. At this point, to 



develop an interpretation, it is nec- 
essai-y to turn back to the evidence 
from the dead fish. 

Latimeria does not seem to be an 
open-water fish. The heavily ar- 
mored surfaces and specialized lobe 
fins, as well as the nature of the 
other fins, suggest constant associa- 

^ DO 

tion with a hard substrate. While 
the caudal fin is a powerful struc- 
ture, it is obviously only adapted 
for short, rapid bursts of swimming. 



The paired fins and the second dor- 
sal and anal fins are adapted to 
slow, sculling movements by which 
the fish presumably moves along or 
near the bottom, pushing off from 
hard objects with the paired fins, 
waiting for prey to appear, and then 
taking it in a quick lunge. 

The possibility is strong that coe- 
lacanths engage in a nocturnal mi- 
gration toward the surface and that 
by day they lie at greater depths. 



f 



1 




,.i*WtN 




62 



The fve is adapted only to Idw liglil 
intensity, the properties ol' the vi- 
sual pigment comparing best with 
those of fishes i<nown to live in 
deeper waters. The few stomach 
contents recorded include lantern 
fishes, which are known to be verti- 
cal migrators. 

The fats in the swim bladder, and 
dispersed widely in the oily tissues 
of the coelacanth, contain many 
verv light wax esters and presum- 
ably are an adaptation for giving 
neutral buoyancv. Tliere are in- 
dications, its color, for example, 
that Latimeria is not a truly deep- 
sea fish. We might reconstruct, 
therefore, that Latimeria is a fish 
that lives a relatively sedentary 
existence near the bottom. At night 
it may come toward the surface to 
follow prey species, and migrate 
back down the submarine slopes of 
the islands during the day. If this is 
correct, then apart from detailed 
ecological preferences that we do 
not know of, the species could be 
widely dispersed within the area im- 
mediately around the Comoros. But 
to move beyond this region, the fish 
would probably have to swim in 
open water, away from the bottom, 
which may explain its restricted dis- 
tribution. As to population size, we 
cannot guess, but common sense 
teUs us that to be safe we should 
avoid a catch rate higher than the 
present one. 

There is a definite limit to what 
can be learned from museum 
specimens chemically preserved in 
formalin. Therefore in 1966 an at- 
tempt was made by the Comoroan 
authorities to freeze and ship a fresh 
specimen to Yale. The venture suc- 
ceeded beyond all our hopes, and 
on Memorial Day, 1966, a group of 
scientists gathered around a labora- 
tory table and made the first de- 
tailed examination of a fresh coe- 
lacanth. Within a few weeks it was 
clear that surprising results would 
be obtained. Prof. Grace E. Pick- 
ford of Yale discovered that Lati- 
meria, unlike all other known bony 
fishes, balances the osmotic pres- 
sure of its blood by a mechanism of 
urea retention generally identical to 
that used by the elasmobranch 
fishes (sharks and rays). Prof. G. 
W. Brown and Dr. Susan Brown 
discovered that the liver contains 



all the enzymes of the ornithine 
cycle— the biochemical process by 
which the urea is produced. I found 
that, contrary to widely held opin- 
ion, the skull of the coelacanth, 
which is characterized by a set of 
joints separating the braincase into 
two parts, is movable through some 
eight to ten degrees, producing one 
of the most curious mechanisms of 
jaw movement known in verte- 
brates. Since this mechanism is also 
found in the fossil Rhipidistia, it 
was most important to discover 
what happens in a live specimen. 

From the Yale coelacanth, 
"fresh" specimens of a wide variety 
of tissues were rushed to biologists 
at every hand, all of whom wanted 
a chance to compare the biology of 
this "primitive" fish with what is 
known of other living fishes. Inter- 
est in the biology of ancient fishes 
and the origin of tetrapods rose to a 
new high. But with the study came 
problems. Obviously more material 
was needed, the history of which 
was known exactly. The study of 
frozen tissues pointed up a whole 
series of exciting problems (what, 
for example, was the visual pigment 
of the eye like?) that could only be 
answered in one way— we had to get 
our hands on a completely fresh 
specimen. 

In January, 1972, a joint expedi- 
tion of the Royal Society (London), 
the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle in Paris, and the National 
Academy of Sciences (sponsored by 
the National Geographic Society) 
arrived in the Comoros. The expedi- 
tion had been planned for nearly 
five years. Biologists all over the 
world had been canvassed and a 
complete set of protocols for opti- 
mum preservation of tissues from a 
coelacanth had been set up. Every 
effort would be made, should a 
specimen be caught, to keep it alive 
as long as possible in order to make 
observations on the living fish. The 
party planned to use every possible 
fishing method. They had their own 
gear, to be used from a launch, and 
also intended to mobilize the local 
fishermen. 

In the end it was, cis ever, only 
the local fishermen who succeeded. 
In fact, the entire success of the ex- 
pedition resulted from the labors of 
the Comoroan fishermen, who went 



out night alter night to help the vis- 
itors in their search for the gom- 
hesso 'jomole. 

The expedition was immediately 
successful. On the night of January 
6, before the American contingent 
had even arrived, the British and 
French got the news that a large 
specimen had been caught off An- 
jouan. But by the time the scientists 
made the 70-mile journey from Mo- 
roni, the fish was dead. Much useful 
information, however, including 
priceless tissue samples, was ob- 
tained. The specimen was only the 
second mature female to have been 
caught and it contained 19 
enormous eggs, perhaps the largest 
fish eggs ever seen. 

Bad weather intervened, but the 
fishermen were persuaded to re- 
double their nightly work. By mid- 
March a familiar pattern had set in: 
rainy days, sunny days, lots of fish- 
ing, no coelacanths. Only Robert 
Griffith of Yale and Adam Locket 
of the Institute of Ophthalmology in 
London remained when at 3:00 a.m. 
on March 22, Mohammed Ali Cha- 
bane, the headman of the village of 
Iconi on Grande Comore, woke them 
up— a live coelacanth had been 
caught at Iconi, 12 miles away. 

The fish had been caught by 
Madi Youssouf Kaar and brought to 
shore, where it was transferred to a 
submerged wire mesh cage. Griffith 
and Locket observed it by artificial 
light until daybreak, making de- 
tailed notes on its color and behav- 
ior, especially the use of the fins. 
They then transferred the fish to a 
large tank where they made a mo- 
tion picture record of it, as well as 
the photograph shown on page 62. 
The reconstruction of the swim- 
ming of coelacanths is based largely 
on their observations. 

One cannot be sure why coe- 
lacanths die when brought to the 
surface: it must be a combination of 
decompression effects, temperature 
change, and general shock. Lacking 
specialized equipment to keep it 
alive (for this was only a pilot expe- 
dition), the two scientists prepared 
to dissect their prize. The specimen, 
an immature female only 33 inches 
long, had been caught only 600 me- 
ters from shore at a depth of about 
100 meters. It lived for a total of 
seven hours after capture, most of 

63 



the time confined under difficult 
conditions. 

The 1972 expedition finally es- 
tablished that closely supervised in- 
tensive fishing by the local fish- 
ermen can confidently be expected 
to produce a coelacanth if one is 
prepared to wait a couple of 
months. It confirmed that speci- 
mens can be kept alive for a while 
and raises the hope that more elabo- 
rate methods might succeed in 
keeping one alive longer. A great 
deal of research material was 
gained, and the osmotic physiology, 
blood, eye, reproductive system, 
bone and cartilage, and many as- 
pects of the basic biochemistry of 
the coelacanth are now under scru- 
tiny. Observation of the live fish 
showed something of the swimming 
and respiratory system. Now, what 
should be the pattern for future re- 
search? 

Among the results gained by the 
expedition was the capture of a ma- 
ture female. The nature of the eggs 
indicates that some kind of special 
breeding behavior occurs in the 
coelacanth. It may be ovoviparous 
(a view Dr. Griffith and I favor) or, 
at the very least, if the eggs are laid 
in the water, close parental care 
must be shown. Therefore, what- 
ever the size of the coelacanth pop- 
ulation, there may be considerable 
danger in random fishing efforts 
during the breeding period. 

In 1966 I wrote, "Perhaps the 
next phase of study of the coe- 
lacanth should be conducted with 
the investigator holding a motion 
picture camera rather than a scal- 



pel." I now consider this to be even 
more pertinent. When the results of 
laboratory studies now in progress 
are known, there will undoutedly 
be a need for a second expedition 
to obtain a similar specimen. 

But our need to know the ecol- 
ogy of the fish will not be met by 
this process. I am of the opinion 
that no random, or even systematic, 
fishing program will suffice. The 
present catch rate is too low, and 
even if one could devise a fishing 
technique that would allow a large 
catch to be made in a systematic 
survey of the area (which seems un- 
likely), the chances are too strong 
that the fish would be made extinct 
in the process. The only safe inves- 
tigation of the general biology of 
this fish can come from direct ob- 
servation. A systematic survey of 
the Comoroan deep slopes by means 
of photography, television, and ob- 
servers in a submersible would, at 
the very least, tell us something 
about the physical and biological 
environment, even if no coelacanth 
were seen. A film record of a live 
coelacanth in its natural environ- 
ment would be worth more than 
fifty specimens on laboratory tables, 
and I would certainly rather see the 
effort go in this direction. 

There are, of course, also consid- 



This large coelacanth 

Was frozen shortly 

after it was caught. 




1000^ 
I /Grande 



Moheli "l^ 



COMORO 
ISLANDS 

10 ao 




Anjouan 



MayotteT?^ 



erable legitimate pressures for the 
capture of a live specimen and its 
preservation in an aquarium. It 
would be a marvelous step for the 
science of biology, as well as for the 
public at large, if one could be put 
on general view. At the moment we 
do not know under what conditions 
the fish normally lives and can only 
guess at why it dies when brought 
to the surface, but the extreme 
stress of capture must be very im- 
portant. I believe that the correct 
procedure would be to prepare a 
suitable tank, in which at least the 



f ,.- 




% ft . 



lh|||^ ^ 




64 



|iaiain(ifi's o\ prrssurc and Irrii- 
pcraliirc loiiM lir coiiliollcd. I<i iii- 
slall lliis lank on (iiandc (idnioir. 
anil 1(1 nHliLicI loral dllicials in ils 
(>|icialicin. 

in lad. sucli an operation iduM 
hi' set in progress willionl llir 
rnornious i^xpense of a inajor sricn- 
litic cxpcdiliiin. F'or example, niohi- 
lizalion of llie local lishernien seems 
likely lo produce one or two speci- 
mens per season, and better coni- 
nninication between the fisherman 
and the shore could improve the 
chances of a specimen being kepi 



ali\e allei- caplnrc. A I'asl laiuicli 
snnnnnncd li\ radio coidd qniekly 
bring (he lisli back conlnicd in a 
simple lank ol seawaler. This would 
be innib l)eltcr than the present 
long [laddle biime uilli the (ish 
towed behind, a book ihrough its 
bead. 

SiniK of ilie eoolacanlh has bad a 
long and often frustrating history. 
Some 35 years after the discovery 
of the living Latlmeria chaluninae, 
we are beginning to assemble a 
large set of data concerning the bi- 
ology of this enigmatic fish. But a 



limdamcnial aspect ol its biology — 
its ecology and general way of life- 
remains almost a complete mystery, 
enlightened only by inferences 
made from the specimens all caught 
at random by Comoroan fishermen. 
Such .specimens have been studied 
with great success, but new meih- 
ods, including the maintenance of 
specimens in aquariums and direct 
underwater observation of the fish 
and its habitat, will be needed be- 
fore we can truly understand the bi- 
ology of this curious relict of Paleo- 
zoic and Mesozoic limes. ■ 




Unveiling 

the 

Black Wido^w 



Venomous spiders have always incurred the wrath of man, 
but their poisons were never intended for such luckless victims 

by John A. L. Cooke 



"When Alexander reigned, it is 
reported that there was a very beau- 
tiful strumpet in Alexandria that 
fed always from her childhood on 
spiders, and for that reason the 
King was admonished that he 
should be careful not to embrace 
her lest he should be poisoned by 
venom that might evaporate from 
her sweat. . . ." 

E. TopseU 

The History of Four- Footed 

Beasts and Serpents 

London, 1607 

Deeply rooted in the mythology of 
many cultures, spiders are both 
feared and venerated. Superstition 
and popular imagination have en- 
dowed these diminutive creatures 
with enormous powers, including 
prognostication of forthcoming 
events and the cure of many dis- 
eases. Such beliefs are not confined 
to primitive peoples; even sophis- 
tiqated New England yachtsmen still 
believe a southwesterly gale is immi- 
nent if spider silk is found streaming 
from the rigging of their boats. 

It is, however, the widespread 
and unshakeable conviction that 
most spiders are poisonous that has 
given these fascinating animals 
their undeservedly evil reputation. 
While it is true that over 99 percent 
of the more than 20,000 known spi- 
der species possess so-called poison 



glands, which discharge through the 
tips of their fangs, this conjures up 
a wholly misleading impression. 
The very words poison and venom 
are highly evocative, and one in- 
stinctively relates them to man. 
Clearly, for a proper understanding, 
we must consider the role of the 
poison glands in relation to the nor- 
mal prey and predators of the spi- 
der. It is unfortunate that most re- 
search on spider venom has 
concentrated on the very few spe- 
cies that can affect man, leaving vir- 
tually untouched the study of the 
spiders' secretions in nature. 

The original function of the 
glands was probably to produce di- 
gestive juices, for a spider must pre- 
digest its prey to a souplike con- 
sistency before consuming it. From 
this stage the .evolution of com- 
ponents that might paralyze the vic- 
tim and make its capture quicker 
and easier is a logical step. 

Most spiders have progressed no 
further than this stage, but a few 
have gone on to evolve a violent- 
pain-producing component that will 
teach intending predators to keep 
clear. To be most effective, this ca- 
pacity should be accompanied by 
the development of some form of 
distinctive warning coloration. This 
does occur in several species. In the 
large African theraphosids, for ex- 
ample, the fangs are surrounded by 



crimson hairs that are vividly dis- 
played when the spider raises its 
body to the almost vertical threat 
posture. It is possible that the crim- 
son marking on the abdomen of the 
black widow serves a similar warn- 
ing function, a supposition sup- 
ported by the existence of black 
widow mimics. In the genus Scy- 
todes the venom glands have 
evolved a further function. They se- 
crete a sticky, toxic gum, which the 
spider squirts out over the prey 
from some distance away. 

Although many spiders are able 
to subdue their victims rapidly, oth- 
ers begin feeding while the prey is 
still struggling; thus, it would seem 
that in many cases the poison 
glands have been misnamed. In 
various parts of the world, however, 
there are at least a dozen kinds of 
spider whose bite seriously affects 
man or his domestic animals. His- 
torically, the most feared spider was 



Drawing silk from spinnerets, 

a female black widow fashions 

her trap for prey. Her venom 

has caused most spider-related 

deaths in North America. 



66 










we?. 



•***^ 



Despite their funnidahli apfcuiame, ,.,. 

North American laraniiii.'.^ are' 
a serious threat only to lh>-i: !'i--v— 
beetles and grasshoryrr . 







The crimson hairs on the 
mouthparts of this South 
American wandering spider 
warn potential predators 
that its bite is painful. 



the tarantula, Lycosa tarentula. 
This large wolf spider abounds in 
southern and eastern Europe, par- 
ticularly southern Italy. It is quite 
distinct from the large, hairy desert 
spiders commonly called tarantulas 
in the United States, which have a 
totally undeserved reputation as 
dangerous animals, but which are, 
in fact, harmless to man. 

Interestingly, it has recently 
been shown that even the European 
tarantula has been wrongly accused, 
that it does not inflict the dreaded 
bite attributed to it but is quite 
harmless. The real culprit in taran- 
tism is none other than the famous 
black widow spider. The black 
widow, Latrodectus maclans, is a 



comparatively small, inconspicuous, 
and secretive member of the family 
Theridiidae, the comb-footed spi- 
ders. These include several common 
cobweb-spinning spiders found in 
buildings. Latrodectus, whose name 
comes from the Greek and means 
"secret biter," is a genus of world- 
wide distribution containing several 
species. Although all are highly 
venomous, only L. mactans is 
synanthropic, posing a serious 
threat to people. 

Known by a wide variety of local 
names in different countries, the 
spider's American name, black 
widow, presumably refers to the 
popular belief that the female al- 
ways consumes her spouse after 
mating. While this does occur, par- 
ticularly if the female is not well 
fed, it is by no means inevitable. 
The male is much smaller than the 
female, weighing one-tenth to one- 
fiftieth, and sometimes less than 
one-hundredth, as much. As he 
touches her web, he begins to pluck 
at the threads and vibrate his body, 
slowly advancing with an irregular 



gait. After some minutes he begins to 
destroy parts of the web, eventually 
isolating the female on a narrow 
swath of silk. If the female is recep- 
tive and does not chase him off, the 
male advances until he can touch the 
object of his attention. Tapping and 
stroking her, the male rapidly begins 
to move around her, spinning a fine 
film of silk that has been called a 
bridal veil. 

After he has been in the web for 
nearly two hours, he mates by in- 
serting the tip of his specially modi- 
fied pedipalps— short leglike feelers 
situated on either side of the 
mouth— into the genital opening on 
the undersurface of her abdomen. 
Immediately after copulation, 
which lasts about five minutes, the 
male is exposed to his greatest risk, 
for the female can easily seize him 
with her fangs at the moment of dis- 
engagement. If the female is placid, 
however, he should survive, and he 
may even continue to live in the fe- 
male's web until old age supervenes 
a few days later. 

The bite of the black widow 



70 



shows considerable diversity in its 
effect upon humans. This undoubt- 
edly reflects differences in the dos- 
ages received, the phvsical condi- 
tion of the victim, and probablv 
very significant, differences in the 
potency ot the spider venom in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. There is 
little information a\ailable on com- 
parative lethalit\ of black widow 
venom, but it appeal's that North 
American populations are more po- 
tent than others. 

The bite is not painful and may 
often pass unnoticed. Local effects 
are limited to minute puncture 
marks and a slight reddening and 
swelling, but within a few minutes 
an intense pain begins to develop. 
Starting in the Ivmph nodes of the 
armpits and groin, it rapidly 
spreads until within about an hour 
the lumbar and abdominal regions, 
as well as the thighs, are affected. 
The pain is incessant, acutely ago- 
nizing, and sometimes paroxysmal. 
The victim continues to deteriorate, 
exhibiting general symptoms of 
shock and nausea accompanied bv 
cramps, sweating, facial spasms, 
priapism, breathing difficulties, hy- 



pertension, and changes in h<'art- 
beat. In time, these symptoms may 
also be accompanied by mental dis- 
turbance and ulceration of the di- 
gestive tract. In most cases the 
symptoms subside within three or 
four days, leaving a feeling of gen- 
eral malaise and local hyper- 
sensitivity, but it is not uncommon 
for some patients to remain hospi- 
talized for one or two weeks. 

Although the bite of the black 
widow- is traumatic, in most cases 
the prognosis is favorable. Between 
1726 and 1943 there were 1,300 
reported bites from all 48 states, 
with 55 fatalities— a mortality rate 
of 4 percent. It should be remem- 
bered, how-ever, that only a small 
proportion of the total number of 
bites are recorded in official statis- 
tics and that the actual number of 
cases is probably much higher. 
With the introduction and general 
availability of an effective anti- 
venin, the mortality rate has been 
reduced by about 90 percent. 

A curious feature of black widow- 
bites is that thev tend to occur in 
epidemics, clearly reflecting the 
natural fluctuations of the spider 



|)oj)ulalions. Such epidemics have 
occurred in Spain (1830), east- 
ern Russia (18.38-39), France 
(1878-79), Uruguay (1910), and 
Yugoslavia (1926-27). A severe 
outbreak of 946 cases in Italy be- 
tween 1946 and 1951 surprisingly 
resulted in only two fatalities (0.2 
percent), suggesting that the venom 
of the Italian population is less po- 
tent than elsewhere. The majority 
of those bitten are agricultural 
workers, particularly in regions 
where harvesting is still carried out 
by hand. 

The black widow typically feeds 
on a variety of small insect prey, 
capturing it in a durable web that is 
usually spun in a wide range of dry, 
shaded sites near the ground. Webs 
may be found in rockpiles, culverts, 
and in small mammal burrows, as 



While tarantula fangs can 
easily pierce human jlesh, the 
bite rarely causes more than 
momentary, localized pain. 




71 



well as in grain crops. The spider 
also shows a predilection for old 
buildings, where it may occasion- 
ally hide in clothing. 

The black widow is not an ag- 
gressive spider, biting only in self- 
defense when trapped and pressed 
against the body, but this is a rare 
occurrence. It is in the old-fash- 
ioned outdoor privy that the black 
widow presents the greatest hazard. 
Beneath the seat the spiders flour- 
ish, spinning extensive webs to 
catch the innumerable flies. Any- 
thing brushing against the web will 
attract the spider's attention and be 
attacked as prey. 

Despite the potency of its chem- 
ical armory, the black widow is not 
without enemies. The eggs are at- 
tacked by pai'asitic flies and wasps, 
and the spiders themselves are the 
prey of alligator lizards, mud 
dauber wasps, and the exclusively 
spider-eating spiders of the genus 
Mimetus. 

The toxic effects of black widow 
venom have been traced to four 
protein fractions within the secre- 
tion of the poison gland. Three of 
these fractions are effective against 
insects and presumably represent 
an ancestral type of venom that 
might be expected to turn up in a 
variety of other spider species when 
they are examined. One fraction 
acts as a rapid knockdown poison, 
while the other two function as 
slower acting poisons that cause ir- 
reversible damage to the nervous 
system. Thus, a captured insect is 
immediately paralyzed and stops 
struggling to escape, although it is 
not killed until some time later. 
This principle, which is also found 
in pyrethrum-DDT insecticide aero- 
sols, gives greater flexibility in prey 
capture and allows the spider to 
feed on a broad spectrum of insects. 

Only the fourth fraction, which 
acts by interfering with the trans- 
mission of nerve impulses, partic- 
ularly to muscles, is active against 
warm-blooded animals. The nerve 
cell is separated from its muscle fi- 
ber by a narrow synaptic space, and 
electrical impulses are transmitted 
across this gap by a chemical mes- 
senger, acetylcholine. Black widow 
venom selectively poisons the motor 
nerve endings by inducing the se- 
cretion of acetylcholine until the 



Jumping spiders have 
well-developed eyes and hunt 

by sight. They occasionally 
bite people, but the effects of 

their venom are not serious. 



supply is exhausted. Recent elec- 
tron microscopy studies reveal that 
this stage is followed by extensive 
physical damage to the nerve end- 
ing. Treatment with Latrodectus 
antivenin will rapidly restore the 
nerve ending to its normal working 
condition. 

Compaiative studies on the ven- 
oms of European and American 
populations of black widows and 
other species of the genus show 
that, although there are minor dif- 
ferences in chemical composition, 
the venoms are all very similar and 
extremely potent. Surprisingly, it 
was found that the brown widow, 
Latrodectus geometricus, which has 
never been regarded as dangerous, 
has the most lethal venom. The ex- 
planation lies in the fact that the 
species produces very little venom 
and is less aggressive and irritable 
than other members of the genus. 

The diminutive males and imma- 
tures of the genus Latrodectus also 
have so little venom that, coupled 
with their inability to penetrate hu- 
man skin with their tiny fangs, they 
do not constitute any danger to 
man. 

In the United States only one 
other group of spiders, those in the 
genus Loxosceles, warrants consid- 
eration as a potential danger to 
man. Often called brown spiders, 
the best-known species, the brown 
recluse, or fiddle-back spider (L. 
reclusa), is found in many of the 
warmer areas of the country. 

Several closely related species 
occur in the United States, extend- 
ing from California through the 
Southwest and into the southern 
central states. Because they often 
hide in old crates and boxes, which 
may be transported to centrally 
heated buildings in cooler parts of 
the country, their range is slowly 
spreading under man's influence. 
Thus, colonies of the brown recluse. 





72 






»*,„w -^ 



^^';^ /-:/.> 



^^i 






t » ,./ 












j^- -^" 



W*^^ 



ji.jm'M 



The venom of the broivn 
recluse can be harmful In 
man. This spider has 
been extending its range in 
the I nitcd Stales. 



Loxosceles reclusa; a Chilean spe- 
cies, L. laeta: and the originally 
Mediterranean species L. rufescens 
have become established in scat- 
tered locations on both the east and 
west coasts of North America. 

The most striking diagnostic fea- 
ture of the brown spiders is the ar- 
rangement of their six eyes into 
three well-sepai-ated groups of two. 
This is in contrast to the eight eyes 
present in most other spiders. They 
are active spiders that construct 
tangled webs of flocculent, bluish 
silk, but because they are nocturnal 
and inhabit secluded niches be- 
neath stones or logs or within 
cracks and crevices in rocks and 
caves, they are seldom seen. 

In 1934 convincing evidence 
was assembled to show that the bite 
of Loxosceles laeta in Chile was re- 
sponsible for a veiT common and 
extremelv unpleasant form of skin 
tissue destruction in humans. It was 
not until 1957, however, that L. 
reclusa in North America was 
shown to produce similar effects in 
laboratory animals and the potential 
hazard of bites from these spiders 
was verified. Since the resulting 
condition, known as necrotic arach- 
noidism, had been reported in the 
medical literature since 1872, it is 
curious that the prime causative 
agent escaped detection for so long. 

Unlike the bite of the black 
widow, which produces a systemic 
effect, crippling the whole body, the 
bite of the brown recluse is gener- 
ally localized in its impact. Some 
discomfort may be experienced at 
the time of the bite, but usually sev- 
eral hours pass before the victim is 
aware that anything is amiss. First a 
blister, often accompanied bv a cer- 
tain amount of pain, develops at the 
site of the bite. Then, as surrounding 
cells are killed oft bv the venom, the 
victim's skin turns purple and even- 
tually black. The resulting gang- 



renous lesion may be an inch or two in 
diameter, and alter the necrotic core 
falls avva\, the jjatienl is left with a 
deep pil thai iicals only gradually, as 
seal" tissue slowly accumulates over 
several months. 

Cases have been reported in 
which hypersensitive individuals 
develop severe systemic symptoms, 
which can persist for up to a week, 
and in very rare instances the bite 
has proved fatal. During a recent 
five-year period in Texas, sixty 
cases of brown recluse poisoning 
were reported, and four were fatal— 
a mortality rate equivalent to that 
of the black widow prior to the 
widespread availability of anti- 
venin. Although an effective anti- 
venin against Loxosceles laeta bites 
has been developed in South Amer- 
ica, it is not yet available in the 
United States. 

The chemistry of Loxosceles 
venom is not understood, nor is its 
precise mode of action. One prob- 
lem in attempting to discover the 
way in which this venom works is 
that different experimental animals 
respond differently. When the 
venom is injected into rabbits, for 
example, only minimal systemic ef- 
fects are observed, but extensive 
necrosis of the walls of blood ves- 
sels occurs in the area of the in- 
jection. This reaction is accom- 
panied by local thrombosis and 
hemorrhage, followed by the forma- 
tion of an abscess. Ultimately, as in 
man, an ulcer covered by a black- 
ened scab forms, which is eventu- 
ally sloughed off 

In contrast, mice similarly 
treated usually die from systemic ef- 
fects within 24 hours, with no trace 
of necrotic lesions being formed. It 
is possible that this difference in re- 
sponse is due simply to the size of 
the subjects, and hence the propor- 
tionate dosage received, but it could 
also reflect the fact that these spi- 
ders, more likelv to be attacked by 
small predators, have evolved a spe- 
cific antirodent component in their 
venom. 

Thus, the black widow and the 
brown recluse are characterized by 
two very different types of venom, 
the neurotoxic, with its widespread 
systemic effect, and the hemolytic, 
with its predominantly local tissue 
destruction. The venoms of these 



two spiders are, by far, the most in- 
tensely studied for the simple rea- 
son that they are the ones that have 
had the greatest impact on our 
lives. What little we know of the 
venoms of other truly poisonous spi- 
ders suggests that they, too, belong 
to one or the other category, or oc- 
casionally to both. The imposing 
South American wolf spider Lycosa 
raptoria, for example, has a painful 
bite that causes extensive necrosis 
and presumably contains both types 
of venom. 

In his arrogance man considers 
all venoms in relation to himself 
and rates them effectual or ineffec- 
tual accordingly. Obviously though, 
spider venoms evolved indepen- 
dently of man and probably long 
before he ever appeared on earth. 
The small number of geographically 
separated and largely unrelated spi- 
der species with venoms toxic to 
man acquired this potency fortui- 
tously. Vertebrates of any kind play 
a small role in spider nutrition, and 
it is improbable that the poison 
gland secretions evolved to pacify 
such prey. Spiders, however, are at- 
tacked by a variety of lizards, birds, 
and small mammals, such as 
roadrunners, grasshopper mice, and 
shrews. The appearance in the 
venom of a factor causing immedi- 
ate and excruciating pain to these 
predators would clearly confer a 
significant selective advantage. This 
would be much greater than the ad- 
vantage to be gained by mere dis- 
tastefulness: the spider would not 
have to be eaten for the predator to 
discover its mistake. It is not sur- 
prising that such a venom, designed 
to debilitate a small rodent by dis- 
rupting the delicate chemistry of its 
nervous system, should also have an 
effect upon larger animals, for the 
use of acetylcholine in synaptic 
transmission occurs throughout the 
animal kingdom. 

Our knowledge of spider venoms 
has increased substantially since Al- 
exander was unnecessarily deprived 
of his pleasure. But much more re- 
mains to be learned about the secre- 
tions of the many spiders that rarely 
come into contact with man before 
we can more fully appreciate the 
evolutionary subtleties of venom, 
instead of merely deploring our sen- 
sitivity to it. * 

75 



Moments in tlxe Mnd 

Why are these young ladies doing something 
that all children— and many adults— dream, of? 

photogi-aphis toy Maiii-een Bisilliat 







^-^ '■^~^} 




W^^' 






At first sight, the women and girls of the village of Livramento in 
northeastern Brazil seem only to be enjoying a fantastic frolic in the 
mud fiats of the Paraiba River near the Atlantic Ocean. 
Yet a closer look, next page, reveals that more than play is involved. 



79 




Pipe-smoking mothers also join in the muddy affair. For the whole party, 

the layer of slime provides protection from the tropical sun and 

the swarms of malarial mosquitos. But the main purpose of the escapade is 

to catch by hand the silvery fish that feed in the shallow ponds when 

the tide falls. The fish try to escape by swimming into the watery ooze. 

The pursuers, with laughter and abandon, slither after the fish, 

often catching them at arm's length down in the mud. 



80 







*^ta& 










i 



i^-^ttiT" 



:^.: 



'Pi 



i.4 



.*5-~-%* 



A Ne-w Ajre For Aging 

Continued from page 18 

semia, found in the Mediterranean 
region.) Itano proposed that the 
mutation responsible for this dis- 
ease involved the substitution of a 
poorly translatable genetic code 
word for a readily translatable one 
in the defective gene. This idea was 
independently rediscovered by 
Gunther Stent, Bruce Ames, and 
the author, who applied it to aspects 
of development and aging. 

The basic idea behind our think- 
ing and experiments is that as cells 
mature they may shut off the ability 
to read, or decode, certain code 
words. The effect would be that all 
genetic messages written down in 
sequences that include nonde- 
codable words could not be used to 
produce working parts of cells, in- 
cluding replacement parts. 

If this idea were correct, one 
might expect different kinds of cells 
from the same individual to operate 
on different genetic languages. A 
genetic language is definable as a 
particular combination of code 
words that includes at least one 
word for each of the twenty amino 
acids. Because there are about sixty 
usable words in the genetic diction- 
ary, it is obvious that a huge num- 
ber of different kinds of languages 
are possible. In fact, because there 
are about three times as many code 
words as there are amino acids for 
them to specify, a sequence 100 
amino acids in length (about aver- 
age for a simple protein) can be 
written down in 3^"° different ways 
within a given segment of DNA. 

Even allowing for some inability 
to distinguish between certain 
words, it now appears that at least 
10,000 different exclusive sets of 
code words could be used to specify 
10,000 different kinds of cells. This 
is many times the number of differ- 
ent kinds of cells in the body. 

One of the predictions implied in 
such a theory is that certain steps 
needed for the translation of a given 
word will be carried out by certain 
kinds of cells but not by others. 
There are now at least fifty studies 
on various animals and plants that 
show some deficiencies in the trans- 
lation machinery from one cell type 
to another. (Some cancer cells, it 
now appears, may have reacquired 
lost translating ability, perhaps as a 
result of "cancer virus" infection.) 



Two findings by Michael Bick 
and the author are extremely per- 
tinent in this regard. The first was 
that extracts from old soybean coty- 
ledon tissue are unable to fully 
carry out the step involved just 
prior to the decoding of genetic in- 
formation. (This step is the attach- 
ment of the proper amino acid to 
the right decoder molecule.) Young 
tissues, however, were perfectly ca- 
pable of doing this. 

The second finding was that old 
tissues contain a substance that spe- 
cifically seems to block this step. 
These findings imply that the tissue 
is programmed to manufacture a 
"self-poison" (possibly similar to 
the chalones) late in its lifetime, 
and that such a "poison" effectively 
blocks the production of materials 
needed for an indefinite existence. 
The lifetime of this very tissue can 
be extended manyfold by applying 
a specific plant hormone, kinetin, 
to the tissue before it ages. 

Equally important is an unpub- 
lished finding by Gerald Hirsch. He 
found that cellular material present 
in extracts of liver cells was unable 
to produce free soluble proteins if it 
was given a message from another 
tissue. These experiments imply 
that different cells do have different 
languages. 

Roger Johnson and the author 
have recently made another promis- 
ing discovery that may be the 
needed principle that will tie to- 
gether many of the seemingly dif- 
ferent effects of the aging process. 
Working with dog tissues, we found 
that nondividing cells lose a par- 
ticular kind of DNA. This DNA is 
involved in the manufacture of the 
machinery needed to produce any 
kind of protein, the working parts 
of all cells. This genetic material, 
known as rDNA, codes for the ri- 
bonucleic acid that is part of the 
ribosomes— the machines through 
which the genetic messages are 
threaded as they are translated into 
working proteins. 

It may be highly significant that, 
in the studies completed so far, this 
loss of rDNA occurs only in nondi- 
viding cells— brain, heart, skeletal 
muscle. Liver and kidney cells, for 
example, do not show such losses. 
The net effect of the gradual loss of 
some of this genetic material would 
be to reduce the maximum rate at 
which protein could be synthesized 
under stress. Thus, such different 



afflictions of the elderlv as heart 
failure (which requires the manu- 
facture of heart muscle proteins if it 
is to be prevented), inability to de- 
tect and reject cancer cells (which 
requires the rapid manufacture of 
antibody-like substances to kill off 
the aberrant cells), and a decrease 
in the efficiency of the hormonal 
systems (such as occurs in adult-on- 
set diabetes) may all be ascribable 
to this fundamental loss of rDNA in 
nondividing cells. Studies are now 
under way to test a few of these im- 
plications. 

It would be too sanguine to state 
at this time that vital functions 
could be regenerated simply by re- 
instating lost abilities to decode one 
or a few code words. What is 
needed, of course, is research to 
find out whether this simple, though 
versatile, mechanism really domi- 
nates the control of development 
and aging. 

Predicting what wiU happen in, 
say, the next ten years in the field 
of understanding and controlling 
the biological aging process is about 
like giving a 10-day weather fore- 
cast. We know enough about the 
present situation and the main 
trends in this area of science to 
make an educated guess as to what 
will happen. Barring unforeseen 
breakthroughs in other areas of bio- 
medicine that might provide impor- 
tant insights into the aging process, 
the key, limiting factor is whether 
the needed specific effort will be 
supported by society. This is an un- 
settled question right now. 

One reason that research on ag- 
ing has not received the emphasis it 
deserves has to do with the aging of 
bureaucracies themselves. New bu- 
reaus and institutes are often vital 
organizations; as they grow older 
they are concerned more with main- 
taining the status quo than with 
imaginative progress. 

Within the government (the logi- 
cal source of funds for basic re- 
search), two agencies have a prime 
interest and obligation toward the 
health of the elderly: the National 
Institutes of Health and the Veter- 
ans Administration. The National 
Institutes of Health has been 
charged with responsibility for sup- 
port of resccirch on medical prob- 
lems; the Veterans Administration 
has responsibility for caring for the 
veterans of our wars. But both 
agencies are hampered by in- 



82 



adequate budgets. 

Resean'h on aging sutilers troni a 
particular disadvantage within tlie 
National Institutes of Health be- 
cause of an absence of experts in 
decision making and advisory posts 
sufficientlv awai-e of the details of 
the process. Instead research pro- 
posals are sent to groups of special- 
ists in bacterial genetics, in epi- 
deniiologv, cell biology, or general 
biochemistr\ . The members of each 
of these review panels or study sec- 
tions are, almost without exception, 
leading members of the biomedical 
research communitv. But, il the re- 
view comments this autlior has seen 
are representative, thev are quite 
underinformed about the status of 
aging research— a field that is alien 
to their natural interests and, m 
fact, competitive with the profes- 
sional objectives (funding) of most 
panel members. 

For a brief time, just before the 
last election, it looked as though the 
starvation period for research on ag- 
ing was about to end, for Congress 
had passed (bv almost unanimous 
votes in both houses) a bill that 
would have established a National 
Institute for Research on Aging. It 
was jointly sponsored by leading 
members of both parties and sup- 
ported bv all of the research and 
service organizations concerned 
with the needs of the elderly. This 
biU created the institute that was 
unanimously called for by the rep- 
resentatives to the 1971 White 
House Conference on Aging (Re- 
search and Demonstration Section), 
convened by the President in De- 
cember, 1971. 

The euphoria in the aging re- 
search communitv was short-lived, 
however, for the President killed 
the bill by pocket veto. The reasons 
given for the veto were: (1) it would 
cost $200,000,0(X) and (2) the 
work would duplicate work already 
being carried out within the govern- 
ment. Obviously, there has been 
some failure in communication, for 
it is hard to believe that a highly in- 
telligent man would have made this 
decision if he had been apprised of 
all of the relevant facts. Perhaps the 
present governmental shake-up will 
open the lines of communication 
and give the President a more bal- 
anced view of the needs and op- 
portunities in this field of research 
when the bill once again is passed 
and reaches his desk. 




NOT EVEN A TENNESSEE WINTER changes the 
temperature of Jack Daniel's limestone spring. 

Our spring runs year 'round at exactly 56°. (Our ducks 
are glad of that.) And it's completely iron free. Our 'stiller 
is particularly glad of that because iron is murderous to 
whiskey. That's why Jack Daniel 
started our distillery here over a 
century ago. And we've never seen 
fit to change anything Mr. Jack 
started. After a sip of our whiskey, 
we trust, you'll be glad of that. 




CHARCOAL 
MELLOWED 

DROP 

t 
BY DROP 



TENNESSEE WHISKEY • 90 PROOF c 1972, Jack Daniel Distillery, Lem Motlow, Prop., inc. 

DISTILLED AND BOTTLED BY JACK DANIEL DISTILLERY- LYNCHBURG (POP. 361), TENNESSEE 

83 




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What happens in the next ten 
years thus depends directly on a to- 
tal imponderable. If the institute is 
established and adequately and 
imaginatively funded and adminis- 
tered, it seems likely that by the 
year 1983 we will understand, in 
depth, the details of cellular and 
bodily aging. If no special effort is 
made to understand this most uni- 
versal of all human afflictions, the 
date of understanding and possible 
control wiU be pushed back to the 
beginning of the twenty-first cen- 
tury, a date too late to benefit most 
of us alive today. 

The eventual understanding and 
control of the aging process will 
cause a revolution in human affairs. 
Already a few studies are under 
way on the social consequences of 
greatly retarding or abolishing ag- 
ing and death. A few misconcep- 
tions should, however, first be laid 
to rest. Some of the evidently mis- 
informed opponents of greater, 
healthy life-spans seem to believe 
that the world would become popu- 
lated with decrepit, patched-up, wi- 
zened, senile people, perhaps fed 
through tubes and moving with the 
aid of electronic prostheses. This 
ugly picture is totally false, for 



there is no way to appreciably in- 
crease life-span except by improv- 
ing the body's physical state. In- 
stead, humans that live for 150 
years or more will be healthy for a 
much greater percentage of their to- 
tal life-span. Men and women of 
highly advanced age will possess 
bodies like those of much younger 
people. In fact, their minds will be 
even more improved, for the greater 
years of optimum health will pro- 
vide more opportunity to assimilate 
the world's wonders and lead to a 
greater measure of wisdom— the 
only intellectual commodity that of- 
ten improves with age. 

Because the healthy middle years 
of life will be doubled from the 
present 30 or 40 years, each indi- 
vidual will spend more time as a 
contributor to society. The average 
professional of today requires 25 to 
30 years to acquire his training— 
mostly at the expense of the produc- 
ing members of society. If the post- 
training years were doubled, every 
person could give much more back 
to the pool of resources from which 
he derived his start. 

As the societies of the world 
evolve, there will be many changes 
in the kinds of creative activities 




Based on blood flow through the kidneys. 




"The literary event of the 
year" -gene shalit, Today 

"A major work ... as impor- 
tant as it is captivating" 

—Publishers Weekly 

Now reproduced in a su- 
perb, color-precise edition 
with 128 full-color, full- 
page portraits 

The famous item of Ameri- 
cana that rare-hook dealers 
have heen seHing for thou- 
sands of dollars. 

Conceived by Colonel Thomas L. 
McKennev, Superintendent of the 
Bureaus of Indian Trade and 
Indian Affairs under four Presi- 
dents — and first published in 
1836 in a 3-portfoIio set — this 
historic work is now available 
in one moderately-priced volume 
for the first time. 

With each of the 128 full-color 
portraits of prominent Indian 
chiefs and women of virtually all 
American tribes, there is a con- 
cise biography written especially 
for this edition — along with the 
first full-scale biography of Col. 
NfcKenney. In addition to the 
full-color plates, this magnificent 
9" X 12" volume also includes 
100 woodcuts, linecuts. and maps. 

S23 until February 28, 1973; $29.95 
thereafter. First and limited edition, 
SIOO. Now at your bookstore, or 

"^^/tffU/K PUBLISHERS 

419 Park Ave. S., New York, N.Y. 10016 



open to men and women. Pe<)[)li' 
with many decades of" optiimini 
health will find it desirable, il' nol 
necessary, to move from one kind 
of occupation to another. One wav 
in which continual retraining in 
new skills and professions could 
well take place would be throutrh a 
regular system of educational 
leaves-with-pay, much like the sab- 
batical system that now operates in 
universities. Every five or seven 
years, a person could take a year or 
so to acquire new skills and to re- 
furbish old ones. Plans should be 
made now for the restructuring of 
educational institutions so that a 
continuing re-education will be- 
come the rule rather than the ex- 
ception. 

As machines take over the more 
onerous and repetitive tasks men 
have performed, opportunities for 
new careers in the so-called service 
area will evolve. It is unfortunate 
that there is not a better word than 
service (from the same root as the 
word sen^ant) to describe the kinds 
of creative things people can do to 
make each other's lives enjoyable. 
Such efforts range from art, music, 
poetry, and beautiful gardens, to 
the care of children, entertainment, 
and creative conversation. As men 
escape from a subsistence society, 
in which work must be done to 
provide for life's necessities, a 
much more fulfilling kind of work, 
one directed toward the improved 
enjoyment of life, will come to 
dominate. 

In time, all of these joyous 
prophecies will probably come 
about anyway, provided we have 
wisdom, foresight, and a little luck. 
But they will be available to those 
who read these pages only if the 
minuscule investment needed to un- 
derstand and perhaps control hu- 
man aging is made m this coming 
decade. What is commonly termed 
the Protestant ethic encourages 
some sacrifice now (work, saving, 
investment, education, research) in 
order to derive greater benefits in 
the future. After nearly a decade of 
disparagement and eclipse, it seems 
once again to be revealing its wis- 
dom. One can only hope that this 
resurgence in the appreciation of 
investment wiU extend to what is 
needed to assure a healthier, longer 
life for all— basic research on the 
most universal human affliction, ag- 
ing itself. * 




QUESTAR PHOTOGRAPHS CLAVIUS 

This portion of the moon showing the crater Clavius 
is port of a 35 mm. enlargement which is longer than 
the telescope that took the picture. It demonstrates 
the incredible resolution of Questar, the optical giant 
thot weighs only 7 pounds and travels in a leather 
case less than a cubic foot in size. 

There are more than 150 photographs, both astro- 
nomical and terrestrial, taken by Questar owners, in 
the Questar booklet, which describes the world's finest, 
most versatile telescope. To obfoin your copy, send 
$1 to cover mailing and handling costs on this con- 
tinent. By air fo South America, $2.50; Europe and 
North Africa, $3; elsewhere, $3.50. 



BOX 60M NEW HOPE, PA. 18938 
QUESTAR 3'/2 IN ITS POLAR EQUATORIAL POSITION 





TODAY WE'RE ALIVE 
THANKS TO YOU! 

But frankly, we still need your help. So 
without any further ado, we would now ask 
you to continue in the battle to keep alive and 
free, the heritage of East African wildlife that 
belongs to everyone-especially you. What a 
pity it would be should your child's next ques- 
tion be "What WAS ..." rather than "What 
IS a Cheetah?" But that could be the case 
rith cats and other species if the numerous 
activities of the East African Wild Life Society 
e to be curtailed for lack of f urvJs. Cheetah, 
I, leopard and other animals of the region 
if not protected, may take their place in the 
history books, alongside the Dodo, just as 
dead, just as extinct. 

The East African Wild Life Society founded 
in 1961 is a non-profit, non governmental 
agency assisting the three East African repub- 
lics of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in the 
development of game conservation. The facts 
and figures of its performance rnay be seen 
in its numerous activities, such as pollution 
study, anti poaching work, research, educa- 
tion and animal rescue. During the 1970 to '72 
period, accomplished and projected plans 
amount to $185,000.00. Membership and inte 
rest in the Society is up, there's none other 
like it in the animal kingdom! But costs and 
commitment are recurrent-and there's always 
m for one more in the ark. Your readership 
proves your interest. 

Become a member now, and receive FREE 
the quarterly magazine AFRICANA. And avail 
able for sale to all. are ties, cars badges, wild 
life jewellery, and prints decals, shoulder 
patches, scientific journals, Christmas Cards, 
and calendars. 



EAST AFRICAN 
WILD LIFE SOCIETY 

P. 0. Box 20110, Nairobi Kenya, 

Please enroll me as a member. 

I enclose $10.00 for a year's subscription. 

Namn 

Address , 



NH 



Books in Review 



Social Systems, Sex, 



Amazonian Cosmos, by Gerardo 
Reichel-Dolmatoff. The University 
of Chicago Press, $12.50; 290 pp., 
illus. 

Cultural anthropologists are fi- 
nally coming around to con- 
firming what ecologists have long 
felt must be true but have not had 
the data to demonstrate: that where 
man lives dependent only on the re- 
sources within his_ tribe's home 
range, his destiny is set by the car- 
rying capacity of that home range, 
just as it is for other animals. Most 
recent cultural anthropology either 
brings its descriptive guns to bear 
on the way the tribe harvests its re- 
sources or describes the social glue 
that holds that resource-harvest ma- 
chine together. Few studies deal 
with the coevolution of the tribe's 
social institutions and the proper- 
ties of the resources in the home 
range. 

Reichel-Dolmatoff has taken on 
this difficult task in Amazonian 
Cosmos, and has done a masterful 



job of showing us how the sexual 
sociology and psychology of the De- 
sana Indians of the Northwest Ama- 
zon is highly adaptive in the context 
of maintaining a stable tribal den- 
sity in a rain forest with a river run- 
ning through it. 

Before digging deeper, I would 
like to comment on an aspect of re- 
source harvest philosophy that un- 
derlies his analysis. Anthropologists 
often take the low density of primi- 
tive human populations as an in- 
dication that they are not at their 
terrain's carrying capacity, and as- 
sume therefore that their behavior 
need not be seen as having co- 
evolved with that carrying capacity. 
From an ecologist's viewpoint, this 
would be like failing to recognize 
that two species of birds could have 
different carrying capacities on the 
same acre of forest, depending on 
the way each catches insects and 
depending on what size insects they 
each need. In this situation, the 
bird has done most of the evolving 
and the habitat little. 




by Daniel H. Janzen 



ind Sui^vival 




All the evidence indicates that 
this is also true of most primitive 
men. Modern man, however, is very 
close to the other end of the spec- 
trum. He changes (evolves) his envi- 
ronment to meet his needs and fan- 
cies, and himself changes little. 
However, it is clear that the basic 
cultural information that he uses to 
guide his current activities has 
strong roots in those days when he 
was intermediate— an organism 
strongly coevolving with his envi- 
ronment. In Amazonian Cosmos, 
the analytical description of the De- 
sana gets us to the very heart of this 
coevolution. 

As Reichel-Dolmatoff says, he 
was most fortunate in finding a na- 
tive informant who had been reared 
in the tribe under rules unperturbed 
by the introjection of foreign tech- 
nologies and social goals. Yet the 
informant, Antonio Guzman, had 
later made the adjustment to Co- 
lumbian Spanish culture, which is 
no mean feat as any participant in a 
cross-cultural marriage can testify. 



If it is to be done well, such an ad- 
justment requires extraordinary in- 
trospective ability and psychologi- 
cal awareness, as well as a good 
deal of practice. Both the ability 
and the practice contributed greatly 
to Reichel-DolmatofPs success in 
extracting from Guzman far more 
than a mere description of the way 
the Desana run their lives. And it is 
comforting to note in postscript that 
Reichel-Dolmatoff was eventually 
able to visit the Desana and cor- 
roborate Guzman's interpretations 
of his childhood milieu. 

The basic problem faced by the 
Desana is that of any territorial ani- 
mal. How do you adjust harvest 
rates so that only the natural inter- 
est is removed? In short, how do 
you keep from hunting too much? 
Second, how do you adjust birth- 
rates so that nobody starves? I may 
add a reminder here— death by star- 
vation of a preproductive human 
means not only the loss of an indi- 
vidual from the tribe and a waste of 
the parents' physical reserves, it 



AN AMERICAN 

INDIAN CHILD 

WANTS YOU AS 

A SPONSOR AND 

PERSONAL FRIEND 



He's poor, cold, and futureless 
without your friendship. You 
have it within your power to 
lift one Indian child from the 
despair of appalHng hardship to 
a brighter life of hope and joy 
and personal pride. 

Sponsoring an American Indian 
child through Futures For Chil- 
dren works many wonders: 

• Keeps "your child" in school 
by directly financing shoes, 
clothing, and other necessi- 
ties. (Right now many Indian 
children have little more than 
the threadbare clothes on 
their backs.) 

• Opens a new world beyond 
the reservation through a 
friendly exchange of personal 
letters. 

• Provides hope, self-esteem 
and confidence — for the first 
time in your child's life. 

Decide now to sponsor a young 
Indian boy or girl. It will be a 
rewarding experience for your 
entire family. 

I II 

FUTURES FOR CHILDREN 
5612 Parkston Road, 
Washington, D.C. 20016 

n Yes, I (we) want to spon- 
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D a boy n a girl D either 

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$180 annually) 

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87 



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1966 BROADWAY. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10023 

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Records at $5.95 each (plus 60* postage and 
handling). Enclosed is my check or money order 

for It I am not completely satisfied, 

I will return the book within 15 days for a full 
refund. 



Make check/money order payable lo 

Book Of World Records Member Belter 

© Broadway Bookfinders, 1972 Business Burca 



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P.O. Box 775 Lewlston, Idaho 83501 



also means the loss of all the mate- 
rial that was useti to support the 
chiltJ until its tieath. 

The Desana, like most oilier 
tribes with a Stone Age technology 
and in tune with their environ- 
ment's carrying capacities, maintain 
a balance through a complex inter- 
play of sexuality anti resource har- 
vest, which is for the most part 
hunting in the Amazonian rain for- 
est. Perhaps the most telling sen- 
tences in the entire book are to be 
found where Reichel-Dolmatoff 
summarizes Guzman's description 
and analysis of Desana creation 
mythology: "Spiritually and psy- 
chologically, the Desana is not an 
individual we would call contented, 
balanced, and adjusted. His sense 
of being a man is dominated by the 
constant conflict between his at- 
tempts to balance the normal grati- 
fication of his sexual impulses and 
the prohibitions that his culture im- 
poses on him." 

So what's new about this? All we 
have to do is look next door to 
make the same statement in a mod- 
ern society. In the other direction, 
if a male baboon could speak, his 
analysis would sound about the 
same. It makes us painfully aware 
that our incredible advances in re- 
source gathering have not been ac- 
companied by an et^ally advanced 
coevolution of psychological aware- 
ness with the ability to generate re- 
alistic sets of aspirations. Reading 
about the Desana Indians, and com- 
paring what you see in modern cul- 
ture, can be a most educational ex- 
perience. 

Guzman, Reichel-Dolmatoff, and 
most of modern society seem to 
have missed the realization that the 
conflict between a person's desires 
and his resources is the inevitable 
result of a social system that allows 
the depletion of its resources to tell 
it when to stop— rather than arbi- 
trarily setting the number of people 
substantially below possible carry- 
ing capacity. Only with the human 
density held significantly below the 
carrying capacity can we have a sys- 
tem where individuals are allowed 
to pursue their own whims without 
constantly coming up against natu- 
ral controls that say "thou shalt 
not. . . J' 

Reichel-Dolmatoff and Guzman 
have done us a great service by 
documenting a large number of 
these social and natural controls in 




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^BOOK HUNTING?^ 

Virtually any book located — no matter how 
old or long out-of-piint. Fiction, nonfiction. 
All authors, subjects. Name the book — we'll 
find It! (Title alone !s sufficient) Inquire, 
please. Write: Dept. 64. 

BOOKS-ON-FILE 
UNION CITY, NEW JERSEY 07087 



Di'sana culture. Some arc (il)\iiius 
in their adaptive significance. I)ut 
many are obscure and may be des- 
tined to remain so. Their obscurity 
often Hes in our inabihty to see the 
total set of forces operatino; to keep 
a Desana tribe at a giyen consumer 
level. We cannot see how much re- 
source is really there ((>ven the De- 
sana have difficidtv determining 
this). We will often miss the adap- 
ti\e meaning of rules that had their 
origin in dealing with the unpre- 
dictable nature of resource fluctua- 
tion. We cannot know to what de- 
gree social behavior is set by the 
tools at hand and to what degree 
the tools at hand are set bv social 
behavior. 

We may even be dealing with 
some traits that were of direct adap- 
tive significance historically, but 
ai-e now of indirect adaptive signifi- 
cance as convenient symbols. That 
is, it would cost more socially to re- 
move them than to leave them im- 
bedded in a cun-ently socially adap- 
tive pattern. There are modern 
analogies galore; Detroit can make 
a burglarproof car, but the cost is so 
high that it is cheaper to have a cer- 
tain number of cars stolen each 
year. 

Some of the social controls in 
Desana culture are worth empha- 
sizing. Bear in mind that we are 
looking at hardly more than a Stone 
Age culture, but nevertheless a cul- 
ture that has to live off only the nat- 
ural interest of its home range, leav- 
ing the natural capital untouched. 
"A man who sires more than two or 
three children will be considered 
socially irresponsible and con- 
temptible," and "is accused of 
being a bad husband and of causing 
too much work for his wife." Birth 
control is achieved through absti- 
nence and contraception: "The 
women simply use mixtures of cer- 
tain herbs that seem to have a very 
strong contraceptive action." 

Abstinence is no simple thing 
and falls primarily on the shoulders 
of the male. It is very cleverly re- 
lated to the amount of meat harvest. 
To be a successful hunter, it is be- 
lieved that the man must not dis- 
sipate his sexual energy. He must 
abstain for three or more davs be- 
fore hunting and for several days af- 
ter. "The hunt is practically a 
courtship and a sexual act, an event 
that must be prepared for with great 
care in accordance with the strictest 




Lars-Eric Lindblad invites you 

to meet the medieval Komodo dragon. 



Embark on an Indonesian cruising 
expedition which offers a rare oppor- 
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all the way from Bali eastward to 
Sumba and Tutuala on Timor You 
will go ashore on many other islands 
and witness unique Indonesian 
dances You may purchase rare and 
interesting artifacts In West Irian 
you will meet remarkable tribesmen 
whose way of life has hardly changed 



since the stone age. Then while sail- 
ing west again along a different route, 
you will step ashore on the volcanic 
islands of Damar and Nila where 
immense diversity and strangeness 
in animal life awaits you. On Komodo 
we invite you to meet the nine-foot 
Komodo dragon, largest in the world. 
Sailings are scheduled from May 
through October Please write for 
our informative brochure. 

LINDBLAD TRAVEL, INC. 

Dept NHA273 

133 East 55th Street, New York, N Y 10022 



TRAVEL THE WORLD OF LINDBLAD 



TIME IS RUNNING OUT FOR 

THOSE WHO DREAM OF A BEAUTIFUL 

LITTLE COTTAGE BY THE SEA. 

Many still dream of a quiet place by the sea, and yet there 
are only a few left. Pine Knoll Shores is one of them. 

This rare community is tucked away in tall timber and 
thick vegetation on an island off the coast of North Carolina. 

It's ideal for a vacation retreat, retirement or an invest- 
ment, because we intend to keep it the peaceful place that it is. 
We have a beautiful booklet describing Pine Knoll Shores. 
Its people. And the types of homes that have been built. 
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I But for somebody else p||^E K|||Q|J[ SHORES 

Write Dept.294, Pine Knoll Shores, P.O.Box 736, Morehead City, N.C.28557 




City/ state/ Zip 

This offer is not effective in Florida. A statement and offering statement has been tiled with 
the Department of State of the State of New York. The filing does not constitute approval of 
the sale or lease or offer for sale or lease by the Department of State or any officer thereof 
or that the Department of State has in any way passed upon the merits of such offering. A copy 
of the offering statement is available, upon request, from the subdivider and in addition thereto 
the assigned advertising number. NYA #1080 1. 



SCENIC SMOOTH 
WATER CRUISES 




Modern, cozy, well-appointed cabins. Each with its own 
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Stops most nights, 

FLORIDA TO RHODE ISLAND. ] 4 Days In May. Via Intercoastat 
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norms. The verb to hunt is . . . 
translated as 'to make love to the 
animals.' " I might add here that 
we have a not-so-primitive parallel 
in the Spanish language— cazar 
meaning to hunt and casar meaning 
to marry. 

The amount of game taken has 
another major control system: the 
belief that each large game animal 
represents the soul of a dead per- 
son. If there is a shortage of large 
game, it is up to the shaman (paye), 
through negotiations with higher-or- 
der spirits, to determine if more 
souls (animals) can be released to 
be taken as game. Since souls are a 
rather ill-defined unit of barter and 
can come from deaths in other 
tribes, the shaman becomes a major 
evaluator of how much hunting is to 
be allowed, and has the means at 
his disposal to control it. It is of in- 
terest that all such systems deflect 
responsibility away from the person 
who must make the decision to take 
an action, such as hunting. 

As alluded to earlier, much of 
the tribal social structure generates 
psychological anxiety. "In various 
ritual activities man fertilizes na- 
ture, but at the price of a great sac- 
rifice in the sphere of his own sex- 
uality. The fundamental rule of the 
hunter is sexual abstinence, and 
this rule demands a level of repres- 
sion that cannot but lead to a 
state of profound anxiety." After 
Reichel-Dolmatoff describes a long 
Hst of the illnesses that beset the 
Desana, it becomes clear that they 
have very few serious pathogens, 
but they do have "a wide category 
of psychosomatic diseases with hys- 



terical overtones." The majority of 
the diverse cures involve "symbolic 
acts of coitus and rebirth" and 
"demonstrate a perspicacity and in- 
sight into the psychological mecha- 
nisms that undoubtedly are very ef- 
ficient in achieving at least a 
temporary cure." Interestingly, such 
things as snakebite are treated with- 
out the intervention of the shaman. 
Reichel-Dolmatoff was able to 
construct a detailed chart of the De- 
sana's pattern of resource harvest 
through the year. While we do not 
know the total environment from 
which they draw their food and ma- 
terials, we can say that the pattern 
is sufficiently complex that its 
proper execution requires careful 
adherence to rules by most of the 
people in the small tribe. Antonio 
Guzman has given us the back- 
ground for a strong inference that 
much of the control that the group 
exerts over the individual is medi- 
ated through his or her sexuality. 
May I finish by pointing out that it 
was in reading Amazonian Cosmos 
that the reasons for the social taboo 
against masturbation first became 
clear— and somewhat terrifying. It 
is clear that our culture is likewise 
held together in great part through 
programmed sexual repression and 
release; the individual who mastur- 
bates has discovered a private es- 
cape from this sexual repression 
and in many ways has the potential 
of being very disruptive to society. 

Daniel H. Janzen is associate professor 
of zoology at the University of Michi- 
gan and has conducted ecological 
studies in Central America. 




90 



Africanity: The Cultural Unity 
OF Bl^ck Africa, bv Jacques Ma- 
quet. Oxford Universitv Press, 
$7.95: 188 pp.. illus. 

Books on At'rica are written 
todav bv almost any visitor 
to the continent who wants to be 
regarded as an "expert" on a part 
of the world that is politically im- 
portant, smartlv fashionable, and 
still little known except for its 
animals. Books on the people who 
live in Africa, bv those who know 
what they are writing about, who 
have both an intensive and exten- 
sive personal knowledge and— 
even rarer — a historical and com- 
parative understanding of the con- 
tinent, are verv unusual. No criti- 
cism in these terms can possibly 
be made of the author of this 
book. Jacques Maquet has a long 
and deep experience of Africa; he 
is also a distinguished anthropolo- 
gist whose manv and influential 
writings show him to have an em- 
pathy with, and a scholarly com- 
prehension of, the peoples of Af- 
rica, their hopes and aspirations 
for their future, and their pride 
and nostalgia for their past. 

Maquet begins with a dis- 
cussion of what is meant by Afri- 
can culture: what does it mean to 
be an African? He points out that 
to be black is hardly enough, an 
unfashionable view but a true one. 
As he says, "The African child is 
born Black but becomes African" 
and reminds us that "Harlem 
. . . still is not Africa." To be 
African is a part of cultural tradi- 
tion and behavior. "Life-styles and 
work-styles are the heart of the 
matter: human behavior and 
things made in a social group." 
This cultural view of the world 
Maquet calls Africanity, a some- 
what cumbersome word in 
English, defined by him as "[the] 
unique cultural face that Africa 
presents to the world." It is of 
course all too easy to prefer to 
forget the difficult concept of cul- 
ture and to call upon racial views 
alone, views that are in a sense 
beyond proof and need only faith 
to be accepted. But as the author 
writes, "Africans did not create 
Africanity because they are black" 
and "The cultural unity of Africa 
does not rest on a mysterious Af- 
rican soul, an ideal essence or a 
certcdn way of feeling, but on a 




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material base: the similarity of ac- 
quisition and production and their 
low yield." He continues during 
the chapter on "The Sources of 
Africanity" to discuss the ecologi- 
cal, historical, and other factors 
that make for a sense of unity 
within Africa and yet permit the 
myriad variations of that common 
culture from one society to an- 
other. Maquet groups these many 
cultures into six major ways of 
life, or civilizations: that of the 
bow, that of the clearings, that of 
the granaries, that of the spear, 
that of the cities, and finally that 
of steel, or industry. Although I 
have reservations about the mean- 
ingfulness of this classification, this 
section is one of the best overviews I 
have read on the nature of African 
culture; although terse, it is neither 
facile nor sentimental. 

The central chapter is on the 
contents of Africanity, and it is a 
sensible summing up of anthropo- 
logical knowledge of African so- 
cieties. It covers the usual topics: 
birth and socialization, kinship 
and family, religion and magic, 
initiation, marriage, jural and so- 
cial rules, government, and art. 
The necessary compression of data 
has not led to any gross sim- 
plification: there is simplification 
indeed, but not at the expense of 
discussion of the basic cultural 
and social principles of African 
society. The section on art is as 
good as the author's well-deserved 
reputation in that field would have 
us expect. The only criticism of 
this chapter is in its lack of de- 
mographic and other background 
data: one does not want tables of 
figures, but some harder informa- 
tion than we are given would help 
us see the continent more clearly. 

There follows a chapter on the 
future of Africanity. This is not as 
good as the preceding sections. 
Professor Maquet's forte is his un- 
derstanding of the traditional in 
African culture, and he seems not 
so happy in the discussion of 
modern democracy, military rule, 
and the like. The same preference 
results in one drawback in his 
coverage of societies: his virtual 
exclusion from consideration of 
urban life and the increasing ur- 
banization and social stratification 
of today, with the cruel problems 
of underemployment and urban 
and rural poverty. 




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Naturalist^s 
Safari in Persia 

November 4 to 25, 1973 

A most interesting tour for a maxitnum of 
twenty people whose interests lie in coun- 
try things — plant hunting, seed collecting, 
watching and photographing birds and 
animals in their natural surroundings, 
walking or riding in unspoiled country- 
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life reserve, a royal game lodge, and a 
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92 



The book ends with thumbnail 
sketches of one hundred African 
societies. These are not very 
meaningful, and instead of being 
geographically dispersed and typi- 
cal, far too great an emphasis is 
given to societies in the Congo re- 
gion where Maquet has done most 
of his research. There is a useful 
reading list and the photographs 
are excellent. 

This is a good book, and has 
been well translated bv Joan Ray- 
field from the original French ver- 
sion published in 1967. It is an 
excellent effort to produce some- 
thing that is very difficult: an in- 
troduction to a complex subject 
that does not fall into the easy 
paths of racism, condescension, or 
sentimentality. 

John Middleton 
University of London 



A God Within, by Rene Dubos. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, $8.95; 325 
pp. 

I read this book with several pur- 
poses in mind: to obtain a bet- 
ter image of its author, a man I do 
not know but do greatly admire; to 
accumulate facts for mv own pur- 
poses; and to determine point by 
point whether I would have pro- 
ceeded and concluded as the author 
did. 

I can very quickly say that read- 
ing A God Within was valuable to 
me; at least twenty-five items in the 
selected bibUography have been 
marked for future study. There is a 
wealth of material in this book. Dr. 
Dubos emerges from these pages, I 
might add, as a kind and thoughtful 
human being, a valuable citizen, a 
stimulating companion. My admira- 
tion for him continues. 

Would I have written as he has 
in A God Within? Do I agree with 
the many threads of his main argu- 
ment? Not entirely. It seems to me 
that he has said many of the "right" 
things, but has then diminished his 
own effectiveness by ambivalence, 
or worse. 

The god within, according to 
Dubos, is "the manifestation of the 
attributes we each derive from our 
hereditary endowment and our ex- 
perential past." Herein Ues the di- 
versity of mankind. No two individ- 
uals are genetically identical; no 
two sequences of experiences and 




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The American Museum 

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presents 

a 9'day summer 

c^Jature Study l!our 

June 4-I2f 1973 

Centering on the Lake Cayuga area, in New York's Finger Lakes 
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93 



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environmental encounters are the 
same. Large groups of persons dif- 
fer genetically from one another in 
systematic ways. Local geographies 
and local customs vary from one an- 
other. From this multitude of varia- 
tions arise the individuals, diverse 
in heredity and experiences, who 
collectively constitute mankind. 

A God Within has been written 
in praise of diversity. It has, how- 
ever, also been written to identify 
the demon within. The demonic 
force in the modern world is identi- 
fied by Dubos as the attitude that 
"we shall do certain things simply 
because we know how to do them." 
Dubos does not identify technology 
as the demon; rather, it is the atti- 
tude, the propensity to consider 
means as ends. 

In his book Dubos has said the 
right things. Natural resources, for 
example, should not be squandered 
by a few generations of greedy men. 
If not corrected immediately, the 
disordered relationships between 
man and environment shall destroy 
the fitness of the planet for human 
life. Technology is acting, if not as 
man's master, at least as a molder 
of his destiny. The real prophets of 
doom are those optimists who see 
the future merely as more growth. 
The Faustian way of individual life 
is the way to racial death. The 
mythical need for more and more 
electric power is suicidal. The hope 
for the future lies, not in tech- 
nological fixes (which Dubos des- 
pises), but in intelligent social de- 
sign. 

In making the above points, 
Dubos does not underestimate ei- 
ther the difficulty of changing indi- 
vidual attitudes or of untangling 
existing relationships. For instance, 
he mentions the complex inter- 
relationships between working 
habits, automobile transportation, 
the packaging industry, and other 
aspects of life; these make it easier 
to merely manipulate details than to 
bring about significant changes. Ad- 
diction is an appropriate term for 
describing such relationships. In us- 
ing the private automobile (rather 
than public transportation) and 
chemical inseicticides (rather than 
biological control), man alters him- 
self and his world so that his origi- 
nal choices are virtually irrever- 
sible. He becomes hooked. 

In what ways does Dubos dis- 
sipate his effectiveness? First, he re- 



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94 




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kind that have made Saturday Review 
the brain'prodder it has always been. 



Photography. Design. Dance. Sculpture. 

These departments will spot 
trends, report on coming events, revisit desert, 
forgotten masters, provide glimpses of 
the personalities behind art news. 

But Saturday Review of The Arts 
will not confine itself to the traditional 
cultural categories. The magazine will 
set no artificial limits to its scope. 

Here are some articles that you'll 
be reading in Saturday Review of The Arts: 

(("China On Stage"— probably the 
first piece the American readers will see on 
the opera m Communist China. It will be 
written by Lois Snow, wife of Edgar Snow. 

C["The Ups And Downs Of 
Richard Diebenkorn"— the West Coast 
painter who has been "banished" repeatedly 
by the New York art establishment but keeps 
bouncing back and leading new waves. 



Architecture. Literature. Painting. 

(("Stravinsky In Copenhagen, 
1934"— story on an episode in the life of 
Igor Stravinsky. A personal glimpse into 
his life takes place in 1934 m Copenhagen 
and thus new insight into what he was 
before he became the great Igor. 

(("Grub Street"— Cliiford Irving 
belongs to an honorable line of fakers. 

(("International Carnival of 
Experimental Sound." 

(("Shiraz Festival: Taking Care 
of the Luxuries." John Ashbery at a 
wonderful music and theatre festival 
in a town called Shiraz. An interesting 
contrast arises: advant garde music and 
theatre in the middle of the Iranian 



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95 



lers in a pejorative manner lo 
')jio|>liels of doom." Who are tlievy 
In many eyes, Duhos, liimself, is a 
jjjopliel of (Joom; lience, l)y failing 
lo iiienlil\ his own targets, he only 
suireeds in mailing one oi' liimself 
Second, he denigrates professional 
ecologists. It is, at hest, trivial to 
say that an environment judged to 
he fit only for rats and roai:hes is so 
judged thi'ough human eyes, not 
through those of rats or roaches. 
Third, I feel thai he criticizes Jay 
W. Forrester in a way that creates 
an uimecessary gap hetween Duhos 
and the computer group at MIT. 
Computers are necessary for solving 
certain pjohlems; this does not 
mean (as Duhos implies) that in us- 
ing them we must deliver ourselves 
unto them. 

Finally, Duhos makes what seem 
to he nonsensical statements harm- 
ful to his own case. I cannot agree, 
for example, that Stonehenge and 



other temples ol' the world have ex- 
acted as large a toll from nature as 
have modern industrial plants. 
Temples have neither exacted as 
much from, nor introduced as many 
|)oisonous wastes into, the environ- 
ment. Nor can 1 admit thai the be- 
witching charm of Paris or R(jme 
has not been affected h\ tlie motor 
cai'. 

Moi-e impoilani, pi-ihaps, than 
the dissipation of elfecliveness de- 
scribed above is the choice of au- 
dience Dubos should have made lo 
maximize his impact. A God 
Within represents a type of schol- 
arly work— ade(juately documented, 
gentle in tone, and sufficiently 
profound— seemingly designed to 
evoke praise from one's jjeers. 
Praise does not effect ciiange. In 
two decades or less Dubos and his 
peers will no longer be with us. If 
Duhos is serious about effecting 
lasting change in the world, in ex- 



orcising the .lemon within, he 
would be well ad\ iscd lo direct a 
simple, moving book to the high 
school and junior high school stu- 
dents of this country. I am sure that 
he could write such a book; other- 
wise I would not mention it. I am 
e(]ually sure that it would eventu- 
ally have a far greater impact on 
man's future than a shelf of such 
books as A God Within. 

Bruce Wali^^ce 
Cornell University 



Power Along the Hudson, by Al- 
lan R. Talbot. E. P. Button & Co., 

$7.95; 244 pp. 

America's new interest in the 
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tween citizen envu-omnental groups 
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One (if till' most significant of these 
ilasiifs. liic Slori7i King lon- 
troveisy, is ihc sui)jeil of l^owcr 
Along the lludsuii. In a con- 
t'nintation of David and (iolialii-liki' 
|iin|)(irtii)ns. a small gronp dl Hnd- 
soii \ alley ifsidtMits, banded to- 
gether as the Seenic Hudson Preser- 
vation Conlereiiee, has been 
battling both Consohdated Edison 
(the nation's largest pri\ate utility, 
whieh supphes metropolitan New 
^ ork with gas and eleelricitv) and 
the Federal Power Connnission (the 
national agency that licenses hydro- 
power plants). 

The issue— whether Con Ed 
should be licensed to construct an 
ugly power plant on scenic Storm 
King Mountain, on the west bank 
of the Hudson River 40 miles north 
of New York City— is one from the 
standard environmental script. But 
in 1963, when the Storm King con- 
frontation began, a citizen's right to 
challenge a governmental decision 
was uncleai'. During the course of 
the Storm King conflict, a federal 
circuit court ruled— for the first 
time— that a citizen organization 
could sue a governmental agency to 
protect the public interest in the en- 
vironment (a ruling, by the way, 
that may be overturned or modified 
bv the conservative Nixon Supreme 
Court). This unprecedented deci- 
sion, and the new interest generated 
in the Hudson River (it was during 
this time that Bob Bovle, author 
and angler, revealed to the public 
that the Hudson was not all sewer, 
that it still contained real, live fish) 
made the Storm King controversy 
an environmental milestone. 

Allan Talbot's treatment of the 
Storm King episode is thorough, 
readable, and dispassionate, quali- 
ties that immediately distinguish 
Power Along the Hudson from 
most environmental works. While 
the author's sentiments are cleaily 
with the Scenic Hudsonites, his 
book is not a misanthropic diatribe 
on the plunders of modern-day rob- 
ber barons, but a convincing, even 
compassionate, commentary on the 
narrow vision of bureaucrats whose 
professional specialization has im- 
paired their capacity to sense the 
full impact of their decisions. 

Motten L. Waring— engineer, 
former Con Ed president and vice- 
president, and the man who guided 
the utility's struggles against the 
Scenic Hudson group — did not in- 



tend to blight the scenery of Storm 
King Mountain or to damage 
a(]ualic life in the Hudson River. 
Yet. his engineer's training and the 
specialized assignment handed him 
by the company in ]%()-l() design 
a pumped storage power plant- |)rc- 
vented him I'rom anlici|jating these 
possibilities before they were pub- 
licly thrust in his face by environ- 
mentalists. In 1967 Waring was dis- 
missed from his position by the (^on 
Ed trustees. Talbot notes that War- 
ing "was made a villain and tlim a 
scapegoat for merely doing what 
was expected of him. . . ." 

A decade after it was pnjposed. 
the Storm King project is still on 
paper. Its license has been ap- 
pnjved by the Federal Power Com- 
mission, but the Scenic Hudson 
Preservation Conference continues 
to wage its battle in the courts. 

Even if the plant is built, it will 
not solve the long-range problem of 
New York City's growing demand 
for electrical energy, but will onlv 
hold it at bay for a decade or so. 
This problem, the author notes, is 
almost unsolvable. To dale, our 
society has made no attempt to en- 
force or even to suggest a (jucjta foi 
per capita consumption of electric- 
ity. Thus, the projected power de- 
mands oi' New York, and of our na- 
tion as a whole, can only be met at 
the expense of our natural sur- 
roundings. Americans demand a de- 
pendable supply of electric jjower. 
Tliey also demand an environment 
that is scenic and healthful. As Tal- 
bot ably demonstrates, they cannot 
have both. 

Jack Hope 

The American Museum is open to tlie 
public every day during the year, ex- 
cept Thanksgiving and Christmas. 
Your support through membership 
and contributions helps make this pos- 
sible. The Museum is equally in need 
of support for its work in the fields of 
research, education, and exhibition. 

The list below details the photographer 
or other source of illustration bv page. 

COVER-Maureen Bisil- 60 61-Keith Thomson 

liat. Nancy Palmer 62 65-Edward Gold- 
Photo Agency, Inc. stein. Yale Peabody 

8-16— The Bettman Ar- Museum, except 62— 

chive top, Adam Locket 

20-AMNH Royal Society of Lon- 

31-38-lan Strange, ex- don and 64-map, 

cept map. Douglas Douglas Waugh 

Waugh 67-74-John A.L Cooke 

4045-Julio Fernandez 76 81-Maureen Bisil 

46-San Antonio Public liat. Nancy Palmer 

Library Photo Agency Inc 

48-Fred Pfening 84-The Bettmann Ar- 

49 56— Harvey A. Ard- chive 

man 85 90-Courtesy of The 

57— Fred Pfening University of Chicago 

59— Michael Laigos. Yale Press 

Peabody Museum 101— Helmut Wimmer 



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97 



books from 

The American Museum 

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Portraits from North 


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Text by Walter A. 


Central America 


Photographs by 


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Sky Repoi'tei* 



l3.v John P. Wiley, Jr 



Back to the Baekyard 



The last tew \ ears have been a bad time for us back- 
yard astronomers. Our professional counterparts have 
been enjoving a golden age of discoverv, replacing the 
speculation and romance of centuries with cold facts 
(thev call it data) about our neighbors in the universe. 
"^Tien I first set up my telescope, I could use it to wan- 
der across the face of the moon, moving silently across 
its seas and over its mountain ranges, feeling I was 
alone on a new world. Now, even though I can't see it, 
I know the moon is a junkyard for space hardware, 
and footprints that will never be washed away mar the 
surface. 

BlmTv dark patches were all I could see on Mars, 
and even maps produced by professional Mars watch- 
ers at Pic du Midi in France and Fort Davis in Texas 
showed nothing but more elaborate blurs. It was still 
possible to dream that C. S. Lewis might have been 
right, and that bustling Hie did exist there along the 
bottoms of fissures deep enough to have retained air 
and water. Now a Mariner has sent back 5,000 close- 
up pictures, and Lewis's world has vanished. 

Giving up the telescope for the ai-mchair. squinting 
at journals instead of through an eyepiece, has been 
tremendously exciting. In the last decade we have not 
only gotten our first close looks at some of the planets 
and moons of the solar system, but we have also found 
exotic new kinds of objects in deep space. Tliese find- 
ings are changing our \ iew of the universe and prom- 
ise to add whole new chapters to physics. 

Within the span of a human lifetime, astronomy has 
gone through a revolution, an overturning of our es- 
tablished view of the universe. This period in astron- 
omy can be compared to the impact the early years of 
this century had on physics, when the discovery of the 
atomic nucleus, relativity, and cpjantum mechanics en- 
abled the human mind to account for the physical 
world to a degree that was undreamed of at the turn of 
the century. 

The quasars, not much bigger than the solar system, 
tirrned out to be objects that shine with the energy of 
whole galaxies. The phvsics of 1973 just cannot deal 
with this concentrated energy production. The pulsars, 
which burst upon us just five years ago this month, 
turned out to be neutron stars, composed of collapsed 
matter the like of which can never be seen on eai'th. 



Now astronomers believe they have found black holes, 
stars that have collapsed in on themselves so far that 
they have disappeai'ed from our universe. They search 
for these with the classic methods of positional astron- 
omy— and with instmments designed to detect grav- 
itational, rather than electromagnetic, waves. 

Our skies today are crisscrossed with satellites car- 
rying telescopes and a variety of little black boxes that 
see the stars only in ultraviolet, X-rav, or gamma-ray 
wavelengths. New, large telescopes in Chile and Aus- 
tralia are doing for the southern sky what the giant 
mirrors at Palomar and Lick did for the northern sky. 
Infrared telescopes are observing stars in the throes of 
birth, while radio telescopes are picking up the death 
throes of other stars. 

The greatest discoverv of all remains to be made, 
but more and more astronomers believe it is inevi- 
table. Soviet radio telescopes are slowly surveying 
nearby stars for the signals that will unambiguously 
mean that intelligent life is thriving somewhere else in 
our universe. So many complex organic molecules 
have been found floating around in space that it is 
hard to believe that the precursors of life are not found 
on most or all planets. 

While all this search and discovery is going on, 
backyard amateurs are quietly going about the busi- 
ness left for them: recording the brightening and dim- 
ming of a thousand vai^iable stars, charting the trajec- 
tories of meteors through the atmosphere over their 
homes, sweeping the horizon for undiscovered comets. 
It is useful work; there just are not enough profes- 
sional astronomers and observatories in the world to 
watch everything. There is no fame or fortune, al- 
though if you see a comet first it will be named for 
you. But if you're the sort, it can be fun. 

So now I'm giving up my armchair for the telescope 
again. The journals will continue to pour out their 
data; I'll wait for the synthesizers to gather the facts 
and put them all together for me. I'll wait for the book 
to come out— or even the BBC movie. In the mean- 
time, I'll be in the backyard. 

Editor's note: John P. Wilev, Jr., who has written 
'"Sky Reporter"" for more than five yeai-s, does not in- 
tend to write any more columns for a while. 



99 



Celestial Events 

by Thomas D. Nlcliolson 



The Sun and Moon The sun, by mid-February, is almost 
two months past the winter solstice, and its motion toward the vernal 
equinox takes it northward toward the Equator at nearly its maximum 
rate. One result is a rapid change in the duration of daylight. Still 
shorter than night, the day is lengthening rapidly at this time of year, as 
sunrise occurs earlier and sunset later by a sum of three minutes per 
day. From mid-February until mid-March, therefore, the duration of 
daylight increases by an hour and a half. 

Bright moonlight will fill the early evenings of mid-February, lasting 
all night on the 17th, when the moon becomes full. After the 17th, the 
moon rises later than sunset, until— with the last-quarter moon on the 
24th— it rises about midnight. The waning crescent moon appears in the 
morning sky at the end of February and early March,- becoming the new 
moon on March 4. From March 6 or 7 on, the moon will again be an 
evening object, growing from crescent to first-quarter (on March 11) 
and then waxing to its gibbous phase. 

Stars and Planets In late February and early March, win- 
ter stars are prominent in the south just after sundown. At this time of 
year, it is easy to get to know Orion, with its seven bright stars, and also 
the bright stars of Canis Major, Gemini, Auriga, and Taurus, which are 
grouped around it. By dawn, the winter stars have all disappeared, but 
summer stars are then high and easy to find. The Summer Triangle, 
formed by bright Altair, Deneb, and Vega, is well up in the east, and 
Scorpius and Sagittarius are low in the south. 

This year, February and March are rather poor months for planets. 
Except for Mercury, which will be in good position for about a week be- 
fore and after February 25, Saturn is the only planet in the evening sky. 
It is in Taurus, to the left (east) of the bright star Aldebaran, visible in 
the south after sunset, setting about midnight. Although all the other 
planets are in the morning sky, only Mars will be seen easily, low in the 
southeast at dawn, among the stars of Sagittarius. 

February 15: The moon has moved around its orbit to the point 
called apogee, where it is farthest from earth. 

February 25: Mercury is at its greatest elongation (easterly) in the 
evening sky. This is a favorable elongation. The planet will remain 
above the western horizon until nearly the end of twilight. Observers 
with a clear western horizon may see it for about a week before and af- 
ter this date. 

February 27-28: The moon passes close enough to Mars this evening 
to occult the planet in skies over the Far East. Seen from the United 
States, they will be rising in the southeast quite near one another sev- 
eral hours past midnight. 

March 1-2: Jupiter is near the waning crescent moon, low in the 
southeast at dawn on both mornings. The moon moves from right to left 
above the planet from the morning of the 1st to the 2nd. 

March 10: The moon is at perigee, nearest the earth. The waxing 
moon, just before it becomes first-quarter, catches up with Saturn 
tonight. The planet and the moon are both in Taurus, high in the south 
at dusk, setting about midnight. The moon is moving to the left (east) 
above Saturn during the night, passing closest to it about 5:00 a.m. on 
the morning of the 11th. 

March 13: Mercury passes between earth and sun, at inferior con- 
junction, and enters the morning sky. 

* Hold the Star Map so the compass direction you face is at the bottom; then match 
the stars in the lower half of the map with those in the sky near the horizon. The map is 
for 10:15 P.M. on February 15; 9:25 p.m. on February 28; and 8:25 p.m. on March 15; 
but it can be used for about an hour before and after these times. 




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Here is the first full pictorial fiistory 
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dangerous superstars of the deep. 
With 372 old prints and modern 
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A PICTORIAL HISTORY OF 

Sea Monsters 

AND OTHER DANGEROUS MARINE LIFE 

by James B. Sweeney 

S9.95, now at your bookstore, or 
CROWN PUBLISHERS 
419 Park Ave. South 
New York. N.Y. 10016 



Suggested 
Additional Reading 

A NEW AGE FOR AGING 

Handbook of Aging and the Individ- 
ual. J. Birren, ed. University of Chi- 
cago Press, Chicago, 1960. 

Biological Theories of Aging. A. 
Comfort. Human Development, Vol. 
13, No. 2, 1970. 

Advances in Gerontological Re- 
search, Vol. I to IV. B.L. Strehler, 
ed. Academic Press, Inc., New York, 
1964-72. 

THE SILENT ORDEAL OF A 
SOUTH ATLANTIC ARCHIPELAGO 
The Falkland Islands. M.B.R. Caw- 

keU, D.H. Maling, and E.M. Caw- 

kell. St. Martin's Press, Inc., New 

York, 1960. 
Oce.anic Birds of South America. 

R.C. Murphy. American Museum of 

Natural History. New York, 1936. 
The Birds of the Falkland Islands. 

E.M. Cawkell. The Ibis, January, 

1961. 

FROM MOTHER GODDESS 

TO DISHWASHER 

The Masks of God. J. Campbell. The 
Viking Press, Inc., New York, 1959. 

Rites and Symbols of Initiation. M. 
Eliade. Harper and Row, Publishers, 
New York, 1965. 

The Sumerians. S.N. Kramer. Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1963. 

Mythologies of the Ancient World. 
S. N. ICramer. Doubleday and Com- 
pany, Inc., Garden City, 1961. 



PHINEAS T. BARNUM'S 

CHARMING BEAST 

The Dynasty of Abu. I.T. Sanderson. 

Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 

1962. 
Elephants Ancient and Modern. F.C. 

Sillar and R.M. Meyler. The Viking 

Press, New York, 1968. 

SECRETS 

OF THE COELACANTH 

Old Four Legs. J.L.B. Smith. Long- 
mans, Green and Company, New 
York, 1956. 

From Fish to Philosopher. H.W. 
Smith. Little, Brown and Company, 
Boston, 1953. 

Anatomie de Latimeria chalumnae, 
Vols. I and II. J. Millot and J. An- 
thony. Centre National de la Re- 
cherche Scientifique, Paris, 1958, 
1965. 

UNVEILING 

THE BLACK WIDOW 

American Spiders. W.J. Gertsch. Van 

Nostrand Reinhold Company, New 

York, 1949. 
A Guide to Spiders and Their Kin. 

H.W. Levi and L.R. Levi. Western 

Publishing Company, Racine, 1969. 
How TO Know the Spiders. B.J. Kas- 

ton. William C. Brown Company, 

Publishers, Dubuque, 1972. 
Invertebrate Zoology, Vol. II. A. 

Kaestner. John Wiley and Sons, 

Inc., New York, 1968. 



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Photographer: Lucien Clergue Camera; Minolta SR-T 101 




What Lucien Clergue saw in Clergue achieve the strange 

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NATURAL HISTORY 



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• 40,000 words of text 

• Written by avid outdoorsman 
Ezra Bowen with noted 
conservationist Martin Litton 
as consultant 

• 9 by 103/8 inches 
" 184 pages 

• More than 100 illustrations 
—photographs, paintings, 
maps, including 87 pages 
in full color. 



The American Wilderness 

Take THE HIGH SIERRA as your introductory volume 
for 10 days' FREE examination 



Less than a day's drive from Los Angeles 
( is the gateway to one of the wonders 
of the world. It is the High Sierra, 400 
miles of cliffs and forests and meadows 
being kept "forever wild" as part of eight 
national forests and three national parks. 

But even though it is one of our 
greatest national treasures, it is also one 
of our least known. Beyond the parking 
lots and picnic tables and crowded camp 
grounds, there is still a vast wilderness 
seen only by a comparatively few hardy 
hikers and horsemen. And even they are 
often unaware of many of the geological 
and wildlife wonders that abound. 

Now Time-Life Books invites you to 
explore, as few Americans ever could be- 
fore, the beauty, the ecology, the flora and 
fauna, the history and geology of The 
High Sierra— the first volume in a fasci- 
nating series on THE AMERICAN 
WILDERNESS. 

You'll begin, in the first 16 pages, by 
wandering through an unusual portfolio 
of full-color photographs which capture 
the grandeur and drama of the High 
Sierra through the changing seasons. 
Like a Nature Walk 
with a Keen Naturalist 
Then you'll plunge into what is, in effect 
a long, fascinating, picture-and-text "na- 
ture walk" through this 
marvelous wild preserve. 
Through vivid commentary 
by a keen naturalist who 
has made a lifelong study 
of the region, your eyes will 
be opened to fascinating 
details you might possibly 
otherwise overlook even if 
you were actually there. 

You'll gaze in awe at the 
largest living thing on earth 
—the towering sequoia red- 
woods, growing for 3,500 




THE SQUEAK OF THE PIKA is 

a familiar sound in the High 
Sierra. This small, timid crea- 
ture builds his nest of grass. 



years or more, with trunk 
diameters as thick as 35 to 
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waterfalllS times taller than 
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matter through its roots . . . the mushroom 
that used to wreck trains by attacking 
and decomposing railroad ties. 

You'll learn of the gaudy history of this 
fabled region— of the Gold Rush, in which 
"nuggets" of pure gold weighing 20 
pounds were found— of the snow storm so 
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Read The High Sierra 
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for only $5.95 plus shipping 
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BIGHORN SHEEP. There wer< 
an estimated two million ir 
1800-fewer than 8,000 today 
Only 215 - ■ 



with no further obligation. 
If you keep The High Sier- 
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Mail postpaid card to- 
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write Time-Life Books, Dept. 0401, 
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IN OTHER VOLUMES 
OF THE SERIES, 

you will explore the "outrageous 
magnificence" of WILD 
ALASKA, with glaciers as big as 
Rhode Island and the world's big- 
gest bears . . .THE GRAND CAN- 
YON, with its mile-deep walls 
providing a stratified profile of 
the earth's geological past... THE 
EVERGLADES, North America's 
largest subtropical wilderness . . . 
the tidal and forest life of THE 
NORTHEAST COAST from fog- 
shrouded, storm-racked Maine to 
Nova Scotia and Gaspe. Still 
other volumes will take you 
through many other fascinating 
regions. 




The High Sierra 
for 10 days free 

as your introduction to 

THE AMERICAIT 
WILDERNESS 

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Time & Life Building, Chicago, fli. 60611 
Yes, I would like to examine The High Sierra. Please 
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If I decide to keep The High Sierra. I will pay $5.95 
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every other month. Each is S5.95 (S6.95 in Canada) 
plus shipping and handling and comes on a 10-day free- 
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Print Name- 
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Canadian residents: Please mail this fonn in an envelope. 
Schools and libraries: Order Library Style Bindings 
from Silver Burdett Company, Morristown, N.J. 07960. 
Eligible for Titles I. II funds. 1910 









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Polished mountain rock 
blinding in the sun 

« AwaterfalHStimes 
higher than Niagara 

— just a few of the wonders 
you can enjoy while browsing 
free for 10 days through 

rriMEi Thft 

mo High Sierra 

BOOKS 

Just detach and mail postpaid card 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Incnrporaling .\(iliirr Muf^d^iiic 
Vol. LXXXIl No. 3 
March 1973 



III! Mitsciiiii (j/ \(iturid llistiiry 

Gardner I). Sloiil. I'rr.sidriil 

Thomii.s I), \irliolson. UirrrUir 



Alan Temes. Editor 

Robert E. If illiamson. Managing Editor 

Thomas Page, Art Editor 

Sally Lindsay, Senior Editor 

Frederick Hartmanru Associate Editor 

Christopher Hallowell. Associate Editor 

Carol Breslin. Book Reviews Editor 

Florence G. Edelstein, Copy Chief 

Toni Gerber. Copy Editor 

Ernestine Ifeindorf, Administrative Asst. 

Angela Soccodato, Production 

Diane Pierson. Editorial Asst. 

Lillian Berger 

Dorothy Naylor 

Rosamond W. Dana, Publications Editor 

Harve)- Oshinsky, Advertising Director 

Gordon Finley 

Hany R. Jeter 

lie Asselin 

Eileen O'Kecfe. Production 

Roberta Zelem. Asst. 

Dinah Loivell, Promotion 
Joan Mahoney 
Harriet Walsh 

Editorial Advisers: 
Dean Amadon 
Dorothy E. Bliss 
Mark Chartrand 
Niles Eldredge 

I incent Manson 
Margaret Mead 

Thomas D. Nicholson 

Gerard Piel 

Richard G. Van Gelder 



2 Authors 
4 Letters 

10 The Misnamed, Mistreated, and Misunderstood Irish Elk 

Stephen Jay Gould 

He fought gently, but carried a big horn. 

20 The Human Strategy: The Withering Green Revolution 

Marvin Harris 

A groiving ecological backlash has dimmed the high hopes of ending human, hunger. 

24 Bios: Plant Cancer 

Arthur W. Galston 

Man is not the only living organism that suffers from cellular chaos. 

28 Lonely Lives Under the Big Sky 

tfilliam A. Douglass 

Isolated by language and mountain barriers, the Basque sheepherder must struggle 

against being "sagebnished. " 

40 Flowers of the Sea 

Meredith L. Jones Photograplis bv Carl Roessler 
Eating can be an esthetic experience. 

46 Letters from Golden Sardis 

George M.A. Hanfmann 

An archeologist describes the frustrations and joys of excavating the Paris 

of the ancient world. 

60 Cemetery Ecology 

Jack U ard Thomas and Ronald A. DLxon 
The home of the dead is filled with life. 

68 The Greater Rhea Chick and Egg Delivery Route 

Donald F. Bruning 

If he could spare time from tending his brood, this large bird might start a male 

liberation movement. 

76 Sad Saga of the Oceana 

Susan Schlee 

If the boat and the men had been stronger, this tale would be longer. 

84 Where Humanity Ends 

A revieic by Robert Coles 

Can well-fed, comfortable Americans even begin to comprehend the meaning of a society 

pushed to the utter limits of survival? 

97 Suggested Additional Reading 

98 Celestial Events 

Thomas D. Nicholson 

Cover: The efficient and delicate radials of a sea ivorm decorate a coral reef near 
Curacflo. Story on page 40. 



I-Micalion Upce: 7V .4mfi 
monMy, Oclober lhr,,ufh .Mi 
a year. Single copies Sl.OIJ. 
.American Museum of Xaturr, 
Manascripu and itli 
bilitY for ttieir safel 
Museum. Natural Hi 



; (.,mu 



/.;, Jo; 



the edilorial o£, 
le opinions expressed by authors 
incorporating Nature Magaane £s 



.n. <:r,tiral I'urk fl est u, 79lh :ylrrcl. .\eu York, XY- 10024. f'ublu^hfd 
■r. .s„hscriptions: S8.U0 a year, in Canada and all other countries: $9.00 
.\,» York, A;K., and at add'uional offices. Copyright ^' 1973 by The 
udixil may be reproduced without the written consent o/ Natural Hislon'. 
ze wdl be handled with all possible care, but lie cannot assume rcsponsi- 
ire their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of The American 
indexed in Reader's Guide lo Periodical Literature. 



Auttiors 




v*^ 



Stephen Jay Gould 

As part of his involvement in the 
debate over differing theories oi 
evolution, Stephen Jay Gould has 
written more than forty articles on 
the subject. An associate professor 
of geology at Harvard University's 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Gould is presently writing a book 
on the relationship between onto- 
geny and phylogeny and continuing 
his field work in the Bahamas and 
Bermuda. He also finds time to sing 
in choral groups and attend operas. 




William A. Douglass 

Since 1963 William A. Doug- 
lass has been periodically living 
with Basques and studying their so- 
cial organization and ethnohistory, 
both in this country and in Spain. 
Upon completing his doctorate in 
anthropology at the University of 
Chicago in 1967, Douglass became 
the coordinator of Basque Studies 
at the University of Nevada's 
Desert Research Institute. In 1969 
his book Death in Murelaga was 
published by the University of 
Washington Press. 





Meredith L. Jones 

Meredith L. Jones's research in 
the biology of flowerlike sea worms 
has taken him to the reefs surround- 
ing many tropical islands. His prin- 
cipal interest is the inter- 
relationship of different sea worm 
species, the subject of an earher 
Natural History article, "Com- 
plexities in the Substrate," May, 
1963. Ciu-ator of worms at the 
Smithsonian Institution, Jones is 
pushing his studies of marine life on 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of 
Panama because the proposed con- 
struction of a sea-level canal re- 
quires background data to deter- 
mine the effect of mixing marine 
life from the two oceans. 



For the past sixteen years, 
George M.A. Hanfmann has taken 
part in the excavations and restora- 
tions of Sardis undertaken jointly 
by Harvard and Cornell Universi- 
ties and the American Schools of 
Oriental Research. In addition to 
being field director of the ongoing 
Sardis Expedition, Hanfmann is a 
professor of fine arts and the John 
E. Hudson Professor of Archae- 
ology at Harvard. Born in Russia in 
1911, he came to this country in 
1934, after having received his doc- 
torate in archeology from the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. Through his early 
interest in the Etruscans, he be- 
came involved in Anatolian arch- 
eology and the excavations of Tar- 
sus, which subsecfuently led him to 
Sardis. Hanfmann has written nu- 
merous articles, notes, and reviews 
about archeology. His Letters from 
Sardis, which has just been pub- 
lished by Harvard University Press, 
is excerpted in this issue. 




George M.A. Hanfmann 




Jack Ifarcl Thomas 

Coauthors Jack Ward Thomas 
and Ronald A. Dixon are both 
doctoral candidates at the Univer- 
sity of Massachusetts" Department 
of Forestry and Wildhfe: Thomas in 
forestry, Dixon in wildhfe biology. 
Both work for the U.S. Forest Ser- 
vice in Amherst. Thomas worked in 
his native Texas on wildlife man- 
agement programs for eleven years 
and now leads a project for the En- 
vironmental Forestry Research 
Unit: Dixon is a wildlife research 
biologist. 




Donald F. Bruning, assistant 
curator of ornithology at the New 
York Zoological Society, has stud- 
ied rheas for the past three years 
and is presently completing his doc- 
toral thesis on these birds for the 
University of Colorado. Since 1966 
he has participated in five expedi- 
tions for the study of bird and rep- 
tile life, including two to Argentina 
under the auspices of the New York 
Zoological Society for the study of 
the greater rhea. 





Susan Srhlee 

The culmination oi five years of 
research on oceanographic history, 
Susan Schlee's book. The Edge of 
an Unfamiliar World, was pub- 
lished in January by E.P. Dutton. 
Schlee, who is an independent in- 
vestigator at the Marine Biological 
Laboratory in Woods Hole, has con- 
tributed several articles to Natural 
History, including "One Small Step 
for Science, One Good Meal for the 
Ship's Cat," October, 1972. and 
"Her Majesty's Fauna on the 
Bounding Main," October, 1971. 



Ronald A. Dixon 



Letters 



Edst Africa's 
Natural Heritage 

To all of us who are interested in 
the future of East African wildlife 
and national parks, it has been ap- 
parent for many years that the ulti- 
mate threat to their future is not 
poaching but the inexorable pres- 
sure of human population growth 
and settlement. Norman Myers's ar- 
ticle "The People Crunch Comes to 
East Africa" [January, 1973] puts 
the case with stark accuracy. 

In his 1971 Environmental Mes- 
sage to Congress, President Nixon 
proposed that the nations of the 
world "agree to the principle that 
there are certain areas of such 
unique worldwide value that they 
should be treated as part of the 
heritage of all mankind and ac- 
corded special recognition as a part 
of a World Heritage Trust." This 
proposal of the President has now 
been embodied in the text of a con- 
vention agreed to at Paris last No- 
vember, which is being submitted 
to the Senate for ratification. The 
critical situation of the East African 
parks gives this initiative a special 
urgency. 

At the same time, as Myers 
forcefully points out, it is going to 
require far more than international 
expressions of concern and interest. 
The people of East Africa must 
themselves feel a personal stake in 
these areas. The African Wildlife 
Leadership Foundation (of which I 
was president from its founding un- 
til 1969, when I came back into 
government) was always sensitive to 
the fact that tourism as the main ar- 
gument for conservation in East Af- 
rica did not fully take account of 
this need and, in fact, could even 
backfire. It was for this reason that 
we placed our major emphasis on 
education— first, professional train- 
ing of wildlife and parks managers, 
then education of young Africans. 

The essential need in East Africa 
and elsewhere is to integrate con- 
servation and environmental pro- 
grams generally with legitimate and 



reasonable aspirations for human 
well-being and- development. I 
know of no simple solutions to this 
need. Last June's U.N. Conference 
on the Human Environment at 
Stockholm was a start at addressing 
this need internationally. With the 
new U.N. Environmental Secretar- 
iat scheduled to be headquartered 
at Nairobi, let us all hope that the 
objective of protecting the unique 
natural heritage of East Africa 
within the context of national devel- 
opment goals will receive new em- 
phasis and support. 

Russell E. Train 

Chairman, President's Council on 

Environmental Quality 

Energy Savings 

Perhaps now that the ecological 
crusade is reaching flood tide and 
the realization is finally being 
brought home to Americans that 
our energy resources are not bound- 
less and eternal, a fairly simple, log- 
ical, ecological, and energy-saving 
measure could have some chance of 
political success. I am referring to 
the national use of maximum day- 
light savings time. The energy sav- 
ings that such a simple change in 
our living habits would produce 
could be astonishing. 

There might be some minor in- 
conveniences, but these would be 
more than offset by the billions of 
dollars worth of energy that would 
be conserved. 

Vincent Moore, M.D. 
La Mesa, California 

Ecological Symbol 

It is of great value for people to- 
day to be aware of such examples of 
environmental harmony as de- 
scribed by Christopher Williams in 
"Craftsmen of Necessity" [Novem- 
ber, 1972], but it is vitally impor- 
tant that we see them as symbols 
rather than models. Too many 
people are trying to go "back to na- 
ture" or be "ecological" by build- 
ing, for example, heavy timbered 
houses with interior wood paneling. 



wood siding, shake roofs, etc. In 
such structures, elegant and natural 
though they be, there is usually 
enough wood to frame three like- 
sized houses of more "conven- 
tional" construction. With moun- 
tain after mountain denuded by the 
hungry chain saw and millions of 
people inadequately housed, such 
practice is profoundly antiecologi- 
cal. Admirable and exciting as these 
examples of folk architecture are in 
their closeness to the earth, they 
must not be taken as models for our 
own building. They should rather 
be taken as symbols of a way of life, 
a consciousness for us to emulate. 
Joe Snyder 
Portland, Oregon 

Fishers in Trees 

I read your piece on the fisher in 
the January issue with great interest 
since this animal has fascinated me 
for a number of years. From 1940 
through 1969 my wife and I would 
often spend two to four weeks in 
the fall with a trapper in Ontario, 
Canada. Part of our reason for these 
repeated visits, aside from the op- 
portunity to live the trapping and 
hunting life for a while, lay in the 
special quality of the trapper him- 
self. Roy Smith, who had trapped 
the territory for twenty years when 
we first met him, was a remarkable 
man, a cultivated bushman in the 
Thoreauvian sense. Among his ad- 
mirable traits was the capacity for 
careful nature observation. Although 
I realize that the scientist must be 
most wary of "old husband's tales," I 
do believe that there are outdoorsmen 
whose observations can be taken as 
objective. I usually sort out such men 
by noting those who are willing to set 
down their observations without 
seeking to gild them with vague ex- 
planations or even the supposed moti- 
vations of wild creatures. Roy was as 
reliable an observer as I have ever 
met. 

During his trapping runs, Roy 
had plenty of opportunity to learn 





O H-H/w^ LnroTJc iKcxJi 



Grk 




.'Vv^cJ 



0G47^' 



U,S.A. 




Even the backs 

of Bermuda 

postcards are 

pretty. 



Our island has so many pretty scenes 
to put on the front of postcards we fig- 
ured the least we could do was decorate 
the backs of our postcards, too. So we 
have always designed beautiful stamps, 
so beautiful that many of our visitors 
become Bermuda stamp collectors. 

Bermuda postcards are so pretty be- 
cause this 21 -square-mile island is. 

Our postcards are not touched up. 
They tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth. 

Come to Bermuda and enjoy some of 
the most beautiful truths on earth. 

Come soon. Your travel agent will 
send you on your way. Or write Ber- 
muda: 610 Fifth Avenue, New York, 
N.Y. 10020—6 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago, Illinois 60602. 






^^'w^^ 



Bermuda 

Wish you were here. 



Introducing the GMC MotorHome. 
It doesn't ride like a truck. 
It doesn't look like a box. 




A NEW ERA IN MOTORHOMES 
IS BEGINNING. 

Before we started building our 
MotorHome, we studied every other type 
of motorhome that exists. 

We found that the simpler the 
basic construction, the fewer the problems. 
So we started with a strong, durable, 
steel perimeter frame and attached to this 
a cage of heavy aluminum ribs. 

On top of this, we bonded both 
aluminum and fiberglass panels molded to 
a smooth finish. It's the same construction 
people are flying all over the world in. 

Except now you'll be driving. 

Then we sprayed the interior with 
a thick, rigid polyurethane foam for 



thermal insulation and noise suppression. 
This polyurethane foam has six times the 
insulation value of fiberglass. Which 
means the GMC MotorHome has better 
insulation than most homes. On or 
off wheels. 

2. MORE POWER TO YOU. 

To give you the excellent road 
performance, we installed a 45 5 -cubic- 
inch V8 engine up front and coupled it 
to a 3-speed Turbo Hydra-matic 
transmission. We coupled that to a front 
wheel drive unit with a 3 to 1 ratio and 
put it all on top of torsion bar springs 
and stabilizer bar. 

With our low overall body weight. 



it all means getting up to highway speeds 
quickly. Elxcellent traction. Excellent 
weight distribution. 

3. A MOTORHOME IS NO FUN 
IF IT'S NO FUN TO MOTOR IN. 

We took our basic construction 
and raised it only I 5 " from the ground. 
This puts the center of gravity only 3 7 
inches above the ground. For easy handling. 

See the rear wheels. We put one 
behind the other for four reasons: To 
give you a wider base. More room inside. 
Greater stability than you'd have with 
dual wheels. And so we could place a 
special air spring between the two wheels 
to pass the bumps from one to the other 



instead of to you! 

These air springs are the only 
ones of their kind on motorhomes. 

To keep the weight and balance 
of the interior within design limits, 
we fed all the data into a computer. It fed 
back what we needed to put things 
where they belong. 
4. ABOUT OUR SIX-WHEEL 
BRAKING SYSTEM. 



middle, a double sink, 6-cubic-foot 
refrigerator (its electric so there's no 
pilot light that'll blow out), a range and 
oven with exhaust hood. There's also a 
bath with all the necessities plus ample 
cabinet space. 

That's one floor plan. There are 
14 more available. 
6. WE INCLUDED TOP INTERIOR 
DESIGNERS IN OUR PLANS. 



ONE-STOP, ROUND THE 
CLOCK SERVICE. 

Your GMC MotorHome dealer 
services everything he sells. Inside and 
out. From the engine to the air conditioner 
and furnace. And there's a toll-free 
number you can call eind immediately get 
the number of the nearest MotorHome 
dealer representative available for 
assistance around the clock. 




In addition to power steering, 
there's a six-wheel braking system with 
power disc brakes up front and four large 
finned-drum power brakes m the rear, 
plus an available leveling device operated 
from the driver's compartment for parking 
on uneven ground. 

Incidentally, the parking brake 
grabs all four rear wheels. 

CHOOSE FROM 15 DIFFERENT 
FLOOR PLANS. TWO LENGTHS. 

The GMC MotorHome is 
available in 23- and 26-foot lengths. The 
standard 26 ' floor plan includes a dinette 
that converts to a double bed opposite a 
sofa that turns into double bunks. In the 



To put the finishing touches on 
the inside, we had House and Garden 
magazine s interior designers help us. 

TTie dnver and passenger seats are 
high, contoured seats with built-in arm 
rests. This high-level seating arrangement, 
combined with the big, wide-angle 
windshield, offers you panoramic 
visibility. 

Every counter top has rounded 
comers. All cabinet knobs are eliminated. 
Every hinge is concealed. 

There are thick, shag or cut pile 
carpets. And wood-grained vinyl on 
the walls and cabinets. 

You also get a choice of four 
color-coordinated interior decors. 



For our 28-page, four-color catalog 
write GMC MotorHome Headquarters, 
Drawer Y, Dept. 1 23, Lansing, 
Mich. 48909. 

Better yet, see your GMC 
MotorHome dealer. He'll be glad to 
show you around the house. Have a 
good life. 




The MotorHome from General Motors. 



Because they're birds and 
they're free! So you have 
to change your photo habits. 
One ingenious solution is a 
zoom lens. It gives you a fast 
change of focal lengths 
without moving the camera 
from your eye. 

The Vivltar Automatic Zoom 
lens goes from 85 to 205mm, 
opens up to an impressive 
f 3.8 and isn't any larger than 
most standard 200mm lenses. 
The highly sophisticated 
optical design has 13 elements 
in 9 groups. The Vivitar 
Automatic Zoom will fit the 
automatic mounts of the 
Nikon F, Pentax, Nikkormat, 
Mamiya/Sekor, Minolta and 
Canon cameras. It is sur- 
prisingly priced under $210. 
See a demo at your photo 
dealer or write for test reports 
by leading photo magazines. 

Vivitar Zaam lenses 

fVlarketed in the U.S.A. by 
PonderScBestJnc, 

1630 Stewart Street, 
Santa Monica. California 9040 
In Canada: Precision 
Cameras of Canada, Ltd. 




Why dont birds 

stay where they are while 

you chaoigc lenses? 




Great escape 

Oregon. 97,000 square miles 

of landscape, where your vacation 

can be what you want it to be — 

from beachcombing to big city 

fun to back country rambling. 

Make your get-away a 

vacation in Oregon, and relax 

in a state of excitement. 



Travel Information, Room 483 
State Highway Division 
Salem, Oregon 97310 

Please send information on tfiings to do 
in Oregon this Spring. 



ADDRESS- 
CITY 



OREGON 



iiiucli about the habits of the fisher, 
and I took notebooks full of notes 
over the years. Commenting on the 
fisher's prey, he often said that "the 
fisher's main food is the snowshoe 
hare, but I'll tell you he catches a 
lot of porcupines in his travels." 
His observations on the fisher's 
method of killing porcupines went 
as follows. 

First making it clear that the 
fisher sometimes catches and kills 
porcupines on the ground, he ex- 
plained that many times he discov- 
ered a fisher's track in the snow 
and, upon following it, had seen 
where the fisher had cut a porcu- 
pine track. "The fisher runs up and 
down the track a few times and 
then takes off in the direction the 
porcupine took." He then went on 
to sav that sometimes the fisher 
would track the porcupine to a tree 
that the animal had gone up to feed. 
In these instances, "it is good-bye 
porcupine, for his fate is sealed." 
The action was always the same, he 
said, when the fisher caught a por- 
cupine in a tree. "You'd see what 
remained of the porcupine, thrown 
out a dozen or more feet from the 
bole of the tree, and either the 
fisher's tracks coming away from 
the tree toward the porky when 
he'd come down or, more likely, the 
fisher tracks would take up where 
he jumped down out of the tree 
onto the snow." 

Rov was convinced that in these 
instances the fisher delivered what- 
ever disabling wound it gave the 
porcupine in the tree, for there 
would be no evidence of the porcu- 
pine defending itself on the ground 
or tracks of the fisher "bounding 
about, jumping in and out" as there 
would be if it killed it on the 
ground. The tracks around the re- 
mains of the porcupine seemed to 
be in each instance only those that 
the fisher would make as it worked 
on the dead rodent. 

On one occasion in discussing 
the fisher-porcupine relationship, 
Roy said that it was no surprise to 
him that fishers could easily out- 
maneuver a porcupine in the tree 
considering "how nimble they are." 
He had seen a fisher in the treetops 
several times to gain this conclusion 
and once added, "Oh, they are at 
home in the trees; they even come 
down head first." 

Angus Cameron 
Wilton, Connecticut 




Detach 
this card 
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COLOR PROSPECTUS 

with illustrations from the 
Encyclopedia of World Art 
and full details of the 
advantageous budget 
plan for Subscribers. 
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WHATEVER MAN HAS 
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BEAUTIFUL TO LOOK 
UPON NOW AWAITS 
YOUR DISCOVERY IN 
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to readers 

with an abiding joy in the arts 






The story of a"monument ^^ 
to man's visual imagination" 

*— ' -SATURDAY REVII 



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F YOUR PLEASURE in art is deep and wide-ranging, we invite 

you to send for this handsome booklet. 

It is illustrated with beautiful color plates representing man's 
creative triumphs from many periods and cultures. 

It is in fact a prospectus describing in detail the most ex- 
traordinary publishing project of our time — the monumental 
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The prospectus is free. We hope the sampling will arouse 
the same excitement in you that the Encyclopedia has aroused 
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ing a copy. No salesman will call. 

The Encyclopedia of World Art embraces man's greatest 
achievements in the visual arts through the centuries. To turn 
the pages of these prodigious volumes ... to read, to learn, to 
explore their visual delights ... is a remarkable experience. 

There are hundreds of absorbing factual articles, prepared 
by the most eminent art authorities. In more than 7,000 su- 



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perb full-page plates — measuring a full 9 inches by 12 inches 
in size — you will view rare treasures of renowned museums and 
private collections all over the world. Not only paintings, 
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More than 16,000 works of art are shown, almost 2,000 of 
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With your free color prospectus, you will learn how you 
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Whatever man has created that is beautiful to look upon . ..ina 15-volume art library and "gallery" for the home 




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MAIL THE ATTACHED CARD 



The Misna 




fi^:^ ^^ 




Model of Irish elk skeleton in Edinburgh Museum had 
a horse's pelvis and an abnormally straight backbone. 
The drawing is by G. Cuvier, 1825. 



lO 




Mj^understoocl Irish Elk 






This extinct giant deer, for centuries the subject 

oj argument between scientists and theologians, is an 

evolutionary symbol of nonviolence 

by Stephen Jay Gould 



"Nature herself seems bv the vast 
magnitude and stately horns she has 
given this creature, to have singled 
it out as it were, and showed it such 
regard, with a design to distinguish 
it remarkably from the common 
herd of all other smaller 
quadrupeds." 

Thomas Molyneux, 1697 

The Irish elk. the Holy Roman 
Empire, and the English horn form 
a strange ensemble indeed. But 
thev do share a common dis- 
tinction — they have completely in- 
appropriate names. The Holy Ro- 
man Empire, Voltaire tells us, was 
neither holy, nor Roman, nor an 
empire. The Irish elk was neither 
exclusively Irish, nor an elk. But it 
was the largest deer that ever lived. 
Its antlers were enormous; if we en- 
large any other deer to the size of 
an Irish elk without changing its 
shape, its antlers will still fall far 
short of the "spacious horns" of the 
giant deer that so astounded Moly- 
neux in 1697. 

Although the Guinness Book of 
World Records— \onormg fossils- 
honors the American moose, the 
antlers of the Irish elk ^^ave never 
been exceeded or even approached 
in the history of life. Reliable esti- 



mates of their total span range up to 
12 feet. This figure is all the more 
impressive when we recognize that, 
as in all other true deer, the antlers 
were probably shed and regrown 
annually. 

Fossil antlers of the giant deer 
have long been known in Ireland, 
where they occur in lake sediments 
underneath peat deposits. Before at- 
tracting the attention of scientists, 
they had been used as gateposts 
and, in one instance, even as a tem- 
porary bridge to span a rivulet in 
County Tyrone. One story, prob- 
ably apocryphal, tells of a huge 
bonfire made of giant deer bones 
and antlers in County Antrim to 
celebrate the victory over Napoleon 
at Waterloo. They were called elk 
because the European moose (an 
"elk" to Englishmen) was the only 
famUiar animal with antlers that 
even approached those of the giant 
deer in size. 

The first known drawing of giant 
deer antlers dates from 1588. 
Nearly a century later, Charles II, 
who reigned from 1660-1685, re- 
ceived a pair of antlers and. accord- 
ing to Dr. Molyneux, "valued them 
so highly for their prodigious 
largeness" that he set them up in 
the horn gallery of Hampton Court, 



where they "so vastly exceed" all 
others in size "that the rest appear 
to lose much of their curiosity." 

Ireland's exclusive claim van- 
ished in 1746 (although the name 
stuck) when a skull and antlers 
were unearthed in Yorkshire, 
England. The first continental dis- 
covery followed in 1781 from Ger- 
many, while the first complete 
skeleton (still standing in the mu- 
seum of Edinburgh University) was 
exhumed from the Isle of Man in 
the 1820s. 

We now know that the giant deer 
ranged as far east as Siberia and 
China and as far south as northern 
Africa. Specimens from England 
and Eurasia are almost always frag- 
mentary, and nearly all the fine 
specimens that adorn so many mu- 
seums throughout the world are 
from Ireland. The giant deer 
evolved during the glacial period of 
the last few million years and may 
have survived to historic times in 
continental Europe, but it became 
extinct in Ireland about 11,000 
years ago. 

"Among the fossils of the British 
empire," wrote James Parkinson in 
1811, "none are more calculated to 
excite astonishment." And so it has 
been throughout the history of pa- 






No wonder they call us the Hidden Empire 



Christianity first came to us in the 4th cen- 
'; tury. And we've been building churches ever 

'since. Tuclcing them away in enormous caves, 
i;* like the tiny shrine of Mekane Medhane Alem. 
f lilewing them from the rock, like the eleven 
I monolithic marvels of Lalibela, acclaimed a won- 
« d§T of- the world. Perching them high on almost 
f .inaccessible cliffs. 

f :: - ■ We've built over 15,000 in all. Churches that 
•.still live today, every' day. Echo the tranquil 

-meditation of the daily ritual; resound to the throb 



and rhythm of drum and sistrum, chanting arid 
singing, as our great festivals rise to their pound-, 
ing climaxes. Ritual and ceremonial handed down 
through the centuries, preserved intact. ,„ 

Intact because this is Ethiopia, the Hidden 
Empire. Hidden from the world for centuries. 
Unknown to all but a few. Waiting. 

Waiting for you to come and discover. After 
a chat with your travel agent, or direct with 
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A drawing of the giant deer in 

Thomas Molyneux's 1697 article shows the 

antlers incorrectly rotated forward ninety degrees 



leontology. Putting aside both the 
curious anecdotes and the sheer 
wonder that immensity always in- 
spires, the importance of the giant 
deer Ues in its contribution to de- 
bates about evolutionary theory. 
Every great evolutionist has used 
the giant deer to defend his favored 
views. The controversy has cen- 
tered around two main issues: (1) 
Could antlers of such bulk be of any 
use? and (2) Why did the giant deer 
become extinct? 

Since debate has long centered 
on the reasons for the Irish elk's ex- 
tinction, it is ironic that the pri- 
mary purpose of Molyneux's origi- 
nal article was to argue that the 
deer must still be alive. Many sev- 
enteenth-century scientists main- 
tained that the extinction of any 
species would be inconsistent with 
God's goodness and perfection. Dr. 
Molyneux's 1697 article, the first 
scientific description of the giant 
deer, begins: "That no real species 
of living creatures is so utterly ex- 
tinct, as to be lost entirely out of 
the World, since it was first created, 
is the opinion of many naturalists; 
and 'tis grounded on so good a prin- 
ciple of Providence taking care in 
general of all its animal produc- 
tions, that it deserves our assent." 

Yet the giant deer no longer in- 
habited Ireland, and Molyneux was 
forced to search elsewhere. After 
reading travelers' reports of the 
American moose's antler size, he 
concluded that the Irish elk was the 
same animal; the tendency toward 
exaggeration in such accounts is ap- 
parently universal and timeless. 
Since he could not find either a fig- 



ure or an accurate description of 
the moose, his conclusions are not 
as absurd as modern knowledge 
would indicate. Molyneux attrib- 
uted the giant deer's demise in Ire- 
land to an "epidemick distemper," 
caused by "a certain ill constitution 
of an." 

For the next century arguments 
followed along Molyneux's line— to 
which modern species did the giant 
deer belong? Opinion was equally 
divided between the moose and the 
reindeer. 

As eighteenth-century geologists 
unraveled the fossil record of an- 
cient life, it became more and more 
diflScult to argue that the odd and 
unknown creatures revealed by fos- 
sils were all still living in some re- 
mote portion of the globe. Perhaps 
God had not created just once and 
for all time; perhaps He had experi- 
mented continually in both creation 
and destruction. If so, the world 
was surely older than the 6,000 
years that literalists allowed. 

The question of extinction was 
the first great battleground of mod- 
ern paleontology. In America, 
Thomas Jefferson maintained the 
old view, while Georges Cuvier, the 
great French paleontologist, was us- 
ing the Irish elk to prove that ex- 
tinction did occur. By 1812 Cuvier 
had resolved two pressing issues: by 
using minute anatomical descrip- 
tions, he proved that the Irish elk 
was not like any modern animal; 
and by placing it among many fossil 
mammals with no modern counter- 
parts, he established the fact of ex- 
tinction and set the basis for the 
geologic time scale. 



Once the fact of extinction had 
been settled, debate moved to the 
time of the event: in particular, had 
the Irish elk survived the flood? 
This was no idle matter, for if the 
flood or some previous catastrophe 
had wiped out the giant deer, then 
its demise had natural (or super- 
natural) causes. Archdeacon 
Maunsell, a dedicated amateur, 
wrote in 1825: "I apprehended 
they must have been destroyed by 
some overwhelming deluge." A cer- 
tain Dr. MacCulloch even believed 
that the fossils were found standing 
erect, noses elevated— the deer's fi- 
nal gesture to the rising flood, as 
well as their final plea: don't make 
waves. 

If, however, they had survived 
the flood, then their exterminating 
angel could only have been the 
naked ape himself. Gideon Mantell, 
writing in 1851, blamed Celtic 
tribes; Hibbert implicated the Ro- 
mans and the extravagant slaugh- 
ters of their public games. Lest we 
assume that man's destructive po- 
tential was recognized only re- 
cently, Hibbert wrote in 1830: "Sir 
Thomas Molyneux conceived that a 
sort of distemper, of pestilential 
murrain, might have cut off the 
Irish elks. ... It is, however, ques- 
tionable, if the human race has not 
occasionally proved as formidable 
as a pestilence in exterminating 
from various districts, whole races 
of wild animals." 

In 1846 Britain's greatest pale- 
ontologist. Sir Richard Owen, re- 
viewed the evidence and concluded 
that the giant deer, in Ireland at 
least, had perished before man's ar- 

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rival. By this time, Noah's flood as 
a serious geologic proposition had 
passed from the scene. What then 
had wiped out the giant deer? 

Within 10 years of Charles Dar- 
win's publication of the Origin oj 
Species in 1859, virtually all scien- 
tists had accepted the /act of evolu- 
tion. But the debate about causes 
and mechanisms was not resolved 
(in Darwin's favor) until the 1930s. 
Darwin's theory of natural selection 
requires that all evolutionary 
changes be adaptive— that is, that 
they be useful to the organism. 
Therefore, the anti-Darwinians 
searched the fossil record for cases 
of evolution that could not have 
benefited the animals involved. 

The theory of orthogenesis be- 
("ame the touchstone for anti-Dar- 
winian paleontologists, for it 
claimed that evolution proceeded in 
straight lines, which natural selec- 
tion could not regulate. Certain 
trends, once started, could not be 
stopped even if they led to ex- 
tinction. Thus, it was said that cer- 
tain oysters coiled their valves upon 
each other until they sealed the ani- 
mal permanently within; that saber- 
toothed tigers could not stop grow- 
ing their teeth or mammoths their 
tusks. 

But by fai- the most famous ex- 
ample of orthogenesis was the Irish 
elk. The giant deer had evolved 
from small forms with even smaller 
antlers. Although the antlers were 
useful at first, their growth could 
not be contained and, like the sor- 
cerer's apprentice, the giant deer 
discovered only too late that even 
good things have their limits. 
Bowed by the weight of their cra- 
nial excrescences, caught in the 
trees or mired in the ponds, they 
died. What wiped out the Irish elk? 
They themselves or, rather, their 
own antlers did. 

In 1925 the American paleon- 
tologist R. S. Lull invoked the giant 
deer to attack Darwinism: "Natural 
selection will not account for over- 
specialization, for it is hianifest 
that, while an organ can be brought 
to the point of perfection by selec- 
tion, it would never be carried to a 
condition where it is an actual men- 
ace to survival ... [as in] the 
great branching antlers of the ex- 
tinct Irish deer." 

Darwinians, led by Julian Hux- 
ley, led a counterattack in the 
1930s. Huxley noted that as deer 



get larger— either during their own 
growth or in the comparison of re- 
lated adults of different sizes— the 
antlers do not increase in the same 
proportion as body size; they in- 
crease faster, so that the antlers of 
large deer are not only absolutely 
larger but also relatively larger than 
those of small deer. For such regu- 
lar and orderly change of shape 
with increasing size, Huxley used 
the term allometry. 

Allometry provided a comfort- 
able explanation for the giant deer's 
antlers. Since the Irish elk had the 
largest body size of any deer, its rel- 
atively enormous antlers could have 
been the simple consequence of an 
allometric relationship present 
among all deer. We need only as- 
sume that increased body size was 
favored by natural selection; the 
large antlers might have been an 
automatic consequence. They might 
even have been slightly harmful in 
themselves, but this disadvantage 
was more than compensated for by 
the benefits of larger size, and the 
trend continued. Of course, when 
problems of larger antlers out- 
weighed the advantages of larger 
bodies, the trend would cease since 
it could no longer be favored by 
natural selection. 

Almost every modern textbook 
of evolution presents the Irish elk 
as a model case in this light, citing 
the allometric explanation to 
counter orthogenetic theories. As a 
trusting student, 1 had assumed that 
such constant repetition was firmly 
based on copious data. Later I dis- 
covered that textbook dogma is self- 
perpetuating; therefore, three years 
ago I was disappointed, but not 
really surprised, to discover that 
this widely touted explanation was 
based on no data whatsoever. Aside 
from a few desultory attempts to 
find the largest set of antlers, no 
one had ever measured an Irish elk. 
Yardstick in hand, I resolved to 
rectify this situation. 

Tlie National Museum of Ireland 
in Dublin has seventeen specimens 
on display and many more, piled 
antler upon antler, in a nearby 
warehouse. Most large museums in 
western Europe and America own 
an Irish elk, and the giant deer 
adorns many trophy rooms of 
English and Irish gentry. The larg- 
est antlers grace the entranceway to 
Adare Manor, home of the Earl of 
Dunraven, in Ireland. The sorriest 




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skeleton, also in Ireland, sits in the 
cellar of Bunratty Castle, where 
many merry and slightly inebriated 
tourists repair for coffee each eve- 
ning after a medieval banquet. This 
poor fellow, when I met him early 
the morning after, was smoking a 
cigar, missing two teeth, and on the 
tines of his antlers, he carried three 
coffee cups. For those who enjoy in- 
vidious comparisons, the largest 
antlers in America are at Yale; the 
smallest in the world at Harvard. 

To determine if the giant deer's 
antlers increased aUometrically, I 
compared antler and body size. For 
antler size, I used a compounded 



Wolves and man hunt the Irish 

elk in a 1904 painting bv 

J. G. Millais, but the giant 

deer was probably extinct in 

Ireland before man arrived. 



measure of antler length, antler 
width, and the lengths of major 
tines. Body length, or the length 
and width of major bones, might be 
the most appropriate measure of 
body size, but I could not use it be- 
cause the vast majority of speci- 
mens consist of only a skull and its 
attached antlers. Moreover, the few 
complete skeletons are invariably 
made up of several animals, much 
plaster, and, occasionally, ersatz 
(the first skeleton in Edinburgh 
once sported a horse's pelvis). Skull 
length therefore served as my mea- 
sure of over-all size. This is not so 
bad a resolution as it may at first 
appear. Body length and weight de- 
pend strongly upon age and condi- 
tion; these are extraneous factors 
with strong effects upon antlers that 
can easily confuse a primary corre- 
lation with size (measures for antler 
size can be corrected for age). The 
skuU, however, reaches its final 
length at a very early age (all my 
specimens are older) and does not 




vary thereafter; it is, therefore, a 
good indicator of body size. My 
sample included 79 skulls and 
antlers from museums and homes in 
Ireland, Britain, continental Eu- 
rope, and the United States. 

My measurements showed a 
strong positive correlation between 
antler size and body size, with the 
antlers increasing in size two and 
one-half times faster than body size 
from small to large males. This is 
not a plot of individual growth; it is 
a representation for adults of differ- 
ent bodv size. Thus, the allometric 
hypothesis is affirmed. If natural se- 
lection favored large deer, then rel- 
atively larger antlers would appear 
as a correlated result of no neces- 
sary significance in itself. 

Yet, even as I affirmed the allo- 
metric relationship, I began to 
doubt the traditional explanation— 
for it contained a curious remnant 
of the older, orthogenetic view. It 
assumed that the antlers are not 
adaptive in themselves and were 
tolerated only because the advan- 
tages of increased body size were so 
great. But why must we assume that 
the immense antlers had no primary 
function? Equally possible is the op- 
posite interpretation: that selection 
operated primarily to increase 
antler size, thus yielding increased 
body size as a secondary con- 
sequence. The case for inadaptive 
antlers has never rested on more 
than the subjective wonderment 
born of their immensity. 

Views long abandoned often con- 
tinue to exert their influence in 
subtle ways. The orthogenetic argu- 
ment lived on in the allometric con- 
text proposed to replace it. I believe 
that the supposed problem of "un- 
wieldy" or "cumbersome" antlers 
is an illusion rooted in a notion now 
abandoned by students of animal 
behavior. 

To nineteenth-century Dar- 
winians, the natural world was a 
cmel place. While modern scien- 
tists tend to measure the benefits of 
evolution in terms of successful re- 
production, last century's Darwin- 
ians assessed evolution in terms of 
battles won and enemies destroyed. 
In this context, antlers were viewed 
as formidable weapons to be used 
against predators and rival males. 
In his Descent of Man (1871), Dar- 
win toyed with another idea: that 
antlers might have evolved as orna- 
ments to attract females. "If, then. 



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the horns, like the splendid accou- 
terments of the knights of old, add 
to the noble appearance of stags 
and antelopes, they may have been 
modified partly for this purpose." 
Yet he quickly added that he had 
"no evidence in favor of this be- 
lief," and went on to interpret ant- 
lers according to the "law of battle" 
and their advantages in "reiterated 
deadly contests." All early writers 
assumed that the Irish elk used its 
antlers to kill wolves and drive off 
rival males in fierce battle. To my 
knowledge this view has been chal- 
lenged only by the Russian paleon- 
tologist L. S. Davitashvili, who in 
1961 asserted that the antlers func- 
tioned primarily as courtship sig- 
nals to females. 

Now, if antlers are weapons, the 
(jrthogenetic argument is appealing, 
although 1 must admit that ninety 
pounds of broad-palmed antler, 
regrown annually and spanning 
twelve feet from tip to tip, seems 
even more inflated than our current 
military budget. Therefore, to pre- 
serve a Darwinian explanation, we 
must invoke the allometric hypothe- 
sis in its original form. 

But what if antlers do not func- 
tion primarily as weapons? Modern 
studies of animal behavior have 
generated an exciting concept of 
great importance to evolutionary bi- 
ology: many structures previously 
judged as actual weapons or devices 
for display to females are actually 
used for ritualized combat among 
males. Their function is to prevent 
actual battle (with its consequent 
injuries and loss of hfe) by estab- 
lishing hierarchies of dominance 
that males can easily recognize and 
obey. 

Antlers and horns are a primary 
example of structures used for rit- 
ualized behavior. They serve, ac- 
cording to Valerius Geist, as "visual 
dominance-rank symbols." Large 
antlers confer high status and ac- 
cess to females. Since there can be 
no evolutionary advantage more po- 
tent than a guarantee of successful 
reproduction, selective pressures for 
larger antlers must often be intense. 
As more and more horned animals 
are observed in their natural envi- 
ronment, older ideas of deadly 
battle are yielding to evidence of 
fighting in ways clearly designed to 
prevent bodily injury or of purely 
ritualized assertion of dominance 
without body contact. This has been 



observed in red deer by Benindc and 
Darling, caribou by Kelsall, and in 
mountain sheep by Geist. 

As devices for display among 
males, the enormous antlers of the 
Irish elk finally make sense as 
structures adaptive in themselves. 
Moreover, as R. Coope of Birming- 
ham University pointed out to me, 
the detailed morphology of the 
antlers can be explained, for the 
first time, in this context. Deer with 
broad-palmed antlers tend to show 
the full width of their antlers in dis- 
play. The modern fallow deer (con- 
sidered by many as the Irish elk's 
nearest living relative) must rotate 



COMPOSITE MEASURE OF ANTLER SIZE 















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460 4 


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LENGTH OF SKULL IN MM. 

Irish elk specimens 
showed a strong correlation 
between body and antler 
size, with the horns 
increasing two and one-half 
times as fast as the 
body in an allometric 
growth relationship. 



its head from side to side in order to 
show its pahn. This would have 
created great prohlenis lor giant 
deer, sinee the torque produced by 
swinging ninetv-pound antlers 
would have been immense. But ihc 
an tiers of the Irish elk were ar- 
ranged so ingeniously that it only 
had to bow its head once to display 
all facets of its antlers. When the 
deer was looking straight ahead, 
the palm was fully displayed. With 
its head down, both the length of 
the giant deer's antlers and the 
strength of their tines were 
strikingly evident. (In any case 
the tines could hardly have been 
effective in battle since they 
pointed backwai'ds and could not 
be directed towai'd a facing enemy 
unless the deer held its head 
down between its legs.) Therefore, 
both the unusual configuration 
and the enormous size of the ant- 
lers can be explained by post- 
ulating that thev were used for 
displa) rather than for combat. 

If the antlers were adaptive, why 
did the Irish elk become extinct (at 
least in Ireland)? Tlie probable an- 
swer to this old dilemma is, I am 
afraid, rather commonplace. Tlie gi- 
ant deer flourished in Ireland for 
only the briefest of times— during 
the so-called Allerod interstadial 
phase at the end of the last glacia- 
tion. This period, a minor warm 
phase between two colder epochs, 
lasted for about 1,000 vears, from 
12,000 to 11,000 years before the 
present. (The Irish elk had migrated 
to Ireland during the previous gla- 
cial phase when lower sea levels es- 
tablished a connection between Ire- 
land and continental Europe.) 
WTiile it was well adapted to the 
grassy, sparsely wooded, open coun- 
try of Allerod times, it apparently 
could not adapt either to the sub- 
arctic tundra that followed in the 
next cold epoch or to the heavy for- 
estation that developed after the fi- 
nal retreat of the ice sheet. 

Extinction is the fate of most 
species, usually because they fail to 
adapt rapidly enough to changing 
conditions of climate or com- 
petition. Darwinian evolution de- 
crees that no animal shall actively 
develop a harmful structure, but it 
offers no guarantee that useful 
structures will continue to be adap- 
tive in changed circumstances. The 
Irish elk was probably a victim of 
its own previous success. ■ 




100% GRAIN NEUTRAL SPIRITS. 94.6 PROOF. IMPORTED BY SOWERSET IMPORT 



The Human Strategy 



The Withering Green Revolution 



Miracle seeds— like 
boomerangs— are not 
something you can cast into 
the developing countries 
and turn your back on 

"You have to be brutally frank 
with some governments; you have 
to push them into using it," re- 
marked plant geneticist Norman E. 
Borlaug during an interview shortly 
after he won the Nobel Prize. Dr. 
Borlaug was talking about the in- 
troduction of the high-yield, semi- 
dwarf wheat, the so-called miracle 
seeds of the Green Revolution. It 
was for the development of those 
seeds that he had won his prize. He 
was also deeply involved in promot- 
ing their use throughout the world. 

At the same time that Borlaug 
was being interviewed, in January, 
1971, U.S. government food ex- 
perts were claiming that the battle 
against hunger and malnutrition in 
the underdeveloped world would 
soon be won. High-yield varieties of 
rice and wheat had provided four 
consecutive years of record harvest 
in India and Pakistan. The miracle 
seeds had ended the need for rice 
imports in the Philippines, and 
President Suharto was predicting 
self-sufficiency for Indonesia. 

"It doesn't do any good to get 10 
or 15 percent yield increases," Bor- 
laug continued. "They won't listen 
to you. You have to throw the long 
bomb. You have to make a 100 or 
200 percent gain to change their 
old worn-out practices." 

As I predicted in this column last > 



June, the Green Revolution has not 
brought any significant respite from 
hunger and malnutrition in Asia. 
Despite a total of more than 50 mil- 
lion acres planted in high-yield vari- 
eties of rice and wheat, grain pro- 
duction fell to dangerously low 
levels throughout Asia last year. 

In the Philippines more than 50 
percent of the acreage devoted to 
rice was planted in high-yield vari- 
eties, yet output last year fell 5 per- 
cent below 1971, which was al- 
ready down 3 percent from 1970. 
Following typhoons, floods, and 
civil disorders, Ferdinand Marcos 
instituted a dictatorship. Tlie rice 
shortage was one of the fundamen- 
tal causes of this crisis. 

India also may be on the verge of 
a disaster. By the end of 1972, 
news sources in Delhi, Calcutta, 
and Poona were reporting crop fail- 
ures and famines in four states: 
Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, 
and Mysore. Some 33 million 
people were already affected. 
Speakers at the eleventh regional 
conference of the Food and Agri- 
cultural Organization in New Delhi 
last November bluntly declared that 
the high-yield varieties had not 
solved Asia's food problem. 

India's plight can be seen in fig- 
ures recently presented by Kenneth 
Murray and Emanuel McNeil of the 
Grain and Feed Division of the U.S. 
Foreign Agricultural Service. Total 
Indian grain production went from 
68.5 million metric tons in 
1960-61 to a high of 92.8 million 
metric tons in 1970-71. The fore- 
cast for 1972-73 is 84.0 million 
metric tons. In the meantime, In- 



dia's population has grown from 
440.3 million to 570 million. 

On a per capita basis, therefore, 
India's grain production has fallen 
below the levels of 1960-61, which 
was before the Green Revolution 
began. India produced 0.1556 met- 
ric tons per person then versus 
0.1473 metric tons per person now. 
Even comparing 1972-73 with the 
worst drought year in past decades, 
total per capita grain production 
has improved less than lO percent. 

In each of the affected regions, 
government experts are blaming the 
deficits on unusual weather condi- 
tions—either too much or too little 
rain. But erratic monsoons, tropical 
storms, floods, and droughts are 
nothing new. These are precisely 
the conditions that must somehow 
be met and overcome to improve on 
the "old worn-out practices." 

The main problem with the mir- 
acle seeds is that they are engi- 
neered to outperform native vari- 
eties only under the most favorable 
ecological conditions and with the 
aid of enormous amounts of indus- 
trial fertilizers, pesticides, in- 
secticides, fungicides, irrigation, 
and other technical inputs. Without 
such inputs, the high-yield varieties 
perform no better— and sometimes 
worse— than the native varieties of 
rice and wheat, especially under ad- 
verse soil and weather conditions. 

Even when the technical inputs 
are applied in sufficient quantities, 
certain ecological problems arise, 
which seem not to have been given 
adequate consideration before the 
seeds were "pushed" out onto the 
vast acreage they now occupy. Con- 




by Marvin Han-is 



version to high-yield varieties 
creates novel opportunities for 
plant pathogens, pests, and insects. 
The varieties also place unprece- 
dented stress upon water resources. 
In the Philippines, for example, 
tungro rice virus, which was never 
a serious problem in the past, 
reached epidemic levels in 1970 
and 1971, when more than half of 
all the rice acreage had been 
planted with high-yield varieties. I 
suspect that the modification of nat- 
ural drainage patterns to provide 
extra water for paddies with high- 
yield plants contributed to the se- 
vere flooding that accompanied the 
typhoons in the summer of 1972. 

In Pakistan tens of thousands of 
electrically operated tube wells 
have been drilled to provide water 
for high-yield wheat. Tube well irri- 
gation is already lowering water ta- 
bles and increasing the salinity of 
the soil. One might think that a 
tube well farmer would at least be 
able to come out ahead during a 
drought. But this has not necessar- 
ily been the case. Reduced water 
flows in the major rivers have led to 
cutbacks in hydroelectric produc- 
tion. Without electricity the tube 
well farmers cannot pump water up 
to their fields. Moreover, the loss in 
hydroelectric output has impaired 
cheinical fertilizer production. 

Of course, every man-made tech- 
nological disaster has its man-made 
technological solution. But the 
peasant smallholders of Asia cannot 
meet the costs of spiraling technical 
inputs needed to avoid disaster. The 
Green Revolution inevitably widens 
the gap between landowners who 



have the credit and the know-how 
to keep up with the technological 
solutions and the peasant small- 
holders who stand to lose their land 
when the unanticipated ecological 
side eflects appear. 

The Green Revolution in In- 
donesia is a case in point. Accord- 
ing to Prof. Richard Franke of the 
Department of Anthropology at 
Montclair College, that rice-grow- 
ing country has already had three 
distinct phases of Green Revolu- 
tion, all of them failures. In Green 
Revolution I, the government gave 
loans to individual peasants for the 
purchase of high-yield seeds and ex- 
pensive fertilizers. Not knowing 
what the price of rice would be at 
the end of the year, many peasants 
calculated that they would do better 
selling the fertilizer on the black 
market rather than putting it on 
their fields. They also skimped on 
the insecticides, hoping to save 
some for future use. Some farmers 
had no choice but to sell the entire 
high-yield packet because it arrived 
in their villages after the planting 
season. Corruption and mismanage- 
ment among officials charged with 
distributing the packets created ad- 
ditional problems. With large num- 
ber of peasants defaulting on their 
loans, the government abruptly 
halted the program in 1968. 

Green Revolution II began in 
1969. Having lost faith in its own 
ability to control the distribution of 
the technical inputs, the govern- 
ment contracted with large inter- 
national corporations to use their 
know-how to push the high-yield 
seeds in the villages. The govern- 





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nient agreed to pay $54 for each 
hectare that the corporations con- 
verted to miracle rice. The corpora- 
tions proceeded by subcontracting 
with Indonesian firms. Peasants 
were given loans that had to be re- 
paid with one-sixth of the rice har- 
vest; the army was supposed to col- 
lect this one-sixth and use it as a 
salary supplement for government 
employees. 

To make certain that the pre- 
scribed amounts of insecticides 
were applied at the scheduled time, 
the corporations hired planes and 
pilots to spray from the air. The 
principal insecticide used was 
Demicon 100, produced by CIBA, a 
chemical corporation that happened 
to be the program's largest contrac- 
tor. In 1969-70, CIBA, Mitsubishi, 
Hoechst, and other corporations 
were bringing Green Revolution II 
to about 2,471,000 acres in densely 
populated areas of Java, where the 
average farm was an acre in size 
and where 30 percent of the popu- 
lation owned no land at all. 

The schedule for aerial spraying 
was fixed at regional headquarters, 
and it was up to the individual 
farmer to make sure that he was 
ready when the plane came over. 
Some peasants who did not want 
their lands sprayed kept moving the 
ground markers around to decoy 
the planes. Although CIBA denied 
charges that Demicon 100 was re- 
sponsible for the death of children 
and water buffalo, everyone seems 
to agree that the spray was kilhng 
off the fish in the fishponds. The In- 
donesians rely on these fish for 
most of their protein. (Demicon 
100 had already been implicated in 
a great Rhine River fish kill.) 

Human duphcity finally put an 
end to Green Revolution II. Peas- 
ants underreported their harvests in 
order to lower the amount of rice 
they would have to hand over to the 
army. At the same time, local army 
officers in charge of collecting the 
rice overestimated how much had 
been produced in order to enlarge 
their personal cut of the one-sixth 
due the government. No one could 
determine if production had ac- 
tually increased or decreased. The 
government soon discovered, how- 
ever, that it was paying CIBA more 
than two dollars for every one dol- 
lar's worth of rice that the army 
said it was getting from the peas- 
ants. According to Gary E. Hansen, 



a research associate at the Tech- 
nology and Development Institute, 
East-West Center, Honolulu, rice 
produced with CIBA was costing 
the government $305 a ton when 
the world market price was only 
$130 a ton. Now that's what I call a 
"long bomb." 

Green Revolution III began in 
1970 and is still going on. Tlie gov- 
ernment ships the seeds, fertilizers, 
and insecticides to local ware: 
houses. Peasants take out low-cost 
loans and use the inputs as thev see 
fit. Franke studied the effects of this 
program in a village where ecologi- 
cal conditions were optimal for the 
success of the high-vield varieties 
and found that actual yield in- 
creases of up to 70 percent over na- 
tive varieties were being achieved. 

Yet Franke discovered that only 
about one-fifth of the farming 
households had joined the program. 
As predicted, the chief beneficiaries 
were the households that were al- 
ready better off than average and 
that had no labor debts to pay off. 
For the majority of farming house- 
holds, the 70 percent productivity 
increase was not sufficient to make 
any real difference in their class po- 
sition since they did not own 
enough land and would have to con- 
tinue working for somebody else in 
order to get through the year. Tra- 
ditionally, poor families in Franke's 
village make ends meet by working 
for well-to-do patrons who lend 
them money to buy food. The pa- 
trons are not eager for their clients 
to get out of debt because they need 
cheap labor for their large paddy 
holdings; on the other hand, the 
clients are afraid to break off rela- 
tions because they fear being left on 
their own during a drought or fam- 
ily crisis. 

Elsewhere in Indonesia, Green 
Revolution III is encountering eco- 
logical problems. A combination of 
political, economic, and ecological 
factors must be at work in the latest 
crisis. Wliatever the precise cause, 
rice prices have trebled in recent 
months, and the government has al- 
ready imported 1.5 million tons of 
rice and is looking around for more. 

You have to be brutallv frank 
with some experts, you have to push 
them into realizing it: the Green 
Revolution is a hoax. 

Columnist Marvin Harris teaches an- 
thropology at Columbia University. 



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In ride and handling, 
its distinctly Thunderbird. 



i 




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Tires that are tested to give the average 
driver 40,000 miles of tread life in normal 
driving. Result: an extraordinarily smooth 
ride. 

Someotherspecial luxuries: cushioned 
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Bios 



tjv Arthur W. Galston 



Plant Cancer 

In plants, too, cells may suddenly break away from 
the constraints of normal, healthy growth 



The orderly development of any 
multicellular organism, whether 
plant or animal, depends on a sys- 
tem of controls and mutual re- 
straints among the different organs 
and even the different cells within 
each organ. How a fertilized egg de- 
velops into a complex organism, 
such as a rabbit or a tomato plant, 
is still a largely unsolved mystery, 
involving the complex processes of 
cellular differentiation. Molecular 
biologists have recently given us 
some insights into the events gov- 
erning the emergence of differences 
among previously similar cells. 

What seems to be involved is a 
regulated switching-on of some of 
the genes in the cell; these genes, 
through the production of specific 
messengers, then govern the pro- 
duction of specific proteins, in- 
cluding enzymes that catalyze the 
basic biochemical reactions of the 
cell. It can easily be imagined that 
different assemblies of switched-on 
genes can lead to the production of 
different populations of enzymes, 
and thus to cells differing ultimately 
in form, chemistry, and function. 
The key to the differentiation proc- 
ess, according to this theory, 
would be the master mechanism 
that decides which genes in a par- 
ticular cell will be switched on. 

It has now been shown, in both 
plants and animals, that most— if 
not all— cells of an organism have 
the same total assembly of genes. 
Thus, a whole carrot plant can be 
reconstituted from an individual 
carrot root cell if the cell is cultured 
in an appropriate medium. Sim- 



ilarly, cells from the intestines of a 
toad, when injected into an egg cell 
whose own nucleus has been re- 
moved, can preside over the forma- 
tion of a normal animal. This means 
that cellular differentiation is not ir- 
reversible and that cells with cer- 
tain morphological and chemical 
characteristics can ultimately as- 
sume different characteristics. It all 
depends on which genes within the 
cells are switched on, which off. 

What keeps a gene switched off? 
Probably its DNA is being covered 
by another large molecule, which 
prevents the gene from forming its 
messenger RNA. Such large repres- 
sor molecules are, at least in the 
bacteria, proteins that have a spe- 
cific affinity for a particular gene. 

Anything that removes the re- 
pressor from the gene has the effect 
of switching it on, and is called an 
inducer. Among the best-known in- 
ducers are the comparatively small 
molecules known as hormones. In 
both plants and animals, hormones 
migrate from the cells in which they 
are synthesized to some target tis- 
sue. There the hormones either 
stimulate the cells to new biochemi- 
cal activities or switch off other ac- 
tivities. This system of mobile in- 
ducer hormones is one of the most 
powerful techniques used by plants 
and animals to insure orderly, bal- 
anced development. If cells of part 
of a plant are dependent on a sub- 
stance produced by cells of another 
part, then the development of the 
two parts must proceed together. 

In a plant, a proper balance of 
roots, stems, and leaves is main- 



tained by a combination of nutri- 
tional and hormonal interactions. 
Roots absorb water and minerals 
from the soil and send these essen- 
tial materials to leaves and stems; 
conversely, leaves produce pho- 
tosynthetic materials and send them 
to stems and roots. This nutritional 
interdependence guarantees a 
proper balance between root mass 
and leaf mass. If a root system is 
too small, leaves and stems would 
be deficient in water and minerals. 
And if a leafy apparatus is too 
small, the stems and roots would 
starve. Superimposed on this gross 
nutritional control is a finer hormo- 
nal control; for example, roots pro- 
duce hormones essential for leaf 
growth and maintenance, young 
leaves produce hormones essential 
for stem and root growth, and cells 
in the stem tips can influence the 
growth rate of other stem cells far 
removed from the tips. 

Sometimes, this orderly system 
of controls is disturbed, and the or- 
ganism develops abnormal growths. 
Galls grow on oaks and other plants 
when insects lay eggs there and the 
larvae develop within the plant tis- 
sue. We assume that the insect pro- 
duces substances that regulate 
growth and alter the harmonious in- 
tegration of plant tissues into their 
normal structures. Other malforma- 
tions can be produced by bacteria; 
one causes witches'-broom by pre- 
venting the normal elongation of 
stem internodes, another causes 
clubroot in such plants as cabbage, 
and a third bacterium can cause the 
appearance of malignant tumors 



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25 




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NH 



known as crown galls. This last 
plant disease is especially inter- 
esting because of its resemblance to 
animal cancer. 

To induce a crown gall, one must 
first wound the plant. Then virulent 
cells of Agro bacterium tumefaciens 
must be introduced into the wound. 
After about two to three davs, the 
cells near the wound have been in- 
vaded by the bacterium and trans- 
formed into a malignant tumor. 
These tumors continue to grow and. 
unlike normal plant organs, their 
growth does not come under the 
hormonal control of any other tis- 
sues. The cells of the crown gall 
seem to circumvent the normal con- 
trols by producing by themselves all 
the hormones they need for growth. 
We thus assume that the bacterium 
in some way switches on previously 
inactive genes, and that the cancer- 
like growth occurs because cells 
gain a new ability to synthesize 
their own growth hormones. 

After some time, the crown gall 
disease becomes systemic. New tu- 
mors grow at other locations on the 
plant, generally in strained posi- 
tions such as the angles between the 
leaves and the stem. These secon- 
dary tumors may also grow to very 
large size, but they differ from the 
primary tumors in one important 
respect: they apparently contain no 
bacteria. Despite the absence of the 
bacterium that initially caused the 
disease, these secondary tumors are 
as malignant as the primary tumors. 
If either secondary or primary tu- 
mors are removed from the diseased 
plant and grafted onto a normal 
plant, other tumors will form on the 
plant. This makes the analogy with 
animal cancer rather complete; the 
bacterium is not the true cause of 
the malignancy, but only the agent 
that introduces the true infective 
principle into plant cells. 

Why do these cancerous growths 
occur? What is the Tumor Inducing 
Principle (TIP) that so many re- 
searchers are trying to discover? We 
still do not know. It may be con- 
nected with a virus (bacteriophage) 
present in virulent strains of bac- 
teria. Once released into the plant 
cell, this virus may replicate and 
spread throughout the plant, caus- 
ing the symptoms of the disease. 
While the nature of TIP is uncer- 
tain, we are gaining insights into 
how it operates in plants. It appears 
to cause affected cells in stems to 



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26 



produce laro;e quantities of such 
liormonos as auxins and cvtokinins, 
which stem cells normally obtain 
from other parts of the plant. \^hen 
crown gall cells are excised from 
the plant and grown in pure cul- 
tures, thev do not require additions 
of these hormones, as do normal 
cells. The cancerous cells appai-- 
entlv have many genes switched on 
bv TIP. so that thev now- have many 
more capabilities to produce hor- 
mones than normal, partiallv re- 
pressed cells. Thev also have abnor- 
mallv leaky membranes and lose 
much material from their cells into 
the surrounding medium. 

The introduction of a cancerous 
crown gall condition to a healthy 
plant is neither an all-or-none phe- 
nomenon nor is it irreversible. Dur- 
ing the crucial two- to three-day in- 
duction period after the initial 
wounding, the onset of the disease 
may be partly or completely pre- 
vented bv "pasteurizing" the plant 
at shghtiv elevated temperatures. 
This treatment seems to inactivate 
the TIP at a crucial stage of the in- 
vasion. Once the disease has set in, 
it cannot be further prevented by 
the high temperature treatment. 
Also, if a weakly induced crown 
gall is grafted successively to sev- 
eral rapidly growing normal host 
plants, the gaU tissue gradually re- 
verts to a more and more normal 
growth condition. These experi- 
ments indicate that the state of the 
tissue involves a competition be- 
tween normal and TIP-induced bio- 
chemical events: whichever pre- 
dominates determines whether the 
ceU will develop a normal or a tu- 
morous growth habit. 

This finding has led some re- 
searchers to propose that cancer 
should not be treated by applying 
growth-retarding chemicals, such as 
the chemotherapeutic agents now 
used, but rather growth-promoting 
chemicals that, bv favoring the de- 
velopment of normal components, 
will swamp out the malignant 
growth. ^XTiether or not this notion 
is true, crown gall and other plant 
tumors are interesting model sys- 
tems for the study of cancer and of- 
fer important insights into the 
mechanisms that control normal 
growth and development of all li\'- 
ing organisms. 

Columnist Arthur W. Galston teaches 
biology at Yale University. 







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V 



Lonely 
Lives 
Under 
ttie 
Big: Sky 



Roaming the high country 
of the American West, 
Basque sheepherders 
stir envy and dreams 
of escape in frustrated 
city dwellers; 
for the Basques, 
the isolation is often 
a desperate ordeal 



toy William 
A. Douglass 



The Basque sheepherder of the 
American West has become a ro- 
manticized figure in popular htera- 
ture. For those whose lives are 
dominated by urban pressures and 
ills, his life-style holds a primitivis- 
tic attraction; the thought of a soli- 
tary existence played out against 
spectacular mountain scenery lends 
itself to escapist dreams. 

This mystique has developed 
through a one-sided view of the 
Basque sheepherder's life-style. 
Along with the beauty of his envi- 
ronment, the freedom from the irri- 
tations of urban life, and the seem- 
ingly uncomplicated task of caring 
for a band of sheep, there is also the 
necessity of enduring months of 
boredom and loneliness. In the 
American West, sheep raising is 
characterized by transhumance. Un- 
der this system, sheep bands are 
summered in the remote high- 
mountain country and wintered in 
the low, arid, and sparsely popu- 
lated valleys. Twice a year the 
sheep traverse as much as several 
hundred miles between these 
ranges. Today some outfits truck 
their animals, but many still trail 
them, and in this instance the 
herders cover the entire distance on 
foot and horseback. 

Constantly exposed to the physi- 
cal elements, the herder must pos- 
sess considerable self-reliance and 



endurance. As guardian of the 
sheep band, he is responsible for an 
asset worth many thousands of dol- 
lars. On the open range the sheep 
band is exposed to such predators 
as coyotes, lynx, and occasionally, 
mountain lions and bears, and the 
herder must be continually alert. 
There is also the danger of poison- 
ing from toxic plants and bad wa- 
ter. Disease can strike, or a part of 
the band may wander off during a 
blizzard or when trailing through 
rugged country. At the same time, 
the herder lives in almost unbroken 
social isolation, and the nature of 
the occupation practically rules out 
the intimacies of family life. 

Because labor shortages have al- 
ways been endemic to this low-sta- 
tus, low-paying industry, the will- 
ingness of Basques to migrate from 
Spain and France and enter the oc- 
cupation continues to be a major 
factor in the sheep industry's 
growth. Speaking a language that 
cannot be shown definitively to 
share common roots with any other 
human tongue, the Basques are re- 
garded as the mystery people of Eu- 
rope, an image that is heightened 
by imprecise knowledge of their ori- 
gins. 

Basque involvement in the open- 
range sheep industry dates from the 
days of the 1849 California gold 
rush. There were several hundred 



28 



'':%!'^i 




j^^^^^^^jig 



Basques in llie ranks of the forluiic 
seekers; many came directly from 
Argentina and Uruguay, where 
thousands of Basque immigrants 
had heen hvestockmen during the 
first half of the nineteenth century- 
In the 1850s and 1860s manv of 
the Basque gold prospectors, no- 
tablv those who had formerly lived 
in South America, left the mining 
camps and entered the nascent 
sheep and cattle industries of south- 
ern and central California. 

By the 1880s the Basques had es- 
tablished a reputation as the finest 
sheepmen in the American West, 
and by the first decade of the twen- 
tieth century a few Basques had be- 
come prominent sheep ranchers 
with impressive herds and private 
landholdings. Others worked as herd- 
ers and were the preferred em- 
ployees in Basque and non-Basque 
sheep outfits alike, often replacing 
other immigrant or American In- 
dian sheepherders. And finally, the 
Basques were the most prominent 
ethnic group in the ranks of the 



ilincraiit sheep OLillils. which were 
referred to by llu'ir (Icli-adors as 
"tramp bands."" 

The itinerant sheep outfit was a 
one- or two-man operation requir- 
ing minimal capitalization. The 
shepherd-owner simply acquired 
about a thousand sheep, a pack ani- 
mal, a tent, bedroll, and grubstake, 
then moved about the public lands 
searching for available pasturage. 
Most of the range was under federal 
ownership and as a part of the pub- 
lic domain, was legally open to all 
on a first-come basis. The legahties 
of the matter notwithstanding, com- 
petition for public pasturage and 
water among the itinerants them- 
selves and between the itinerants 
and the settled cattle and sheep 
ranchers was at times fierce. On oc- 
casion, competition turned into 
conflict, and the resulting con- 
frontations provided copy to the 
newspapers, litigation to the courts, 
and substance to the sheepman ver- 
sus cattleman legend. 

That Basques were the most nu- 



merous clcnii'nl in tlir lanks of llie 
itinerant sheepmen exacerhalnl ihc 
situation. Each year thousands of 
Basque males, for the most part 
young and single, emigrated from 
Europe to replace those who had re- 
turned or who had purchased their 
own bands. Most entered the West 
with the intention of returning to 
the Old World after acquiring sub- 
stantial capital. Few were willing to 
remain sheepherders for long, hut 
rather, expected to become sheep 
owners as quickly as possible. With 
little interest in a future in this 
country, the budding Basque sheep 
entrepreneur was loath to invest in 
land; instead he sought to increase 
the size of his band. As he did so, 
he required additional herders and 
camp tenders and would send to 
Europe for kinsmen or fellow vil- 
lagers. Frequently, the newcomers 
would take part of their wages in 
ewes, running their own animals 
alongside those of their kinsman- 
employer. They usually did this for 
three or four years, until the\ had 



3 GU1LLUMETTE 




»«f<?W» 










30 



suflicifiil aniiiials In lonn an inilc- 
peniloiU l)ancl. \l ihis pniiil llie 
sheeplierdcr uouM "\u\r olT" his 
new outfit, strikiiii; oul iti search of 
fresh pasturage. 

Since llie owner of ihe |)arent 
oullil more often llian mil planned 
to reluiii eventually to tlie Bas(iue 
country, he was more interested in 
the short-term fluctuations of the 
lamb and wool markets than in the 
long-range prospects of the Ameri- 
can sheep industry. He might there- 
fore assist many kinsmen and fellow 
ethnics to become itinerant oper- 
ators without givinii much llmught 
to the consequences of overgrazing. 



As a result. American ranchers 
held a dim view of Basques. The 
ubi(|uitous Basque itinerants were 
depicted as foreign usurpers of 
American resr)urces. opportunists 
who bled the economy of the Amer- 
ican West of wealth that was sorely 
needed for local development. 
Their presence inflamed passions 
and stimulated anti-Bascpje senti- 
ments, rhetoric, and eventually, leg- 
islation. 

In the 1890s and early 1900s 
competition with the itinerants "V] 
prompted many western ranchers to A 
join eastern conservationists in sup- 
porting legislation to create the na- 





A sheep herder, far left, 
leads his band to the 
lowlands, inhere he will find 
companionship for the 
winter. The stone pile, 
left, attests to the 
sheepherders' attempts to 
cope with loneliness on the 
high summer range, while 
tree carvings in aspen 
groves are the personal 
marks left by Basque 
herders over the years. 



31 




Basque hotels, bars, and 
restaurants are scattered 
throughout the West's sheep- 
raising areas. During the 
short spring lambing and 
shearing season and the fall 
shipping period, sheepherders 
congregate for traditional 
Basque dances and festivities. 



tional forest system. This system 
controlled access of livestock to the 
summer ranges in the newly estab- 
lished national forests of the high- 
mountain country. Significantly, 
grazing applications were reviewed 
by local boards of settled ranchers 
who made both ownership of pri- 
vate land and United States citizen- 
ship conditions for approval. In 
1934 the Taylor Grazing Act 
brought most of the remaining pub- 
lic domain under grazing regu- 
lations. This legislation specifically 
excluded both the landless and 
aliens from use of the range. Fur- 
thermore, passage of a series of re- 
strictive immigration laws in the 
1920s led to the National Origins 
Quota System; by 1924, the legal 
entry of Spanish citizens had been 
reduced to just 131 persons an- 
nually. The era of the itinerant 
sheepman was over. 

During the Second World War, 
abundant job opportunities and mil- 
itary service further reduced the 
number of American herders, while 
at the same time meat and wool 
were crucial to the economy and 
war effort. In response, the Depart- 



ment of Immigration allowed sev- 
eral contingents of Basques to enter 
the country on a temporary basis, 
and Congress passed an unusual se- 
ries of bills known as the Sheep- 
herder Laws. Introduced by west- 
ern senators and representatives, 
these laws conferred permanent res- 
idency upon Bascpjes who had en- 
tered the United States illegally— 
usually by jumping ship in New 
York, Galveston, or San Fran- 
cisco—and had then made their way 
to the sheep areas, where thev were 
welcomed by the desperate ranch- 
ers. Once out on the range with the 
sheep, they were hidden from the 
authorities. Between 1942 and 
1961, 383 men had their status le- 
galized under the Sheepherder 
Laws. 



T„ 



he piecemeal approach of the 
Sheepherder Laws, however, failed 
to alleviate the growing labor crisis. 
In 1950 western legislators led by 



3^ 




r* 







Senator McCarran of Nevada, him- 
self an ex-sheepman, sponsored leg- 
islation to exempt the Basque sheep- 
herders from the Spanish quota. 
Consequently, the initial legislation 
permitted 250 herders to enter the 
United States and the numbers 
were increased in subsequent years. 
The Western Range Association has 
since imported thousands of herders 
from Spain and presently recruits 
between 300 and 400 annually. 
These men sign three-year con- 
tracts, during which time they are 
required to work for sheep ranch- 
ers, but upon termination of the 
contract thev are eligible to apply 
for permanent-resident status. Once 
this is obtained, the herder is free to 
work at anv occupation he chooses 
and may remain in the United 
States indefinitely. 

Because for more than a century 
Basques have been closely identi- 
fied with herding, it has been as- 
sumed—for the most part, errone- 
ously — that thev have an extensive 
Old World background in the han- 
dling of sheep, and that they pos- 
sess an exceptional psychological 
tolerance for solitude. This latter 



point merits further consideration. 

Today the contract herder trav- 
els by jet from Europe to the 
western United States. In many 
cases, 48 hours after he has taken 
leave of his family, he is out on 
the range under the tutelage of 
an experienced herder. Once he 
learns the trade, he is given 
charge of his own dogs and sheep 
band. 

During the lambing and shear- 
ing season of late spring and the 
period of shipping in the early 
fall, the bands of a particular out- 
fit are concentrated and the her- 
ders enjoy each other's company 
for several weeks. Some may 
travel to a distant town to enjoy a 
few days of relaxation in a Basque 
hotel or to attend a Basque festi- 
val. Most, however, are herding 
for the single purpose of saving 
almost every cent they earn. Con- 
sequently, they may even forego 
the two weeks of vacation due 
them under their contract simply 
to avoid the temptations of towns. 
Many herders return to Europe af- 
ter three years with several thou- 
sand dollars, no knowledge of 



Unpopular in the West 
during the early part of the 
century, Basques were often 
depicted as unruly barroom 
brawlers on their 
infrequent visits to towns. 



33 



After grazing, in the hi^h summer ranges, 
bands are herded urer I he hills of 
northern Nevada to the low winter range. 







/-r--- 



h^'- 
M-}' 



■ >vfy>Xv- -^r 



^-=j^ 



An urpluincil Idinh is sluit^ 
on a horse until the herder 
finds a ewe to accept it. 



Eiiijlisli. and almost no experience 
oilier than that rained in the 
sheep eamps. 

When trailing and when on the 
winter range, the herder is Hkely 
to have the daily companionship 
of at least one other man. Once 
the previous year's lambs are 
shipped off for butchering, two 
bands can be combined into one 
for the winter. In man\' outfits the 
two herders will spend the winter 
together, with one acting as the 
other's camp tender. 

When the bands are on the 
high summer range, however, the 
herder's physical and social isola- 
tion is almost complete. Each 
band occupies its own large 
tract— enough pasturage to support 
a thousand ewes and their lambs 
for an entire summer. This means 
that there are likely to be several 
miles of rugged mountain country 
separating one herder from an- 
other. During a period of four or 
five months, the herder's only di- 
rect human contact is with the 
camp tender. 

The camp tender, operating out 
of a base camp and supplied from 
the main camp, delivers goods on 
muleback to the three or four herd- 
ers who are his responsibility. 
Frequently, the herders are a half 
day's journey awav, which means 
that the camp tender requires a 
day to service each. Since he also 
spends a day preparing and bak- 
ing large loaves of "sheepherders' 
bread," he is likely to visit each 
herder only about once every five 
days. The distances are great, so 
the camp tender's visit with the 
herder is likely to be short, usu- 
ally only an hour or two. But 
these visits can be highly charged. 
The shrewd camp tender treats his 
herders to a good deal of horse- 
play, jokes of a sexual nature, and 
consciously animated conversation. 
The only other visitors are occa- 
sional backpackers who happen 



along. ActualK niosl herders try 
to avoid them; the Bas(jU("'s lack 
of familiarity with (he English lan- 
guage and American culture 
makes such encounters awkward 
at best. 

Such. lh(>n, is the sh(;epherder's 
solitude today. When conversing 
among themselves, the men ex- 
press greater concern for the 
problems of boredom and keeping 
their sanity than for the physical 
difficulties of life on the open 
range. Memories of the mental an- 
guish of the first few months are 
particularly vivid. Some men 
recount that they cried themselves 
to sleep at night, and that during 
the long hours ' of the day, their 
minds were hyperactive, running 
over their lives in Europe, causing 
both a keen nostalgia for home 
and a revival of long-forgotten un- 
pleasant incidents, which were 
then worried over anew. At some 
point, however, the herder be- 
comes inured to his circumstances 
and learns to tailor his mental ac- 
tivity to the demands of his situ- 
ation. 



T, 



here is always the danger, of 
course, that a man will manage 
his solitude only too well. The 
herders have a vocabulary of mad- 
ness in which the individual who 
has slipped over the edge is 
graphically referred to as having 
been "sagebrushed" or "sheeped." 
Fear of these derangements is not 
unfounded. In earlier periods of 
western history there were fre- 
quent newspaper reports of the 
detention or institutionahzation of 
a "crazy Basco sheepherder." 
When, in 1907, the Basques of 
Boise, Idaho, founded a mutual 
aid society, formal provisions were 
made to assist the mentally unbal- 
anced to return to their families 
in Spain and France. 

Similarly, there were frequent 
accounts in the early western 
newspapers of Basque herders 
committing suicide. Even now, in 
the Spanish Basque country, the 
villagers recognize that returned 



h(M(lers have undergone a person- 
ality change. They view them as 
being highly introverted and hav- 
ing a penchant for seeking out the 
(■oni|)any of other ex-herders. 
Many never resume normal social 
intercourse, while others require 
several months before thev begin 
to converse freely. 

While the personalities of most 
herders are affected by their expe- 
riences, in the majority of cases 
the change is not so extreme as to 
call their sanity into question. The 
herders do cope with boredom 
and solitude in a variety of ways. 
The question becomes: how does 
man, the social animal par ex- 
cellence, maintain his sense of hu- 
manity, his concept of seff, in a 
state of almost total social isola- 
tion? The Basque sheepherder 
takes three measures: he human- 
izes the natural environment, per- 
sonalizes his deahngs with his ani- 
mal charges, and resorts to stimuli 
from the outside world, such as 
radios. 

Summer herding is character- 
ized more by boredom than by 
hard physical labor. While the 
herder must check the band occa- 
sionally to see that it remains 
within the confines of a particular 
day's grazing area, he is otherwise 
free to while away his time. Fish- 
ing, reading, napping, and putter- 
ing around the camp occupy many 
of his hours. Some men develop 
special interests, such as whittling 
or playing a musical instrument. 
It is said that one herder spent 
his free time turning over rocks, 
squashing the insects that he 
found, and then meticulously 
recording his kills in a notebook. 

There are two particular ways 
in which the majority of herders 
use their spare moments, while at 
the same time placing a human 
mark upon the natural environ- 
ment. Over the years, many of the 
rocky, treeless, windswept ridges 
of the high country have acquired 
the appearance of ancient ceme- 
teries. As far as the eye can see 
there are piles of carefully ar- 
ranged stones, called arri mutil- 
lak, or "stone bovs." Some of 
these are as tall as a man, mute 
monuments to the boredom of 
hundreds of Basque sheepherders. 

37 



Wherever there is water in the 
mountains, aspen groves, the fa- 
vored campsites of the sheepherd- 
ers, are sure to grow. Over the 
decades, Basques have trans- 
formed such groves into veritable 
galleries of tree carvings. The 
technique involves serrating the 
bark of young saplings with the 
blade of a penknife. As the tree 
matures, the scars widen, bringing 
out the designer's intent. Basque 
tree carvings on some of the larg- 
est trunks date from the end of 
the last century. 

The themes of the carvings are 
many, although the majority are a 
simple "Kilroy was here" docu- 
mentation of the carver's name 
and the date. The messages on 
some trees, however, are consid- 
erably more profound. One trunk 
discloses verses about the author's 
joy at the prospect of returning to 
his homeland; another comments 
upon the difficulties of the herd- 
er's life. Sexual ditties are com- 
mon, while statements Hke Viva 
Navaira, "Long Live Navarre," 
and Gora Euzkadi Azkatuta, 
"Long Live the Free Basque 
Country," reflect Old World re- 
gional loyalties or commitment to 
the modern Basque nationalist 
movement. Finally there are trees 
adorned with drawings, some ama- 
teurish and others highly skilled, 
whose subject matter ranges from 
pornography to abstract design. 

Few herders camp in an aspen 
grove without examining the tree 
carvings left by earlier herders, 
and they rarely move on without 
leaving their own mark on the 
youngest saplings. Thus, in the 
midst of his personal loneliness 
the herder has a sense of being in 
communication with both past and 
future generations of sheepherders. 
For lack of immediate human 
communication, the herder often 
personahzes his relations with his 
animals (jokes about sheepherders 
notwithstanding, cases of sodomy 
are extremely rare) and develops a 
keen sense of companionship with 
them that is very different from 
the affection an urbanite feels for 
his pets. He does not talk at or to 
his dogs, pack animals, and sheep, 
but rather with them. Rarely does 
he give them direct orders; in- 



stead he verbahzes his thoughts as 
if engaged in a dialogue. Shouting 
across a canyon at an errant band, 
he asks, "Where do you 
think you are going? You know 
that you should bed down along 
the creek." I have witnessed herd- 
ers holding lengthy conversations 
with their dogs in which they ex- 
plained the plan for the day. 

In the sheep outfit there is a 
necessary working relationship 
among men, dogs, pack animals, 
and sheep, the success of which 
depends upon the cooperation of 
all. It may take years for a herder 
to develop the proper mutual un- 
derstanding with his dogs that 
makes man and canine a finely 
honed team capable of caring for 
the sheep with the greatest pos- 
sible efficiency. To a lesser de- 
gree, the same is true of the rela- 
tionship between the herder and 
his mount and pack animals. The 
herder Hkewise comes to recognize 
many of the sheep as individuals, 
each with its peculiar temper- 
ament and problems. Similarly, 
the band as a whole is seen as 
having its own characteristics to 
which the herder must adapt his 
herding practices. A winning com- 
bination of herder, dogs, pack ani- 
mals, and band is not achieved 
overnight, nor should it be modi- 
fied lightly. Herders have quit 
their employers when told they 
would be given different dogs or a 
different band of sheep. 



Tk 



he sheepherder's physical iso- 
lation and lack of English largely 
preclude his participation in the 
wider society of the American 
West. Frequently, his only link 
with the outside world is his 
camp tender who brings not only 
his supplies but also reading mat- 
ter and his correspondence from 
Europe. Most of the herders are 
poorly educated and are not ac- 
customed to letter writing or ex- 
tensive reading. It is common for 
a herder to go for months without 
writing his family, and some older 
herders have stopped correspond- 



Before they are driven to 

the high summer ranges, 

sheep are corralled in 

the spring for shearing. 



ing altogether. Most herders have 
three or four books: Basque-lan- 
guage verse is popular, as are 
cheap editions of Spanish-language 
novels. The latter rotate among 
the herders. A very popular pubh- 
cation is the Boletin del Banco de 
Vizcaya, a newspaper published 
expressly for Basque herders by a 
banking concern in the Basque 
country. It features information 
about European Basque sporting 
events, as well as detailed news of 
the villages from which the major- 
ity of herders are recruited. The 
herder may also acquire a few 
American magazines, more for 
their pictures than then- text. Not 
surprisingly. Playboy is a Hkely 
choice. 

The herder's daily Unk with the 
outside world is his transistor ra- 
dio. But again, his listening habits 
underscore his indifference to 
American life. The transistors are 
usually powerful enough to pull in 
Spanish-language radio broadcasts 
from Los Angeles and northern 
Mexico. Many hsten to the daily 
Spanish-language newscast from 
Washington, D.C., but the most 
popular programs are the Sunday 
afternoon Basque-language broad- 
casts that originate on the local 
stations of Boise, Idaho; Elko, Ne- 
vada; and Buffalo, Wyoming. 

Basques who go to the West to 
herd sheep do not bring to the oc- 
cupation either a specialized Euro- 
pean background in sheepherding 
or a unique psychological capacity 
for social isolation. Rather, despite 
the romanticism surrounding them, 
they show a pronounced determina- 
tion to undergo temporary physical 
and mental privation as an invest- 
ment in a secure economic future. 
It is not that Basques suffer less 
than others in the solitude of moun- 
tains and desert; it is simply that 
they are more willing to endure the 
privations. ■ 



3 GUILLUMETTE 




>. _ (•<■ 



Flowers of tlie Sea 



Waving from coral reefs, these colorful 
creatures toil not, neither do they spin, but . 
they eat quite ejficiently 

by Mereditli L. Jones 



When we prisoners of the air turn to things aquatic, we quickly find 
that experience has poorly prepared us for the diversity of shapes and 
colors found in the marine world. We can recognize food items— fish, 
crabs, shrimp, and clams— and can take comfort in the similarity 
between aquatic and terrestrial snails and between pill bugs and 
marine isopods. But we would probably overlook the vast majority of 
organisms present in a marine habitat. For one thing, most of the 
animals living there are of microscopic size. Further, most of these, as 
well as other, larger forms, live in the substratum or in its overlying 
flocculent layer, and without a shovel or sieve, they, too, would escape 
our notice. The third reason for our ignorance lies in the strange 
shapes and forms assumed by both familiar and unfamiliar animals. 

In the case of sea anemones and certain marine worms, one might 
easily be convinced that they were flowering underwater plants. The 
sabellid and serpulid polychaete worms look so much like terrestrial 
blossoms that I often have to tell people these forms are not the 
flowers of the coral reef. 

Actually, these showy portions, the so-called branchial crowns of 
the feather duster worms, are featherlike structures whose bases are in 
paired semicircles or spirals about central axes. The members of these 
two polychaete families are similar; however, the sabellids live in a 
flexible tube made up of rather fine particles cemented together by 
mucous secretions, while the rigid tube of the serpulids is built up of 
calcium carbonate secreted by the worm. In addition, in serpulids one 
of the "feathers" of the branchial crown forms an operculum, which 
closes off the opening when the worm draws into the calcareous tube. 
The serpulids often have a frilly membrane on their dorsal surfaces, 
just in back of the branchial crown. This structure, the thoracic 
membrane, and a collarlike organ lay down the carbonate building 
material of the tube. 

One function of the branchial crown, as its name implies, is 
respiration, although it is not solely responsible for this process. Not 
infrequently, branchial crowns are nipped off by fish predators, and 
this may cause a 60 percent decrease in the animal's oxygen 
consumption. The remaining respiration is presumably carried on over 
the worm's body surface. 



Between the red sponge and 
coral in the foreground and a 
branching gorgonid, rear, a 
cluster of sabellids emerge 
from their protective tubes. 



pliotograptis by Carl Roessler 

40 




A female serpulid, above, spawns orange eggs after it has 
been extracted from its tube. The larvae settle 
on hard surfaces, such as coral, right. As the young 
sea worms grow, the length of their tubes increases. 




42 




m^ 




A clump of sabellids 
undulate gently on a coral 
reef. The motion of the 
feathery branchial crown is 
part of the sea worm 5 
feeding process. Suspended 
particles in the water 
pass through a fine network 
of traps, which discard 
the larger items and route 
smaller pieces toward 
the worm's mouth. 



All of the feather duster worms have developed several adaptations 
to protect themselves against loss of their branchial crowns. They 
withdraw rapidly when they detect shadows or vibrations, and many 
crowns have photoreceptors in the form of eyespots or compound eyes. 
In addition, their ventral nerve cord, which serves to coordinate all 
body movements, is augmented by large single-nerve fibers that can 
transmh impulses with extreme speed, thus insuring the immediate 
and simultaneous total response of the worm. The speed of the 
withdrawal response is best illustrated when you attempt— and almost 
certainly fail— to catch the branchial crown with your fingers. 

The primary function of the branchial crown is feeding. Each part 
of the crown is somewhat like a feather; it has a central rib, the so- 
called radiole, which bears a series of laterals, or pinnules, on either 
side. The upper surfaces of both a radiole and its pinnules have mucus- 
secreting cells and grooved, ciliated tracts. The cilia beat downward 
and inward toward the mouth, which is located at the base of the 
radioles. Other beating cilia on the pinnules set up a current of water, 
which, along with suspended material, passes from the outside to the 
inside of the crown. When the worms are feeding, the pinnules of 
adjacent radioles are intermeshed, and this network traps suspended 
material on the mucus of the ciliated tracts. 

In sabellids, this material moves toward the mouth by way of a 
sorting mechanism, which is composed of a deepened trough with a 
series of folds. Effectively, there are three ciliated tracts. One, at the 
upper margins of the trough, prevents large particles from settling 
down into the lower levels. The second, formed by mid-depth folds, 
collects particles of intermediate size. At the bottom, a narrow tract 
accepts only the finest particles. 

Each category of particles has a different fate. The largest ones are 
shifted to the edge of the branchial crown and discarded along with 
fecal material. Intermediate particles are moved to a pair of ventral 
sacs, where they are stored, mixed with more mucus, and used to build 
the tube. The ciliated tracts carry the finest material to the mouth of 
the worm for food. The feeding of the serpulids is similar, differing 
only in the lack of an intermediate sorting mechanism since their 
tubes are made of secreted calcium carbonate. 

Thus, the esthetically appeaUng "flowers" are wonders of 
efficiency, deceptively straightforward mechanisms for carrying out 
the crucial job of feeding these sessile worms that inhabit and decorate 
coral reefs. 

45 



Letters from Golden Sardis 



Excavations at the crossroads of 
Asia Minor, where Croesus 
minted his fortune, have brought 
fourteen years of complications, 
disappointments, and triumphs to a 
persistent archeological expedition 



by George M.A. Hanfmann 



We were certainly not going to object to treasures, 
but treasures were not our aim when we began the 
Harvard-Cornell-American Schools of Oriental 
Research expedition to Sardis. "The prime objective 
of anv research at Sardis is the Lydian city of Croesus 
and his predecessors . . . which remains completely 
unknown." This was the statement we made in our 
proposal of 1958. Beyond that we envisaged the study 
of the development of all human settlements in the 
Sardis area, from the Stone Age through the earlier 
Islamic phases. "Here astride the major road into 
Asia, Mediterranean and Eastern peoples, cultures, 
and religions met and interacted. . . . Thus Sardis is 
uniquely suited to demonstrate the modern 
multidisciplinary approach in which humanists and 
scientists open new vistas upon the history of 
humanity." We hoped to reconstitute a case history of 
urbanism in a vital region between East and West. 

According to literary sources, the city of Croesus 
held such major targets as the temples, the agora 
described by Herodotus, the mint, where the earliest 
coins in the world were made, and, above all, the 
palace of Croesus whose archives must have contained 
correspondence with Assyria, Egypt, Babylon, Media, 
and most of the Greek states and sanctuaries. 

We could hope, too, to resolve some major 
controversies which had resulted from the 
decipherment of the Royal archives of the Hittite 
kings at Hattusa (Bogazkoy). Some scholars thought 
that Hittites had penetrated Lydia. Others saw in it the 
kingdom of Assuwa which, in turn, gave the name of 
Asia to the entire continent. Others thought that the 
region might have belonged to another Indo-European 
group, the Luvian. Others pointed to Herodotus' 
statement that the dynasty of the sons of Herakles had 
assumed rule over Lydia and Sardis 505 years before 
the accession of the Mermnad Dynasty and king Gyges 
(680 plus 505 would make it 1185 B.C.), and 
suggested that Mycenaean Greek heroes wandering 
about after the fall of Troy might have seized the 
region; and yet others thought the forerunners of the 
Etruscans might have lived at Sardis when it was still 
called Hyde. 

Excerpted from tetters fiom Sardis, published by Harvard University 
Press. © 1972 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. 



Tl:e Bollingen Foundation had stipulated that its 
grant should be matched by Harvard and Cornell 
jointly. Under the Harvardian system of ETOB ("each 
tub on its own bottom"), I had to find the means; and 
thus came into being the Supporters of Sardis, an 
informal group whose contributions came to carry the 
show through its ups and downs. ... To 
communicate with these friends, I started writing 
letters from the field, usually three each season; and 
another letter went to the members of the American 
Schools of Oriental Research. 

In Classical antiquity "Golden Sardis" was a name 
to conjure with. "I do not care for the gold of king 
Gyges," cried the Greek adventiuer and poet 
Archilochus defiantly; but the rest of the ancient world 
did. The kings of Lydia of the Mermnad Dynasty from 
Gyges to fabulous Croesus (ca. 680-547 B.C.) made 
Sardis the Paris of the ancient world. . . . For a 
century and a half, the kings of Lydia ruled a kingdom 
extending from the Aegean to Iran. Bv a skillful 
combination of religious and financial propaganda, 
they enlarged their influence in the Greek world. They 
ruled this empire from their well-nigh impregnable 
citadel at Sardis, some 65 miles inland from the coast 




^'^^- 



^f*^'^ ^Jl'^ -^>-, 




46 



of Turkey, in the rich Hermus plain (Gediz C^y), 
under the foot of tlie towering; Tmokis mountain. 

"The land Lud I took, their king I killed"— such 
was the terse account given bv Cvrus, the concp.iering 
king of Persia, after he overthrew Croesus and 
captured the citadel in 547 B.C. As Sfarda, Sardis 
became the seat of the most important Western 
satrapy, the ^vestern terminal of the famous Royal 
Road along which mail couriers sped from the distant 
capitals of Susa and Persepolis toward the 
Mediterranean. The King of Kings trod on pui"ple rugs 
woven at Sardis, and piled up gold from Sardis in his 
treasury. 

In 499 B.C. the lonians marched across the Tmolus 
and burned Sardis, starting the great wars between 
Persia and the Greeks. Herodotus, who knew Lydia 
well. \\Tites. "Tliough thev took the city, they did not 
succeed in plundering it. . . . The Lvdians, and such 
Persians as were in the city, came in crowds into the 
marketplace, and gathered themselves upon the banks 
of the Pactolus. This stream, which comes dow-n from 
Mount Tmolus, and brings the Sardians a quantity of 
gold dust, runs directly through the marketplace of 
Sardis. and joins the Hermus. So the Lvdians and 



Persians, brought together in this way . . . were 
forced to stand on their defense; and the lonians, 
when thev saw the enemy in part resisting, in part 
pouring towards them in dense crowds, took fright, 
and . . . went back to their ships." In revenge, the 
Persians mustered their huge armies against Greece in 
the Sardian plain, and Aeschylus writes of Lydian 
charioteers from golden Sai-dis as Persian allies. 

In 334 came Alexander the Great who captured the 
great citadel without a fight. As key fortress and 
capital, Sardis became a bone of contention among the 
successors of Alexander; kings from Macedon, Syria, 
and Pergamon contended for the city. The Seleucid 
dynasty of Syria transformed the Lydian capital into a 



In 1960 only grass -covered stone walls 
could be seen at the site of the 

SvndL'Oiruc and tJie Raman Gymnasium. 











ir^. 



•m 



:4t^^ 





5 EXPEDITION 

47 



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GREECE^- fe*i<i5"Jl, Hallusa^ 






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CRETE CYPRUS / 


^^^^51^3%^ 


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typical Greek city {ca. 270-190 B.C.), and it is they 
who built the huge Temple of Artemis. Later in this 
period came another dramatic change in the history of 
Sardis. Prince Achaeus, discovered to be conspiring 
against Antiochus III, was besieged for two years 
(215-213 B.C.) on the citadel, and was finally captured 
and killed. Antiochus first severely punished the city 
and then refounded it on a Hellenistic urban plan. 
Under the kings of Pergamon (180-133 B.C.), then 
under the Romans (beginning 133 B.C.), Sardis was 
still a major government and industrial center, famous 
for gold-woven textiles. 

A fierce earthquake struck the region in a.d. 17, 
but the city came back with the help of the emperors 
Tiberius and Claudius. ... As metropolis of Asia, 
seat of many wealthy and influential families, it led a 
peaceful and prosperous existence under the emperors 
Trajan and Hadrian, and the Antonines and Severans. 

Meantime another kind of fame was to attach itself 
to Sardis. In Obadiah mention is made of exiles from 
Jerusalem "in Sepharad"; thus there were perhaps 
Hebrews in Sardis under the Persian rule in the fifth 
century B.C. After the uprising of the Lydians who 
sided with Achaeus in 215-213 B.C., Antiochus III 
brought 2,000 Jewish veterans with their families from 
Mesopotamia to Lydia. ... It is in the ambient of 
such Jewish congregations that Christian groups began 
to organize. By the time of Nero, St. John of the 
Revelation addressed the church of Sardis as one of 
the seven earliest Christian communities of Asia 
Minor. . . . 

The dangerous decline of the Roman Empire, and 
especially an attack by the Goths in 253, shook Asia 
Minor, and we hear of bad conditions in the Lydian 
countryside. Under Constantine (306-337) security 
was restored and there was considerable building 
activity in the fourth century. . . . From inscriptions 
it seems that Sardis, a metropolitan see, was still 
flourishing in the sixth century. 

The Arab invasion in the early eighth century 
reached Sardis; and later historians made brief 
mention of battles between Byzantines near the city; 
then the Turks appear. . . . But the city declined 
rapidly. In 1369, the Patriarch of Constantinople 
wrote that Sardis "formerly reckoned among the 
greatest and first . . . now does not even preserve the 
appearance of a city. . . ." Thereafter only small 
Turkish villages remained around Sart, as the place 
was now called. 



Istanbul April 12, 1958 

You may want to hear about Sardis first. I foUnd it 
as impressive as ever in scenery and antiquity. I had 
never seen it this early in the year, and in some ways it 
looks grander, more awe-inspiring, at this time when 
spring contends with winter. Snow still lay on the 
highest tops of the Tmolus range and vaporous, torn 
clouds floated along its wooded flanks. Wetness— and 
wet it was two out of three days— brings out different 
aspects of the ruins, in fact even different and new 
ruins. 

Sardis August 1, 1958 

At the beginning of July we had to pause briefly to 
celebrate the Kurban Bayrami commemorating the 
sacrifice of Isaac. All through the moonht night the 
drums were beating at the upper and lower village, 
and some of our younger members were induced by 
their local friends to join in the men's dancing at the 
small kahvehane. 

We have begun to develop our program of 
combining investigation of large buildings visible 
above ground with soundings designed to test 
promising areas. The large structure known as 
Building B . . . has never been excavated or 
recorded. With its two long apsidal halls, its intricate 
system of pillars, niches, and arches, and its central 
unit which may have had a dome, this complex 
presents a great challenge to the student of 
architectural history. 

Sardis August 12, 1958 

We decided on a trial trench right by the highway, 
across from Building B and the Byzantine Shops which 
we have been excavating for the past few weeks. We 
thought we might find in the new sounding the main 
street of Sardis, which must have come through the 
hollow. 





■^ ^fc 







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4 



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973A.D. 
The Vikings sail 







nd sail. And sail. And sail. 



— r-.. ^JS'^S*'- 




-^■iy^ 



,.r¥^-.*f*-^»^'^'' 



The old Vikings: over 1,000 years ago, 
they ventured in open boats to the ends of 
the earth as they knew it— and beyond— to 
expand their world. 

The riew Vikings: in the same free- 
roaming spirit, they course the entire globe in 
gleaming white ships, on far-ranging cruises 
especially planned to expand your world. 

These are the new Vikings of the 



Royal Viking Line, now sailing the 
resplendent Royal Viking Star, to be joined 
in 1973 by two identical sister ships, the 
Royal Viking Sky and Royal Viking Sea. 

During the coming mgnths, a unique 
schedule of cruises takes them to all the seven 
seas, to every inhabited continent. Read 
about these extraordinary ships and the world 
they'll explore on the next page. — 

ROYAL VIKING UNE 




20th Century Viking Ships. Sparkling new from fo'c'sle 
to fantail. Created for one purpose: to cruise everywhere. 
With one class of service: first. This is the Royal Viking fleet, 
built by descendants of the original Vikings whose love 
for ships and the sea shows in every elegant detail. In teak 
decks. In sleekly curved bows. In vast, airy public rooms. 

Aboard each, there's everything you'd expect in a great 
cruise ship. From a heated swimming pool to superb 
continental cuisine. But there's also the unexpected: 

The wide open spaces of a 21,500 ton ship that could 
carry more than 500 passengers. But doesn't. A unique 
dining room set high on an upper deck and virtually walled 
in glass. Ocean views from an incredible 94% of the state- 
rooms. So much entertainment every evening at sea seems 
like a night on the town. Art and sculpture everywhere- 
more than 450 original works. Enough greenery to keep a 
ship's gardener busy. And something that makes each voyage 
more than just a pleasure cruise: the Royal Viking enrich- 
ment program, conducted by experts ranging from explorers 
and astronauts to football coaches. They'll discuss subjects 
like the ecology of the ocean, the peoples and lands you 
visit, outer space— and inner space. 

Vikings who speak English? Our crew does. They number 
more than one for every two passengers. As you'd expect, 
men of Norway attend the ship in the Viking tradition of 
seamanship. But men— and women— of 25 nations attend 
you in the European tradition of service, hospitality, and 
culinary excellence. 

The Royal Viking World. It's the whole world. From the 
top— Spitsbergen — nearly to the bottom — New Zealand's 
South Island. In fact, there are so many Royal Viking cruises, 
to so many places, we could go on about them for volumes. 
And have. In thick, full color cruise brochures titled The 
Royal Viking World, Volumes I through IV. They'll tell you 
all the details on all our cruises. 

Volume I: Europe and the Mediterranean 

1. North Cape/Spitsbergen, 14 days from Copenhagen, 
6 to choose from in summer 1973. 

2. Russia/Europe, 14 or 22 days from Copenhagen, 
July or August 1973. 

3. North Cape/Russia, 28 or 36 days from Copenhagen, 
July or August 1973. 

4. Mediterranean, 22 or 30 days from Southampton, 
August or September 1973. 

S.Atlantic Islands/African Coast,14 or 16 days from 
Southampton, December 1973. 

6. Transatlantic Crossings, 7 or 9 days from Southampton, 
September 1973 and January 1974. 

7. England/Caribbean/Mexico, 28 days from Southampton, 
January 1974. 

8. Sunny European, 19 days from Ft. Lauderdale, 
May 1973 or 1974. 

Volume II: U.S./Mexico and the Caribbean 

9. Caribbean/Mexico/Trans-Canal, 12 to 20 days, from East 




or West Coast, April, September, December 1973; 
January, April 1974. 

10. West Coast/Caribbean, 32 days from West Coast, 
December 1973. 

11. West Coast/Caribbean/ 1 
Europe, 35 days from 
West Coast, 
April 1973 and 1974. 

1 2. Mexico, 1 5 days from 
West Coast, January 1974. 

13. September in Canada, 
14 days from New York, 
September 1973. 

14. Bermuda/Nassau, 9 days 
from NewYork, Oct, 1973. 

Volume III: Long Cruises' 

15. South America/South Africa, 57 days from East Coast, 
October 1973. 

16. South Seas, 46 to 67 days from East or West Coast, 
January, September, October, December 1973; 
January, February 1974. 

17. Circle Pacific, 66 to 69 days from West Coast, 
February 1973; February and March 1974. 

Volume IV: Around the World 

18. Around the World, 97 days from West Coast, January 1974. 

19. Around the World,100 days from East Coast, February1974. 

The best place to start planning your Royal Viking cruise 
is at your professional travel agent's. FHe'll give you sea- 
worthy assistance with reservations, wardrobe planning, 
tours, etc. Or call us, 800-227-4246 toll-free (N. Cal & Canada, 
415-398-8000, collect; S. Cal., 213-627-1365, collect). 



To: Cruise Consultant, Royal Viking Line, Dept. B-95, 
One Embarcadero Center, San Francisco, CA 94111. 

I want to learn more about the Royal Vikings and 
their world. Please send me: 

□ Volume I, Europe & the Mediterranean; 

□ Volume II, U.S./Mexico, Caribbean; 

□ Volume III, Long Cruises; 

□ Volume IV, Around the World. 

Name 

Address__ 

City 



Travel Agent_ 



-State- 
_City. 



.Zip_ 



Norwegian registry. And spirit. 



ROYAL VIKING UNE 



CITY WALL \\, 




~te:^ : 1 1 ..itrram u iTliiiiJiJiiAijH i 

- Byzantine Shops— -J 

MARBLE AVENUE 



-__ p 20 40 60 
SCALE TN METERS 




\ 



SOUTH WEST .-- •••■ 
GATE>v- 



Hardly had Don Hansen's crew set to work . . . 
than ancient walls began to appear practically under 
the melons. It was really amazing that anything could 
grow five to ten inches over an ancient structme. 
Interesting finds were made from the start, but the 
walls looked like a labyrinth. And then, as Don 
patiently cleaned and cleared this welter, there 
appeared lying in the earth the wholly visible shape of 
an ancient bronze vase. This happened during the last 
hour of work, too late for the delicate operation of 
extraction. We appointed a laborer to guard the 
treasure during the night. . . . The next morning 
found all of us hopping up and down, for not one but 
three bronze vessels were coming out, one of them a 
large bronze basin, or brazier. 

One room in the first story of this "House of 
Bronzes" had a floor paved with the biggest tiles we 
have seen; traces of painted walls — unfortunately only 
in small shattered fragments— are visible. An 
elaborately patterned marble floor has been revealed 
in another room at the basement level. 

Cambridge September 17, 1958 

I had meant to write this letter at Sardis, but our 
last days "on location" proved to be extremely hectic. 
The big schoolroom and the schoolyard were a chaos 
of boxes, wheelbarrows, pickaxes, and more boxes. We 
were working feverishly to pack part of our finds for 
shipment to the museum at Manisa. another lot was to 
be stored in the village, and all of the excavation 



equipment was to be "winterized" and stowed away. 
. . . Every couple of hours or so, a taxi with 
journalists would drive up and we would be cajoled 
into posing with our trophies. . . . Our first move was 
always to explain that we had not found the treasure of 
Croesus, and, indeed, believed that Cyrus had taken it 
long ago. Now the belief that the treasure of Croesus 
still lies hidden at Sardis is almost an article of faith 
with many people in Turkey; and when the Associated 
Press carried a dispatch that we had found the site of 
the city of Croesus, there was a rush to see what we 
had done with the treasure. Indeed, the first intimation 
we had was the appearance at midnight of two armed 
state troopers, who stated that they had been 
dispatched by higher authorities to guard the treasure, 
and asked why our commissioner had not reported the 
find and its contents. Our genial Kemal Bey replied 
with great good humor that if the gentlemen would 
show him the treasure, he would be the first to report 
its contents in detail. 

Next day, shortly before work was to stop, I was 
passing by the House of Bronzes. Beaming, our 
commissioner shouted, "Mr. Professor, une belle 
surprise!" and ran off toward the solitary tree which 
served to provide shade for drinking water and pot 
washing. Out of the earth of the small trench peered 
several majestic necks of vases, still upright; and Don 
came back with unmistakable early Lydian sherds that 
had just been washed. Here were the Lydians. 

We were still cautious and batted the facts back and 
forth. "Looks good, but could they have been thrown 
in with the fill?" "I think we are coming on a floor" — 
and so we were. Although my instinct was to jump up 
and down for jov, we held back. But two days later 
there could be no doubt. In the small space of not 
more than 15 by 9 feet were a dozen large vase necks 
and upper bodies, pot stands, the characteristic 
"Ivdia." So tightly packed an array of pottery could 
not have been placed by chance, and our workmen 
had the same idea as ourselves— a pottery shop. 

The search for the site of the Lydian city, then, 
seems to have ended; but the excavation of the Lydian 
city is only about to begin. This will be a long and 
important task for our future campaign. 

Sardis August 1, 1959 

We are just past the midway point of this, our 
second campaign of digging at the ancient capital of 
Lydia, and work is going forward on five sectors of the 
far-flung site. As the tempo rises, discoveries crowd 
each other. Yesterday and today brought us the first 
life-size, indeed larger than life-size, marble statues. A 
Roman official and his wife were lying foot to foot 
right under the entrance to the shelter used as sector 
headquarters . . . only a foot or so underground. 

Cambridge Septen^bei' I960 

Just before I left for my flying trip to Germany late 
in July, I was presented at tea with a box mysteriously 
wrapped and tied with the cord of Tom Canfield's 
bathrobe. The contents made me whoop with joy, for 
here were fragments of a most exquisite Attic black- 

53 



figure drinking cup, with inscriptions. Don had found 
it on the Acropohs in a "pocket" of earlv material just 
above native rock. \^lien put together, the fragments 
yielded a drinking cup made in Athens at the time 
when Croesus ruled over Lydia (561-547 B.C.). ... It 
was probablv broken at the time the Persians stormed 
the citadel and captured King Croesus. 

The House of Bronzes area kept us on tenterhooks 
to the vers' end of the campaign. Proceeding with 
tenacitv and determination. Gus Swift first uncovered 
a sizable stretch of Lvdian levels, and then descended 
into the bowels of the earth to pursue the quest of pre- 
Lvdian Sardis. . . . We interpret these [Lvdian 
structures] as part of a shopping area comparable to 
the open-air markets of modern Turkish towns. . . . 
Digging through a deep flood deposit, Gus came upon 
one earth floor after another. Archeologists will have 
plentv to discuss and debate, but we believe we have a 
continuous sequence of settlements spanning the 
darkest period in the history of Asia Minor, from the 
Late Bronze Age of the thirteenth centurv B.C. to 
about 700 B.C., the beginning of the historical dvnastv 
of the Mermnads. This, to mv knowledge, is unique 
for Western Asia Minor. A great burned level occurs 
in the earlv twelfth centurv B.C., the time when, 
according to Herodotus, "the sons of Herakles" 
established their rule over Lvdia— the time, too, when 
the Hittite Kingdom perished in the violent migrations 
that threw all the Aegean and much of the Near East 
into turmoil. . . . 

Sardis July 23, 1961 

I was waiting for something special to happen— and 
it did. I had come across the sun-parched foothills of 
the citadel from the Pactolus Chff, where we are 
uncovering a beautiful colored mosaic . . . and finally 
arrived at the House of Bronzes where our young 
architects, Charlie Rogers and Stu Carter, were 
crouched over our pottery dump studying vases. I 
picked them up and we went to get some levels for our 
spectacular "Road Trench." Here Dave Mitten has 
uncovered, in rapid succession, the late medieval, the 
Middle (?) Byzantine, and finally the imposing Roman 
road, which is paved with huge stones and flanked by 
a majestic colonnade with mosaics. This was the 
"Fifth Avenue" of Sardis, and the successor to the 
famed Royal Road of the Persian kings. 

CharUe and Stu went to work, aYid ... a shout 
went up from the workmen— and there was my 
something special. A beautiful marble head, lying face 
down in the debris over the Roman road. The head of 
a bearded man with wavy locks, breathing an almost 
fanatic, expressive spirit — which has led some scholars 
to describe this kind of "Proto-Byzantine" sculpture 
as "soul portraits"— and yet retaining in the modeling 
something of the refined vitality of HeUenistic 
sculpture. 

Cambridge September 1961 

As we left it, [the] Pactolus North sector has rooms 
with mosaics at the south end; a contemporary Late 
Roman bath in the middle; and in between and to the 




These headless statues of a Roman 
official and his wife were found tying 
foot to foot near the House of Bronzes. 



north, first the richest collection of water pipes going, 
presumably from a Roman reservou that distributed 
water into the citv; then Persian apsidal structiu-es, 
one with a wonderful circular well nearly thirty feet 
deep, which began to function again the minute it was 
excavated; finally, Lvdian rooms, again with a well. 
The Late Roman or Early Byzantine bath is a most 
elegant affair and eloquent testimony for the 
prosperity of Sardis at a time when the Western 
Roman Empire was disintegrating. Again and again, 
Sardis shows how continuous was the development 
from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Asia Minor, 
and our excavation mav well become one of the most 
important sites for this transition, 

Sardis July 1962 

In the Pactolus North sector, Mario Del Chiaro is 
clearing an area of nearly 1,000 square meters. It is 
bounded on the east by a very interesting Byzantine 
church. What appears to be a street is flanked by a 
long building on the south and an array of units with 
mosaic floors on the north. The mosaics are the most 
ambitious we have vet found. One has a circular motif 
in the center, encircled in tm-n bv four blue dolphins, 
and features, in other panels, dogs hunting a stag and 
a hare. Another room has an eagle and various 
animals, all in five colors. 

Sardis August 9, 1962 

We believe we have found the Synagogue of Sardis. 
Dave Mitten had started a trench northward from 
Jacob's Shop, mentioned in the last letter. We had 
fully expected to find a colonnade which should go 
around all four sides of the gymnasium coiu-t. Instead 
there appeared a wall luxuriously revetted with marble 



54 



and fragments of a long inscription. ... A large 
mosaic floor spreads northward for manv meters- 
much too wide for a colonnade. I happened to be on 
dutv when the evidence was found— a relief with a 
seven-branched candlestick and tree and an 
inscription in Hebrew letters. 

Sai'dis August 6, 1963 

\^ e all knew that last year's discovery of the 
Synagogue was an event of importance but none of us 
had quite expected the spectacular size of the structure 
and the splendor of its furnishings or the surprising 
finds that have been pouring from this building. 

The over-all dimensions are imposing— length 270 
feet, width 60 feet: the ^vall of the apse is presersed up 
to a height of 15 feet. 

Sard is August 9, 1963 

A unique monument of archaic art celebrating the 
sreat goddess of Lvdia. Cvbele. has just been 
discovered. To the surprise of the excavators this jewel 
of archaic sculpture was found among the ruins of the 
Synagogue of Sardis. 

The marble monument, originally about four feet 
high, shows the great goddess Cvbele in the dainty 
attire of an archaic Greek maiden. She stands in her 
shrine holding a little Uon (much effaced) before her 
breasts. T\so mightv snakes rise full height on both 
sides. The stv le of the frontal figure is that of the finest 
marble sculptors of Ionia. Ionic columns rise along the 
sides and at the back, showing that the building is a 
shrine. 

Istanbvil Octoloer 1, 1963 

In the sector Pactolus North. Henry Detweiler led a 
team of architects in the excavation and architectural 
recording of the fascinating Bvzantine Church E. One 
surprise was the appearance of a rectangular space 
with steps and geometric wall paintings below the 
floor of the church; tentatively, it is interpreted as a 
baptistry. Henrv has discovered another matter of 
import for the history" of structural engineering: a 
curious grid of wooden beams under the church floor 
which apparently was intended as an anti-earthquake 
device. 

Sardis July 30, 196^ 

For six seasons we had labored to excavate this 
grandiose complex [the Marble Court]. Steve Jacobs 
had worked valiantly at the task of evacuating and 
recording the sea of marbles. This vear about 1,100 
stones were staring us in the face from the field and 
the slopes east of the Gymnasium area, as a result of 
his effort. Jim lamell arrived on July 1 and quickly 
got his bearings: now a majestic scaffolding is rising 
some forty feet in the air. 

The scaffolding is to serve the restoration of the 
most striking feature of the entire Marble Court 
complex— the monumental gate at the back of the 
court \vith its four spiraling columns. But what effort 
and expense it takes to accomplish such a task! Take, 
for instance, just the question of replacing one of the 



monumental bases which is missing. We were jubilant 
when we discovered that the ancient marble quarry of 
Sardis used for the building of the Temple of Artemis 
was being reopened. A long uphill walk to this 
romantic gorge where a crew is working elicited the 
information that neither the transportation from 
quarry to us nor the quality of marble should be 
counted on. Our foreman went off to Izmir to look at 
some marble blocks there— and they turned out to be 
too small. . . . 

Cambridge September 25, 1964 

An exciting finish was put on by Noel Robertson on 
the Pactolus. Here under great flood deposits there 
emerged Lvdian houses better preserved than anything 
we have seen so far. The area seems to have been 
densely inhabited, and perhaps not built over. We may 
be approaching there the agora of the Lvdian and 
Persian city. ... A strange monumental complex 
with curving avails seems to be the work of the 
Persians. In addition to fine i\ttic black-figure sherds, 
a charming tiny lion in rock crystal and lumps of rock 
crystal hint at activity of skilled artisans nearby. 

Sardis July lO, 1965 

Thev were drilling and drilling, doweling, watching 
the marble cleave and splinter, putting in reinforcing 
rods, building up slowly, bit bv bit, the mighty 
shattered columns that originally bore the pediment of 
the gate into the Marble Court. This went on all of last 
season and the first weeks of this. A three-ton 
fras;ment hangs suspended from the beam of the 
scaffold— and still a crucial part is missing. And then, 
yesterday, three huge shafts of these gorgeously 
textured columns appeared in the excavation which 
Jack KroU and Andrew Ramage are conducting 
behind the Marble Court. . . . There is tension and 
bustle about construction, as sidewalk superintendents 
well know; but even greater tension about 
reconstruction, where so many things are unknown. 
Yesterday's find was the great moment of triumph of 
this campaign so far. 




The discover,' of this menorah relief 
positively identified an excavated ruin 
as the Synagogue of Sardis. 



55 



Sardls August lO, 1965 

The problems of the Synagogue are challenging. We 
do not yet safely know whether the earliest structure, 
clearlv an integral part of the Roman master plan for 
urban renewal of Sardis after the horrible earthquake 
of A.D. 17, was a synagogue. We are encountering very 
complicated arrangements for foundations and have 
yet to determine whether they were buih for one or 
two buildings. We do know from inscriptions that the 
Synagogue was built between A.D. 175 and 200 and 
rebuilt between 350 and 400. We are now seeking to 
determine what has survived from the original plan 
and construction. To give one example: the imposing 
apse of the Synagogue is built into a Roman 
nvmphaeum . . . which in turn is built against a main 
wall of the Roman Gymnasium. 

August 1 was a day of triumph for the Marble Court 
team. Three times did the eight-ton column shaft rise 
into the air, as the Austrian giant tripod and our small 
winch were used to maneuver the piece horizontally 
and vertically. Each time there was still some fault in 
the setting. Finally Mehmet Ergene, who directed the 
operation, set the thirteen-footer down on its base, 
perfectly plumb and level. He had to lift it again in the 
afternoon to "grout" the surfaces and make final 
adjustments— and nearly lost his hands and possibly 
worse when the column came down seconds after he 
had inserted a levehng piece of lead. Although the 
column part set is less than half of the total height, 
already this majestic, spirahng giant evokes the vision 
of the splendid, monumental gate. 

Sardis September 1966 

I had started this letter on August 12, the day when 
the House of Bronzes deep pit had produced what for 
many archeologists and historians will be the most 
exciting find of the season. For years scholars have 
looked for a place in western Anatolia where the 
transition from Bronze to Iron Age might be clearly 
seen, and where evidence might relate this change to 
the great upheaval in Greece which brought with it the 
downfall of the Mycenaean kingdoms. Gus Swift and 
Andy Ramage came upon stone walls, storage jars, 
and the like; but with them, broken but reasonably 
complete, was a very early Protogeometric Greek 
painted vase. The next deeper level came up with 
fragments of a crater, so-called sub-Mycenaean, or 
very late Mycenaean, again imported from Greece. 
The skeleton of a donkey lay next to them. 

Sardis June 30, 1968 

Gus Swift's main purpose is to secure more data on 
the plan and precinct wall of the seventh century B.C. 
Lydian bazaar, very important for the history of 
urbanism. A strange and macabre discovery has added 
unexpected information. Gus was looking at the deep 
pit he dug in 1966 when like Hamlet he found a skull 
at his feet. More bones were sticking out of the gravel 
in the side of the trench laid bare by cascading winter 
torrents. Careful digging and brushing have revealed 

56 



several individuals, victims, we believe, of that terrible 
onslaught and fire when the city was stormed by 
Cimmerian nomads in the seventh century B.C. Two 
are complete; of other individuals there are only parts. 
One man was lying face down, the others in strange 
twisted positions. Were they innocent bystanders, or 
were the well-preserved skeletons those of Lydian 
warriors, or even of the enemy killed in or after the 
battle? 

Sardis August 6, 1968 

To stand where the wealth of Croesus was made; to 
watch his craftsmen squat at little fires, pumping at 
the bellows, purifying the gold in cupels, pouring it 
out of crucibles— this could happen only in a dream. 
Yet this is the scene we have discovered and can prove 
by tiny but telling clues. 

It all began on July 6, when archeological detective 
Ramage, tenderlv brushing a clay floor, perceived the 
outlines of little greenish rings. They proved to be 
depressions lined with clay and ashes. Some heavy, 
gray matter adhered to the inside of one of them. The 
gray matter proved to be lead slag with traces of silver. 
The depressions were cupels, fire-resistant containers 
for purification of gold or silver. Cupellation involves 
extracting impurities out of silver or gold by heating 
them with lead. 

For a week or so, we had the theory, the cupels, the 
lead, and the traces of silver, but no gold. Then keen- 
eyed assistant Halis Aydinta§ba§ spotted a tiny speck 
of gold. As the technique of sifting and searching the 
clay floors and industrial refuse became more 
proficient, more and bigger specks of gold appeared. 

Sardis September 7, 1968 

To hft the mosaics, Larry Majewski is using a new 
technique in which the mosaic is rolled off like a 
carpet. It could be put back the same way, except that 
we keep "looking under the rug" and finding things. 
Andy Seager has been waging a battle to unravel the 
"prehistory" of the building— the story of the structure 
before it became a synagogue. . . . The critical 
question is whether the earlier building was really a 
civil Roman basilica, which was turned over to the 
Jewish congregation in a.d. 166 under the emperor 
Lucius Verus, or whether there was an earlier 
synagogue somewhere after all, or whether this was 
originally meant to be a dressing room for the 
Gymnasium— which is what its counterpart, the Long 
North Hall, seems to have been. 

In the Byzantine Shops along the south wall of the 
Synagogue, where the lion-shaped bronze lamp was 
found last year, Steven found a majestic pilgrim flask 
decorated with a large cross and small crosses, and two 
hares eating flowers. It seems that Jewish and 
Christian shops were interspersed in this shopping 
center. 

Sardis July 18, 1971 

Some stones were lying by the depo (storage shed). 
"What have they dragged in now?" I wondered to 



A fifth- or sixth-century flask, 
left. Inscribed with a cross 
and hares, was found in the 
Byzantine shops near the 
Synagogue. The cross attests 
to its Christian origin. Across 
the highway in the House 
of Bronzes area, archeologists 
uncovered a, seventh-century B.C. 
Lydian bowl, below. 




Found face down under 
the main road near the Byzantine 
shops, this late third- 
century head probably came 
from a statue of a Roman 
official or philosopher. 













myself. Thirty seconds later, I knew. What we had not 
been able to find in thirteen campaigns had been 
delivered to our doorstep: one of the longest Lydian 
inscriptions known, nineteen lines of it! We 
encouraged with suitable reward the youthful finders 
who had discovered it in the spring, supposedly a 
couple of hundred yards upstream from us in the 
Pactolus bed. It may be well to explain that we pay 
rewards for objects found in the Sardis region which 
then become property of the Manisa Museum. 

Epilogue 

The letters end with 1971 but not the work. Still, 
after fourteen campaigns one may well look back and 
see what has been done. Wlien we wrote our glowing 
forecasts in 1958, we were overoptimistic about the 
speed of excavating. Paper is patient; it takes ten 
minutes to write a paragraph promising excavation of 
a building; it might take ten weeks or ten months of 
work or even ten years and tens of thousands oi 
dollars to do the job. 

Then, in some wavs, Sardis turned out to be a 
complicated site. Earthquakes and erosion have 
upheaved the slopes, and floods have deposited heavy 
overburden in the plain. One might almost say that 

57 



what looked good turned up bad, and what looked bad 
turned up good. The Upper Terrace was covered on 
the surface with Lydian sherds but turned out to be a 
colossal Roman dump (1959). The melon patch along 
the highway looked like nothing at all; yet it hid not 
only the rich House of Bronzes but also one of our 
prime objectives, the Lydian Market. Everybody was 
raring to dig on the Acropolis in 1958. Three 
archeologists brave and true ate their hearts out and 
each wrote at the end of his season that the Acropolis 
was so much damaged by natme and upended by the 
Byzantines that it hardly warranted continued digging. 
Yet in 1971, the northern slope of the citadel 
suddenly revealed another palatial Lydian wall. What 
looked hke an uninteresting patch of burned 
Hellenistic debris at Pactolus North led Andrew 
Ramage to the Lydian lion altar and eventually to the 
gold refinery of the Lydian kings. We have learned 
much about the western part of Sardis but we never 
did get to excavate in the central and eastern part of 
the site. That brings us to the third and most 
important limitation. As in war, so in archeology: you 
have to decide where and how you are going to 
commit your forces. . . . For the early periods, we 
committed ourselves to massive penetration down into 
the Lydian and Prehistoric strata in the House of 
Bronzes-"Lydian Trench" cirea and to extensive 
digging of Lydian and Persian levels in the Pactolus 
Cliff and Pactolus North sectors. In tackling the vast 
Gymnasium and the big bath complex, we were trying 
to do justice to the later cultures, to the Hellenistic, 
Roman, and Early Byzantine Sardis, and to the big 
architecture which was so representative of these 
phases. 

What have we accomplished? There is, I think, no 
doubt that the discovery of the gold refinery on the 
Pactolus is as fundamental a contribution to economic 
and technological history of the Lydian kingdom, and, 
indeed, of the ancient world, as we had any right to 
expect. We are, literally, standing on the ground 
where Croesus' wealth was made. 

Out of an unexpected treasure trove, the walls and 
piers of the Synagogue, has come a series of sculpture 
and architectural pieces from the time of Croesus and 
the Persian era which throws entirely new light on the 
mythology, history, and religion of the Lydians and on 
the origins of the Ionic order of Greek architecture. 

Going back in time, our finding of Mycenaean, sub- 
Mycenaean, and Protogeometric levels disproved the 
ancient tradition that Sardis was founded after the 
Trojan wars, and confirmed the Herodotean story 
about Heraklid invaders and that of Nicolaus of 
Damascus about the seer Mopsos— presumably errant 



By 1971 the forecourt of the Synagogue, and 
the Marble Court at rear, had been partially 
restored with original pieces and cement. 



Bronze Age Greeks who were fighting natives and 
Hittite dependencies in the twelfth and eleventh 
centuries. 

For the Hellenistic period, we have learned that the 
Lydian culture continued in its material manifestations 
way past Alexander the Great. We have learned from 
inscriptions built into the Synagogue piers that it was 
Antiochus III who in 213 B.C. totally destroyed the 
western part of the city in punishment for its rebellion 
and then ordered his powerful viceroy Zeuxis to 
supervise a synoikismos, a new founding of Sardis, 
apparently farther east. We have found the debris of 
the destruction at the House of Bronzes and Pactolus 
North. The repopulating of Sardis at least in part with 
Jewish families from Mesopotamia is the ultimate 
cause for the least-expected discovery of the 




58 



Expedition— that of the i;iant Jewish synagogue of 
Roman times, far and awav the largest i<nown from 
the Diaspora. 

Whatever its exact date, a synagogue whieii is an 
integral part of a Roman gymnasium is an amazing 
find. 

It is this iliscovery . . . which is of importance for 
the history of the Church of Sardis. For it is to such 
communities as Sai'dis that Paul and Barnabas 
traveled, and also St. John of the Revelation: and it is 
against such background of prosperous and powerful 
"Hellenized" Judaism that the development of the 
earliest Christian communities took place. 

Finally, for the Islamic era, we have proved by a 
hoard of Turkish "feudal" coins that the citadel was 
still being used around 1420 after the alleged 



destruction by Tamerlane (1402), and we have been 
able to show that making of glass objects went on at 
the village workshops which had been installed in the 
little Church E until the domes of the building were 
overthrown by an earthquake perhaps as late as the 
eighteenth centurv. 

The full impact of our finds . . . will become 
evident as publication progresses; but already a dozen 
or so diversified publications each year attest to the 
interest of the Sardis finds. Architecture, archeology, 
anthropology, epigraphy; geophysics, geology, and 
metals analysis; study of languages and religions; 
history of all kinds— these are but a few of the general 
fields involved. To bring all of these together in 
the final synthesis on Sardis will be a high aim 
to strive for. 




59 



^^^^^^^ \ 



I 






m^f^' 



\'%0^!j. 






Cemetery Ecology 



In search of more recreational lebensraum, 
urban man is beginning to exploit a new niche 

t>v Jack W'ai'd Tliomas and Ronald A. Dixon 



Being country boys, it was not 
unusual for us to try to escape our 
stufR office in Aniherst, Massachu- 
setts, in search of a more refreshing 
site to eat lunch. What was unusual 
is that our search ended in a ceme- 
tery adjacent to the U.S. Forest Ser- 
vice building where we worked. 

Other people, however, also had 
the same idea. On anv clear, warm 
day, secretaries, bank tellers, and 
sales clerks Could be seen having 
lunch and quietly conversing. Chil- 
dren walked or rode bicycles 
through the cemetery on their way 
to school, teachers brought their 
classes to the area, and tourists reg- 
ularly visited the gravesite of Emily 
Dickinson. Wildlife, too, used the 
cemetery, and we often saw or 
heard a dozen different animal spe- 
cies in half an hour. 

It was dul'ing these lunch breaks 
that we realized that urban cemeter- 
ies provide city dwellers with ideal 
multiple-use open space, and that 
these areas could be systematically 
managed for recreation and wild- 
life. Proceeding with some prelimi- 
nary research in Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, we found that cemeteries 
made up approximately 33 percent 
of the remaining open space in the 
developed portion of that city. But 
Springfield residents generally have 
ready access to nearby undeveloped 
land, and there is a supply of for- 
ested land even within the city lim- 
its. We wanted to test our ideas 
about cemetery management in a 



city that was past this stage of de- 
velopment, a city that had placed 
most or all of its land resource into 
specific use categories. Therefore, 
we chose Greater Boston. 

Cemeteries in Boston and its sub- 
m-bs— Arlington, Belmont, Brook- 
line, Cambridge, Dedham, Newton, 
Somerville, Waltham, and Water- 
town— take up some 35 percent of 
the 4,903 acres of open space re- 
maining in the area. Because of the 
scarcity of such land, the 1,716 
acres enclosed in fifty cemeteries 
represent an extremely valuable re- 
source. Once we had our study 
area, we could begin investigating 
such questions as: What wildlife 
species— especially birds— and how 
many, nest, feed, and find shelter in 
cemeteries? Can cemeteries serve as 
natural science laboratories for 
neighborhood schoolchildren? How 
much and what kind of recreational 
use is being made of these areas? 
What are the attitudes of cemetery 
managers on present and future rec- 
reational uses of cemeteries? 

We found that there were 
twenty-three managers in charge of 
the fifty cemeteries in our study 
area, and we received ready and en- 
thusiastic permission to study all 
but one. The manager of a small 
historic cemetery adjacent to a 
county prison explained that we 
might upset the routine activities of 
the prisoners, who maintained the 
grounds and also used them for out- 
door recreation. 



From June to September of last 
year, we traversed more than 200 
miles of transect line, recording the 
kinds and numbers of bird species 
we encountered. During this period 
95 species were heard or seen, in- 
cluding such surprises as the great 
blue heron, sharp-shinned hawk, 
sparrow hawk, bobwhite, ring- 
necked pheasant, black-billed 
cuckoo, belted kingfisher, rufous- 
sided towhee, and Wilson "s warbler. 
The number of birds in each ne- 
cropolis varied in relation to the 
size of the cemetery and the diver- 
sity and quantity of vegetation. 

Systematic searching revealed 
1,195 nests of 34 different bird spe- 
cies. Common starlings, robins, and 
blue jays accounted for 36.5 per- 
cent of the nests, while the less fre- 
quent yellow-shafted flickers, song 
sparrows, catbirds, ring-necked 
pheasants, and mockingbirds ac- 
counted for another 26.6 percent. 
This was no surprise, but the wide 
distribution of breeding birds over 
the study area was unforeseen. De- 
spite the insular aspects of cemeter- 
ies in the city, their small size, and 
the surrounding human devel- 
opment, many birds of varied spe- 
cies were able to raise broods suc- 
cessfully. 

In addition to avian habitat, the 
cemeteries provided adequate 
niches for a number of mammals. 
Twenty species were observed, in- 
cluding raccoons, striped skunks, 
red foxes, woodchucks, red squir- 

6i 



Activities Found in 50 Greater Boston Cemeteries 


During 200 Hours of Study 






Total Number of 


Activity 




People Engaged 


Family gravesite visits 




726 


Historic gravesite visits 




657 


Car drivers passing through 




323 


Pleasure walking 




256 


Relaxing or sleeping 




218 


Bicycling 




104 


Dog walking 




40 


Athletics, including baseball 


football, 




golf, jogging, and Frisbee 


playing 


35 


Games, including chase tag. 


hide-and-seek. 




hopscotch, card playing, and setting off 




fire crackers 




21 


Drug or alcohol consumptior 


1, including 




glue sniffing and marijuana smoking 


18 


Feeding wildlife 




18 


Fishing 




16 


Berry picking 




15 


Chipmunk trapping 




9 


Stone rubbing . 




8 


Gardening 




6 


Model plane flying 




6 


Photography 




2 


Drivers' education 




2 


Eating lunch 




1 


Car washing 




1 


Peeping Tom 




1 



rels, flying squirrels, opossums, 
muskrats, and cottontails. 

Cemeteries with the essential habi- 
tat requirements contained numer- 
ous amphibians and reptiles: com- 
mon garter snakes; stinkpot, 
snapping, box, and painted turtles; 
newts and dusky salamanders; com- 
mon toads, bullfrogs, and green, 
leopard, and pickerel frogs were 
among the species found. A variety of 
fish and insect life was also present. 

Some of the wildlife scenarios we 
observed were the equal of any oc- 
curring in a rural landscape, with 
an added element of excitement be- 
cause of the setting. Imagine stand- 
ing in a 3-acre cemetery in south- 



central Boston, surrounded by 5- to 
12-story buildings, and seeing a 
sparrow hawk deliver a meal of 
fresh-killed rodent to its young; or 
walking through a 15-acre ne- 
cropolis in uptown Brookline and 
flushing a ring-necked pheasant 
with her four-week-old brood. We 
were struck by the ability of these 
birds to exist in these inadvertent 
habitat pockets and often wondered 
how a child from the inner city 
might feel experiencing similar out- 
door adventures. 

Only 13 cemetery owners re- 
ported wildlife management prac- 
tices, and these were largely passive 
and limited in scope. While "chas- 



ing stray dogs or cats," "extermi- 
nathig rodents at cemetery dump," 
"trapping skunks," instructing 
workmen to "take caution of all 
wildUfe when working," "chasing 
off pheasant hunters," and "provid- 
ing a bird feeder" may be com- 
mendable deeds, they are essen- 
tially gestures. Only four of the 
cemeteries could be said to have ac- 
tive management programs. One 
maintains a bird feeder year round, 
and two others "leave natural 
areas" in the form of old fields and 
uncut hay "for pheasant nesting 
and wildlife in general." The 
fourth, Mt. Auburn cemetery in 
Cambridge, does actually consider 
wildlife whenever plantings are 
planned. 

We believe most cemeteries are 
well suited for wildlife habitat man- 
agement, particularly for birds. 
Since this land can support a vari- 
ety of plants, much of it could be 
easily converted to acceptable, even 
prime, habitat for wildlife. By pro- 
viding adequate water, food, shel- 
ter, and breeding sites, the numbers 
of breeding birds can be success- 
fully increased and the activities of 
transient species influenced. This 
procedure has been used exten- 
sively in Europe and North Amer- 
ica to successfully produce game 
animals for hunting. 

Interviews with the managers of 
45 of the cemeteries disclosed that 
58 percent of the interment sites 
are publicly owned by town or city 
governments. Religious organiza- 
tions (31 percent) and private cor- 
porations (11 percent) own the re- 
mainder. Public access is allowed in 
41 of the cemeteries studied; three 
limit access to those people who 
obey the posted regulations. In only 
one cemetery is access limited to 
plot owners and family gravesite 
visitors. 

Most of the managers, however, 
expressed negative attitudes con- 
cerning the use of their cemeteries 
for non-gravesite-visitation purposes 
and offered obvious reasons. In 
many instances an activity cannot 
be tolerated or encouraged because 
of a lack of adequate facihties or 
conditions. There may be no road- 
ways or paths for bicycles. Heavy 
traffic may create a hazard for both 
cyclist and driver, who may be hid- 



62 




den from each other or distracted 
bv the shrubbers" and monuments. 

Because of frequent road inter- 
section accidents between cyclists 
and cars, two cemeteries now refuse 
to allow bicycles inside their gates. 
However, we drove over 4,000 
miles of roadway in city and town 
traffic— including many miles of 
roadway designated bv municipal 
governments as bicvcling trails— as 
well as all existing cemeterv road- 
wavs. and we decided the latter are 
far safer for cyclists than the out- 
side bike trails. 

This is a matter of attitude and 
management. Manv low-cost pre- 
ventive measures could be taken to 



avoid collisions inside cemeteries: 
welcoming signs at entrances might 
serve to warn users of the dangers; 
speed bumps preceding all inter- 
sections could serve as slowing- 
down devices and warnings; and 
stop signs could be erected. Much 
of the cost could be recovered by a 
small user's fee or the expenditure 
could be considered as public rela- 
tions. Laws could also be sought to 
exempt cemeteries from liability for 
accidents resulting from recrea- 
tional use. 

Similar circumstances prevail 
when considering jogging, picnick- 
ing, stone rubbing, dog walking, or 
even ball games. A percentage of 



Littering and vandalism are 
cited by cemetery managers as 
major reasons for not opening 
their gates to recreational 
users. Doing so, hoivever, could 
actually decrease vandalism. 



63 



negative owner attitudes can be ex- 
plained by the experiences they 
have had with cemetery users who 
engage in these activities. Joggers 
are sometimes indiscreet, roaming 
the cemetery at large. Picnickers of- 
ten leave litter behind. Stone rub- 
bers may leave crayon or charcoal 
marks on very old, hand-carved 
monuments. Ball games are played 
without consideration for graveside 
mourners. Dog owners who allow 
their unleashed pets to romp over 
the grounds, defecating and uri- 
nating near or on headstones, of- 
fend not only plot owners but work- 
men and other visitors as well. 

Most of these problems could be 
eliminated through innovative man- 
agement. Some cities today issue 
permits for stone rubbers, and such 
licensing could be extended to in- 
clude other activities. Cemetery of- 
ficials could confine particular rec- 
reational pursuits to designated 
areas. Dog walkers could be re- 
quired to leash their animals and 
confine them to an unused wooded 
area not frequented by workmen or 
plot holders. After inquiry at the 
main office, ball players could 
schedule their game between the 
end of a 10:00 a.m. funeral, say, 
and the beginning of a 2:00 p.m. in- 
terment. If entrants were registered 
with large, colored, number-coded 
badges, cemetery personnel could 
more easily control inconsiderate 
and vandalistic individuals. 

Such problems will have to be 
overcome before cemeteries can be 
managed as multiple-use areas. But 
the overriding problem limiting 
public access to cemeteries, which 
is less easily solved, is vandalism. 
Two types— lark vandalism and the 
less common professional van- 
dalism—were reported and ob- 
served in every cemetery, and there 
seems to be little difference in the 
rate of vandalism from one munici- 
pality to another. Both types are 



Destinations of Outdoor 
School Field Trips in 
Greater Boston Area 

Parks 42.9% 

Private lands 21.7 
Zoos 8.3 

Local neighborhoods 8.0 
Cemeteries 4. 1 

Aquariums 3.5 

Museums 3.2 

Beaches 3.0 

Farms 2.3 

Other 3.0 

Based on 398 teacher ques- 
tionnaires, from elementary 
schools to colleges within a 
one-mile radius of a ceme- 
tery. 1971-72 school year. 



very costly in terms of repairs and 
replacement of property. 

Examples of observed lark van- 
dalism included destruction of forty 
hand-carved slate headstones that 
were more than 180 years old, 
opening of a 200-year-old tomb and 
desecration of the remains, toppling 
of fifteen modern headstones into a 
marshy area, smearing of paint over 
monuments, and the scattering of 
wine, beer, and liquor bottles over 
some twenty graves and tombs. The 
lark vandals are usually groups of 
young people who strike at night 
with no apparent reason. 

Professional vandals are equally 
destructive. Bronze statues, some 
weighing more than 1,500 pounds, 
have been stolen. Almost any re- 
salable item— copper wire, copper 
pipe, machinery, and equipment— is 
vulnerable to theft. This vandalism 



effectively deters a manager or 
owner from allowing public access 
to the cemetery even during day- 
light hours. 

Solutions to this problem are 
critical to the feasibility of multiple- 
use recommendations. In cemeter- 
ies with uniformed security patrols, 
there is a marked decrease in both 
forms of vandalism. See-through 
fencing appears to be a deterrent 
for many unwanted activities. Some 
success in control of vandalism is 
reported by John F. Philbin, execu- 
tive director for Catholic Cemeter- 
ies in Chicago, who has opened 37 
cemeteries for multiple use by the 
public. Old non-see-through fences, 
which "don't stop vandals any- 
way," are being replaced "with 
forms of fencing that are decorative 
and inviting rather than forbid- 
ding." This combination of allow- 
ing public access and fence renova- 
tion has "decreased the occurrence 
of lark vandalism." According to 
Philbin, when children feel that 
cemeteries are important to them 
personally, they are very apt to dis- 
courage improper use by their 
friends and report serious violations 
to authorities. 

A second hurdle is the social ob- 
jection to any use of cemetery space 
other than as a repository of the 
dead. This is a deeply held con- 
viction and cannot be ignored. It is 
ironic that cemetery lot owners in 
Chicago cemeteries in the 1930s 
complained of "noisy, smoking, 
clamoring automobiles" disrupting 
graveyards. People at that time felt 
it was disrespectful to motor to a 
gravesite and suggested a ban on 
autos, allowing only walkers and bi- 
cyclists on cemetery roadways. 
On the other hand, reports from 
the mid- 1800s tell of many New 
England cemeteries that were the 
center of family Sunday socials. 
Picnicking and grave visitations 
were combined to make for an en- 



Except for the tombstones, Boston cemeteries make 

idyllic settings for recreation and wildlife. A 

young man, right, counts bird species for a research 

project, while the man, far right, is attempting to catch 

a chipmunk for pet farm breeding stock. 



64 




6s 




tertaining and enjoyable afternoon. 

There are no ready answers to 
those who consider a cemetery as a 
place where the only function should 
be "respect for the deceased." We 
are convinced that times and de- 
mands change, and so should poli- 
cies. The trick seems to be insuring 
compatible uses and regulating or ex- 
cluding those that are not. Judg- 
ments as to compatibility are apt to 
change with such variables as avail- 
able space, age of the cemetery, lay- 
out of the grounds, and amount and 
type of vegetation. 

Since we are dealing with a cul- 
tural land-use steeped in centuries 
of tradition and bounded in law, 
change could be difficult. Differ- 



In some urban areas, cemeteries provide 

the only habitats in which cottontails, praying 

mantises, and waterfowl can thrive. 




66 



ences of opinion are certain to arise 
over such a sensitive land-use, and 
we implore readers to keep in mind 
George Bernard Shaw's statement: 
"You see things as thev are; and 
vou ask 'Wli\?" But I dream things 
that nt'MT were: and 1 ask 'Uliy 
not?" " 

Actually, the question of whether 
cemeteries should be used for pur- 
poses other than deposition and 
honoring of the dead may be a moot 
one. Our research has shown that 
there already is heavy human use 
for numerous other purposes, and 
when we think about the future, we 
can be sure that these open and rel- 
atively inviolate spaces w-ill become 
increasingly valuable. Their green 



vegetation and lowering trees amid 
urban cacophony and concrete will 
prove irresistible to people seeking 
a brief respite. 

Pressures for readily accessible 
outdoor recreational land are 
mounting rapidly. Tiie Presidential 
Commission on Population has pre- 
dicted that by the year 2000 this 
country's population will have in- 
creased substantially and a large 
majority of these people will live 
and work in cities. Where will they 
find areas for outdoor recreation? 
Existing cemeteries will be among 
the few available areas that could 
relieve the pressures for open space, 
provide some adequate wildlife 
habitat, and improve the quality of 



the human environment of our 
cities. 

But what has developed so far 
has just happened with no plan and 
little view as to where it may lead. 
We do know that ''the times thev 
are a-changin' " and that the bur- 
geoning populations of Boston and 
other metropolitan areas will need 
all the open space they can get— 
from whatever source. Cemeteries 
cannot be ignored; they make up 
too much of what is available. 

Research and management 
schemes should be instituted as 
soon as possible to allow maximum 
compatible use of these areas. The 
space crunch is at hand and time is 
short. " 




ANGEL SOCCODATO 



67 



Tlxe Greater Rhea Chick and 



Switching partners is 
an old— and vital- 
mating practice for these 
ostrichlike birds of 
South America. The male 
gets the offspring 



by Donald F. 
Bruning 



When Charles Darwin reached 
the open pampas of Uruguay and 
northern Argentina on the voyage 
of the Beagle, the existence of the 
large, flightless birds he encoun- 
tered there was already known. Ear- 
lier explorers had thought that these 
gray birds— five feet tall and weigh- 
ing as much as eighty pounds— were 
small ostriches, but when speci- 
mens became available to zoolo- 
gists, that notion was dispelled by 
the great anatomical differences be- 
tween the species. The birds Dar- 
win saw were greater rheas, and 
their relationship to ostriches was 
one of evolutionary convergence— 
both filled similar niches, the 
former in South America and the 
latter in Africa. 

As he traveled southward, Dar- 
win received reports of another, 
smaller flightless bird in the vast, 
dry hills of Patagonia. Legend has it 
that Darwin was the first to deter- 
mine that there were two species of 
rheas. The story goes that while eat- 
ing the drumstick of a rhea killed 
for the pot, Darwin noticed that the 
thigh bone was different from those 
of the rheas farther north; the 
smaller bird is now known as Dar- 
win's rhea. 

Darwin's rheas are also distin- 
guishable by their brown feathers 
bearing white edges, which give the 



birds a mottled appearance. This 
smaller species, rarely attaining a 
weight of more than seventy 
pounds, has a large range that 
stretches from the lightly popu- 
lated, high, arid steppes and scrub- 
land of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and 
Argentina to the Strait of Magellan. 
The greater rhea is confined to the 
more heavily settled pampas, and 
the ranges of the two species do not 
overlap. 

The two birds share a social be- 
havior characteristic of less than 5 
percent of all bird species; they are 
polygamous-polyandrous. Reversing 
the roles of the sexes, the male 
builds the nests, incubates the eggs, 
and cares for the young; the fe- 
male's role is to lay the eggs. 

To understand how this reversed 
role of the sexes operates and deter- 
mine its evolutionary significance, I 
have made two extended field trips 
to the Rio Salado region of Buenos 
Aires province in Argentina, where 
I was able to observe the social sys- 
tem of the greater rhea throughout 
the critical breeding season. 

In the winter months, June to 
September, greater rheas are usu- 
ally found in flocks of 15 to 40 
birds, and up to 70 birds have been 
seen grouped together. (This behav- 
ior—gathering in flocks— probably 
evolved in the distant past to lessen 
predation by making it much more 
difficult for predators to approach.) 
Because many males live a solitary 
existence in the winter, adult fe- 
males and yearlings outnumber 
adult males in these groups. During 
this period, when weather condi- 
tions are often harsh and food is 
scarce, the main concern of all the 
birds is simply survival as they 
search for whatever plants and in- 
sects are available. When spring 
comes to the pampas in late Sep- 
tember, however, the flocks break 
up and rapid physiological and be- 
havioral changes become apparent 
as the birds prepare for mating. 

Those males that wintered with a 



flock are the first to leave it, and all 
males begin to show a striking 
change. Normallv hard to distin- 
guish from females, their plumage 
now becomes darker. Aggression 
between males increases and they 
strut about with head, neck, and 
chest feathers extended so that they 
appear larger than they are. Aggres- 
sive encounters become even more 
frequent as competition for groups 
of females intensifies. No "battles 
to the death" occur, and as in most 
other species, fighting is a series of 
threats and intimidations. The in- 
frequent contacts that take place 
consist of pushing matches in which 
the males grasp bills and attempt to 
push each other off balance. Their 
necks often become intertwined as 
the match progresses. The loser of 
such a bout is able to break off with 
little physical damage, however, 
and his only penalty is to leave the 
immediate area. 

Those males that have attained 
dominance then begin acquiring ha- 
rems by claiming any females in the 
vicinity. Such harems typically 
number from two to fifteen females, 
and these are defended vigorously 
against any approaches or displays 
by other males. 

Early in the harem formation, 
the females continue their daily 
routine of feeding and sleeping and 
almost ignore the male as he pur- 
sues them. As his acceptance is es- 
tablished, however, and the threats 
from wandering, haremless males 
become less significant, the male 
devotes more and more time and 



At night and when it rains, 

the protective male rhea kneels 

on the ground and gathers the 

chicks under his outspread 

wings. Some crawl up his back 

to nestle in his feathers. 



E^S Deliver*y Route 




DONALD F. BRUNING 



69 



In the mid-nineteenth century ranchers hunted 

rheas and used the carcasses for dog food, and 

peasants killed the birds for meat. These activities, 

combined with habitat destruction, greatly reduced 

the numbers and the ranges of both the Darwin's 

and the greater rheu. George Cullin painted 

this scene of a rhea hunt in 1856. 




¥• >♦ 



S^' " v 




energy to displaying for his females. 

In October the pulse of the mat- 
ing season quickens. In display for 
his congregation of mates, the male 
lowers his head, spreads his wings, 
and slowly walks toward the objects 
of his attentions. As the frequency 
of his display increases, the females 
begin to stand still, rather than im- 
mediately moving off to feed as had 
been the case. Once the male is al- 
lowed to approach, his head starts 
swaying slowly back and forth; as 
his actions intensify, a group of fe- 
males congregate around him so 
that he is displaying with spread 
wings and swaying head for a semi- 
circle of admirers. As his ex- 
citement continues to rise, they 
may stand in front of him for a 
minute or two before moving off to 
feed again. 

Eventually, one female remains 
behind. She sinks down on her 

70 



hocks and the male seizes her by 
the feathers on the back of her 
neck, using his bill to secure a grip 
while mounting her. After mating, 
the male drifts toward the rest of 
his harem, ready to begin the pro- 
cess with another partner. 

A male will mate with each of his 
females at least once in a two- to 
three-day period and then, while 
the harem reposes during its mid- 
day rest, he busily scrapes out a 
nest in the ground. After trampHng 
down the vegetation, he scratches 
out a depression with his feet. The 
shallow hole is lined and its sides 
built up with clumps of grass. If a 
female is ready, she will approach 
this nest and lay an egg; but Lf nest 
building and egg laying are not im- 
mediately in synchrony or if the 
male is not ready for the next big 
step— incubation— he may build two 
or three nests within a couple of 




^gSkm-^f: **;.J^«^ ■??§*» ^fJVsi^ 







days before setthng down at one. 
After several eggs have been de- 
posited, the male remains at the 
nest while his females continue to 
wander and feed during the morn- 
ing and afternoon. His crucial task 
of incubating the eggs has now be- 
gun. The females continue to return 
to the area of the nest for the next 
six to eight days for theii- midday 
rest, and during these periods most 
will approach the nest to lay more 
eggs. Most egg laying is so precisely 
regulated that the same female can 




be observed laying within fifteen 
minutes of the same time, usually 
during the hottest part of the day, 
every other day. The reason for this 
precision is not known, but the fact 
that female rheas usually spend an 
hour resting in the vicinity of the 
nest during this period makes it the 
most logical time for egg laying. 

The nesting male becomes in- 
creasingly aggressive toward any 
rhea that approaches. Even a female 
returning to lay another egg must 
approach more and more carefully. 



He threatens her with a loud hissing 
sound so that she pauses and acts 
submissively; only after he quiets 
down does she slowly move in 
closer to the nest. By the time a fe- 
male has spent several minutes ap- 
proaching the nest, the male's ag- 
gressive behavior becomes more 
ritualized and shows elements of the 
courtship display. His head sways 
slightly and he may grasp the feath- 
ers of the female's neck and back 
with his bill. 

Once the female has knelt down 



and laid her egg beside the nest, she 
simply rises and walks away. The 
male immediately rolls the egg into 
the nest with his bill. During the 
early stages of incubation, males 
will roll any egg in sight into the 
nest. On barren ground at the New 
York Zoological Park, males have 
rolled eggs sixty feet into their 
nests; but in the wild they must be 
clearly visible to the male while he 
is sitting. This limits the distance to 
a few feet, depending on the height 
and density of the surrounding 

71 




A female (arefully 

approaches ihe male on 

his nest and lays an egg. 

which he rolls into 

the nest with his beak 

Each female in the harem 

repeats this process until 

the nest is filled iiilh 

from tn enly to Jifty eggs 





72 



vegetation, and some eggrg inevita- 
bly are lost. 

Bv the time there are twentv to 
liltv eggs in a nest, depending on 
I he number of females in the group, 
the male has become extremely ag- 
gressive, and the females will have 
attracted another male who is dis- 
phning vigorously. Furnished with 
this counterattraction, the females 
stop returning to the first nest and 
start following the new male, a tran- 
sition that takes about a week. Dlir- 
ing this period the second male will 
have mated with the females and be 
ready to build his nest. If a female 
is ready to lav before his nest is ex- 
cavated and lined, she simply drops 
her egg out in the open. This hap- 
pens so often that single eggs rot- 
ting in the sun are a common sight. 

A group of ferriales lays eggs for 
one male for approximately seven 
to ten days and then starts laying 
for the next male. Less dominant 
males each get their turn as the sea- 
son progresses. Each group of fe- 
males may lay eggs for ten to twelve 
males during the breeding season. 

The male usually does not start 
incubating the eggs from the first 
day that he remains at the nest. For 
the fii'st two or three days he sits on 
them, but keeps an insulating layer 
of feathers between his warm body 
and the eggs so that they may be only 
one or two degrees warhier than the 
soil on which they rest. On about the 
third day the male starts true in- 
cubation bv allowing his warm skin 
to touch the eggs and by spreading 
his wings slightly on both sides to 
hold in the heat. It is then that he 
becomes so aggressive toward the 
females that they will accept the at- 
tentions of another male. 

During incubation the male 
leaves the nest for short periods 
during the warmest part of the day. 
When off the nest, he eats contin- 
ually and stops to drink water if it 
is readily available. Time off the 
nest seems to vary more with the air 
temperature and sunshine than with 
the stage of incubation— ten or fif- 
teen minutes on a cool day but 
nearly an hour on a hot one. 

Only a small number of nests are 
successful. Many are abandoned if a 
rotten egg explodes or if a male is 
disturbed too frequently. Nests are 
often deserted for no apparent rea- 



son, and, once the heat of summer 
really starts in January, most nests 
are abandoned. These nests belong 
to the fifth, sixth, or seventh males 
in the mating order, and the impor- 
tance of dominance at the begin- 
ning of the breeding season be- 
comes apparent as natural selection 
works against late breeders. Be- 
cause of the profligate wastage, it is 
important to the species that as 
many young as possible are raised 
bv each successful male. 

Rhea chicks usually hatch on the 
thirty-sixth or thirty-seventh day of 
true incubation. Since the male re- 
mains at the nest for only twenty- 
four to thirty-six hours after the 
chicks start hatching, there must be 
mutual stimulation of the eggs to in- 
duce synchronized hatching. Such 
stimulation can result in eggs that 
may have been laid up to a week 
apart hatching within twenty-four 
hours of each other. 

Experiments conducted in in- 
cubators and under males at the 
New York Zoological Park, as well 
as observations in the wild, show 
that if the eggs are in shell-to-shell 
contact, those with as much as eight 
days' difference in age may be stim- 
ulated td hatch together. The adap- 
tive advantage of such synchronized 
hatching is evident: eggs left in the 
nest when the male leaves with his 
chicks are usually doomed. Even 
with this adaptation, many fertile 
eggs are abandoned simply because 
they do not hatch within the 
twenty-four hour period after the 
first egg has hatched. Some few 
chicks may pip the egg and hatch 
after the male leaves the nest if the 
air temperature is relatively high, 
but in the open not many get past a 
pip; predators are almost sure to 
break the punctured shell and eat 
the fetus before it has a chance to 
emerge. 

Because of the adult rhea's large 
size and speed, it has few predators 
other than man. A chick without 
the protection of an adult, however, is 
quite vulnerable to small mammals, 
such as foxes and opossums, or to 
caracaras and chimango hawks, two 
birds of prey that pose the greatest 
threat. Both of these birds wait 
patiently for broken or late-hatching 
eggs or for a chick that cannot keep 
up with its siblings. 



Predators and scavengers de- 
scend almost immediately on a nest 
when the male leaves with his 
brood. Most natural enemies are un- 
able to break a whole egg and must 
wait for broken and pipped eggs, as 
well as for the remains of those that 
have hatched. Although the thick 
shells, varying from three one-hun- 
dredths to five one-hundredths of an 
inch, offer protection during those 
brief periods when the male leaves 
the incubating eggs untended, they 
are more difficult for the chicks to 
break through when hatching. 

Once the male leaves the nest 
with his chicks, he does not return. 
He is constantly attentive to the 
chicks as he slowly moves away, 
feeding continually. The slightest 
movement or noise brings his head 
to an upright, alert position. His 
first response to danger is to call his 
chicks together and threaten the in- 
truder. If this stratagem doesn't 
work, he gives an alarm call, which 
has the effect of scattering the 
brood in all directions. Each chick 
crouches to the ground, blending in 
with the vegetation, while the male 
goes into a broken wing display to 
lead the intruder away from the 
area. If pursued closely, the male 
will use an evasive zigzag maneu- 
ver, letting his wings slowly drift 
open, then suddenly jerking one 
wing closed as he executes an 
abrupt turn. Having eluded his pur- 
suer, he gives the all-clear signal by 
making a soft, bill-clapping sound, 
and the chicks come out of hiding 
to once again cluster at his feet. 

During the first two or three 
weeks the male is extremely aggres- 
sive, and other rheas who wander 
too close are savagely attacked. Us- 
ing his bill as the main weapon, he 
usually succeeds in driving away 
any intruder. 

For the first few days after hatch- 
ing the chicks are most vulnerable. 
They must first of all keep up with 
their father, who may wander as 
much as five miles in one day. At 
the same time they must learn to 
feed without being left behind. 
Caracaras are the biggest threat to 
the young and constantly wait for 
an opportunity to catch one alone; 
aware of this danger, a male rhea 
will attack any caracara that ap- 
proaches too closely. 



73 



So ingrained is his sense of dan- 
ger from the air that the male rhea 
will react to any flying object larger 
than a butterfly. Tlie noisy, aggres- 
sive (but harmless) Argentine lap- 
wing plover is routinely challenged 
and routed, and even small air- 
planes attempting to land in the vi- 
cinity of the chicks are rushed. 

Males with young can be so ag- 
gressive that local gauchos fre- 
quently take a dog along with them 
as they ride their horses out onto 
the open pastureland. A dog's bark- 
ing will usually intimidate a male, 
whereas a lone horseman may be 
charged. Even if the rhea is un- 
likely to strike the horse or rider, 
the vicious charge can cause the 
horse to shy and flee in panic with 
the frequent result that the gaucho 
is thrown and must walk home. 

Herds of cattle are another big 
threat to the young chicks. While 
cattle are accustomed to seeing 
adult rheas, they are very curious 
about groups of chicks. AH a cow 
needs to do is bawl and run toward 
a chick, and in all likelihood the 



whole herd will come thundering 
after. The male rhea may attack one 
cow, but he cannot chase a whole 
herd away. When the chick calls 
and tries to run away, it only stimu- 
lates the cattle even more, and 
many chicks are probably trampled 
in this manner. 

The chicks have two different vo- 
calizations, both of which bring the 
male to their aid, but his reactions 
to each call are entirely difl^erent. 
The first and less frequently used is 
the alarm call; this cry is used only 
when the chick is in immediate 
danger, and it brings the male 
charging to the rescue. The second 
is a plaintive "I'm lost" call, when 
a chick is separated from the male. 
He responds immediately to this 
sound by moving in the direction of 
the caller with the rest of the chicks 
following behind. 

The lonely, plaintive call of a lost 
rhea chick is not at all uncommon 
on the pampas of Argentina during 
the late spring days of November 
and December. Since the males are 
not able to identify their own 



chicks, and the chicks arc unaljlc lo 
identify their parents, lost chicks 
often end up with males other than 
their parent. This lack of identity 
often results in one male leading a 
brood that ranges from newly 
hatched to two-month-old chicks. 
However, if the age difference is too 
great, the smaller chicks will suffer 
in two ways: they will not be able to 
keep up with the older ones and 
they will not be brooded as efli- 
ciently. 

Rhea chicks start eating when 
only two or three days old. Their 
greatest stimulation for feeding 
comes from constantly following 
the male as he slowly moves along 
pecking at plants and insects. Imi- 
tatively, they start picking at clover 
and other small plants, and soon af- 
ter, they start chasing the insects 
that the male and other chicks have 
stirred up. 

As the chicks grow, they feed on 
an increasingly larger proportion of 
plant materials. Eventually, as 
adults, they feed mainly on broad- 
leaved plants, some grass, and a few 




A rich yellow when laid, abandoned rhea eggs, 

above, bleach rapidly in the sun. Because 

the male is just beginning to form his harem, the 

group of females, right, do not show much 

interest in his energetic courtship display. 



74 



insects— grass itself probably serves 
larjielv as roughage, which passes 
through the intestinal tract with 
onl\ partial breakdown. Adults 
e\cii leetl on thistles, which nearly 
all other animals ignore. 

(Growth of the chicks is rapid and 
\s hen the\ are three or four months 
old, thev are half to two-thirds of 
their adult size. With the onset of 
winter, their rate of growth be- 
comes much slower; by the follow- 
ing spring they are still slightly 
smaller than the adults. It is doubt- 
ful if thev reproduce in the wild un- 
til thev are at least two years old. 

From this information, the rhea's 
polvgamous-polyandrous social sys- 
tem emerges as an extremely impor- 
tant adaptation for their survival. 
Female rheas lav every second or 
third day; if tlie female also in- 
cubated, she could only lay four to 
six eggs before the hatchability of 
the first started to decline. If she 
started incubating even after the 
first or second egg, she would still 
be limited in the number of eggs 
she could lay because by the fif- 



teenth to eighteenth eggs, liie fu'st 
ones would be starting to hatch. At 
that point tiic female would either 
have to abandon the nest to care for 
her first couple of chicks or ignore 
them and continue incubating the 
remaining eggs. Even if both par- 
ents were involved, they would 
have chicks hatching out over a lull 
month's time. Either the smaller 
chicks would not get enough brood- 
ing or the older chicks would be 
wandering too far from the parent 
while seeking food. 

Because the males incubate the 
eggs, females are free to lay many 
more eggs than in other systems, 
except those in which eggs can re- 
main viable for long periods even if 
not incubated. Rhea eggs are like 
those of most other birds, however, 
in that their fertility and hatch- 
ability decline very rapidly if they 
are held for more than a week be- 
fore incubation begins. 

If only one female laid for a par- 
ticular male, once again the prob- 
lem arises that only four or six eggs 
could be incubated by the male. 



Rheas have solved this problem: by 
gathering a harem, each male in- 
cubates as many eggs as possible; 
yet all eggs in a nest are laid within 
a week so that the chicks will hatch 
together and receive the necessary 
protection and care. 

The next step in the rhea's social 
evolution follows logically. Each 
male can incubate a clutch of 
twenty to fifty eggs, all of which 
must be laid within ten days by a 
group of females whom the male 
then drives away. Another male 
then takes over the harem, and the 
females lay a full clutch of eggs for 
him before moving on to yet an- 
other male. The result is a system in 
which rheas can raise the maximum 
number of offspring. Even if the 
system is wasteful because of the 
number of single eggs dropped by 
females and the number of aban- 
doned nests, it works well for rheas. 
There probably could have been 
several other ways of reaching the 
same goal, but this was the solution 
that developed in the rheas and it 
has proved to be successful. ■ 




75 




On a cold, drizzly November eve- 
ning in 1898, when any sensible 
Englishman would have pulled up 
his collar and hurried toward home 
and a warm fire, four scientists on 
leave from the British Museum of 
Natural History prepared to put out 
to sea. This expedition— if a few 
short days on the wintry North At- 
lantic can be called an expedition- 
was sponsored by the Fishmongers' 
Company, the Drapers' Company, 
and the Royal Geographical 
Society. Its leader was Mr. George 
Murray, Keeper of Botany at the 
British Museum, and his cruise 
mates included a fellow botanist, 
two naturalists, a tugboat captain, a 
navigating officer engaged on two 
days' notice, a crew unfamiliar with 
scientific duties, and an artist 
named Percy Highley. 



This assortment of men and 
sponsors may appear to be a curious 
mixture for an oceanographic 
cruise, but in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, oceanography was a young, 
loosely organized science, and as 
such was open to the advances of 
many an enthusiastic amateur and 
polymath. In the 1870s and '80s, 
for example, it was not unusual for 
retired physicians, newspaper own- 
ers, princes, engineers, and clergy- 
men to put to sea, and with luck 
and hard work they brought back 
new species of sponges and sea ur- 
chins or surveyed the plankton or 
bottom sediments in some pictur- 
esque bay or inlet. 

Fortunately or unfortunately, de- 
pending on your point of view, 
these informal days ended almost 
before they began and by the time 



that Murray and his friends put out 
to sea, the demands of ocean- 
ographic research were becoming 
more rigorous. As Murray discov- 
ered, and was honest enough to ad- 
mit, good intentions were no guar- 
antee of success. 

But mishaps were not on the sci- 
entists' minds that November eve- 
ning, and with high hopes and stiff, 
cold hands, they loaded the last of 
their sampling bottles, nets, and 
lines aboard the chartered vessel 
Oceana, a sturdy— if ungraceful- 
tugboat. Once the gear was safely 
stowed, she left her snug berth at the 
Silverton docks east of London on 
the Thames River and set off toward 
the channel and from there toward 
the west coast of Ireland. 

The object of this cruise was to 
examine the intermediate depths of 



76 




Sad Saga 

of tlxe 

Oceana 



In the early days of oceanography, the road to scientific 
obscurity was paved with well-intentioned mishaps 

by Susan Schlee 



the sea and to determine whether 
planktonic organisms hved there— a 
question that had vexed ocean- 
ographers for the past quarter-cen- 
tury. Murrav explained to his cruise 
mates that 

it had generally been agreed by 
naturahsts that the surface life 
extends down to approximately 
300 fathoms, and that the deep- 
sea life rises to about 100 fath- 
oms from the bottom; but two 
opposed opinions [are] held as to 
the question. Are the dark 
depths lying between these zones 
inhabited, or are they destitute of 
living organisms? One party, 
headed by Prof. [Alexander] 
Agassiz [son of Louis Agassiz 
and a noted American ocean- 
ographer in his own right], con- 



tends that these depths are bar- 
ren of all life; the other, most 
conspicuously represented by Sir 
John Murray [best known of the 
scientists aboard the Challenger 
expedition, but not related to 
George Murray], believes that 
they are inhabited. 

To resolve this question, Murray 
(the botanist) saw to it that the 
Oceana was equipped with conical 
silk townets of conventional design 
as well as two new models of clos- 
ing nets. The former would be 
towed in series on a long cable and 
would be arranged so as to sample 
the water at intervals from the sur- 
face all the way to the bottom. Mur- 
ray realized that conventional nets 
towed at intermediate depths could, 
as they passed through surface wa- 



ters with their mouths held rigidly 
open by metal hoops, inadvertently 
capture some animals from the up- 
per layers. But "the surface forms, 
as indicated by those obtained in 
the surface nets [would be] sub- 
tracted from the total catch of the 
deeper nets" and any remaining 
animals would hopefully represent 
the true population of the con- 
troversial middle zone. 

The use of closing nets, which 
had begun in the 1880s, provided a 
surer and more satisfying method of 
investigation. These nets were low- 
ered tail first or were closed to the 
passing surface waters in some 
other manner; then the slowly drift- 
ing ship towed them at the desired 
depth. A weight, or messenger, was 
slid down the line, tripping a noose 
and throttling the net for its return 

77 




On a U.S. Fish Commission 

ship, four seamen operated 

the Sigsbee sounding machine. 

The ill-trained Oceana crew 

found it a 'tough business. ' 



to the surface. Anything caught in 
such nets would surely be strained 
from intermediate waters. 

Regardless of the gear being 
used, the manipulation of quiv- 
ering, wide-mouthed nets in thou- 
sands of feet of water was heavy 
business, and the men aboard the 
Oceana were pleased to have the 
loan of a sturdy, steam-powered 
winch. The machine had been in- 
stalled amidships, where, unfortu- 
nately, it was committed to a single 
function, that of winding in nets. 
Consequently, depth soundings 
could only be taken over the stern 
of the vessel and would have to be 
wound in with a hand-cranked 
winch. But this sort of thing was to 
be expected aboard a vessel not spe- 



cifically intended for marine re- 
search, and all possible adjustments 
and refinements had been made by 
the time the Oceana sailed into 
Dingle Bay, where the scientific 
portion of the cruise was to begin. 

Tearaght Light was still burning 
when the ship passed out of the bay 
early the next morning and steamed 
due west across the continental 
shelf toward the deeper water that 
lay above the Atlantic Slope. By 
mid-morning, when the 100-fathom 
line had presumably been reached— 
that arbitrary boundary of the conti- 
nental apron— Murray decided that 
to season the nets and the crew a 
routine set of observations should 
be undertaken. As always, the first 
task was to take a sounding. 

A Sigsbee sounding machine, a 
device of American design, was 
readied at the stern of the vessel 
and a detachable weight and sedi- 
ment sampling tube were attached 
to a wire that ran over and under a 
veritable clockwork of reels and 
spools. A sailor with a stopwatch 
gave the signal, the brake was re- 



leased, and the lead zipped down 
into the water. When it struck bot- 
tom some moments later, the wire 
began to run out more slowly— the 
signal to apply the brake and stop 
the machine. An odometer recorded 
the length of wire paid out, and 
with a minimum of calculations, the 
men computed a depth of 89 fath- 
oms. Then the reeling in began. 

Only two men at a time could 
crank the hand winch, and the first 
to offer their services— in fact, to in- 
sist upon the privilege— were Mur- 
ray and the ship's commanding offi- 
cer. Captain Rickman. The two 
cranked the heavy iron handles 
while their comrades stood nearby, 
enjoying the novelty of the expedi- 
tion's first station and offering en- 
couragement as the sounding wire 
slowly spiraled onto a drum. The 
job was much harder than expected. 
Murray and Rickman grew warm 
inside their woolen jackets, their 
faces reddened, and so heavy did 
the sounding line feel that they be- 
gan to joke weakly of improbable 
deep-sea treasures that must have 



78 



snagged the line. As tliev conliiiued 
1(1 reel in, ''th(Mr exhausted ediidi- 
liciii tilled the others with dismay."" 
lor thev I'aeetl the prospeet of doing 
their share of reeling in, in nuieh 
deepci' souiidings. 

At lasl the sampling tuhe was 
siiihted eoining up through the gray 
\vaters. and witii eonsiderable relief 
Murray drew it aboard and e\- 
Irai-ted from the short pipe a sani|)le 
of line sand. The Sigsbee maehine 
was rigged for the next sounding 
and only then was it discoyered that 
MO one had remembered to release 
the brake that stopped the wire 
from paying out. Murray and the 
eaptain had wound in all 89 fath- 
oms with the reels tightly clamped! 

But no matter, the sounding was 
accurate, and with the depth 
known, four townets were attached 
to the main wii-e at proper intervals 
and the lot of them were let over 
the side to stream outward and 
downward behind the ship. To ease 
the strain on the laden wire, which 
twanged like an ill-tuned guitar as 
the ship rolled back and forth, the 
Oceana had been equipped with 
"India rubber accumulators of the 
Admii-alty pattern.'" Like giant rub- 
ber bands, the accumulators, 
stretched between a heavy spar and 
the block that carried the towing 
cable, were designed to smooth out 
the sliip's jerks and sudden yield- 
ings, motions that could otherwise 
kink and snai-1 the wire. Murray 
and the others had never seen accu- 
mulators in use, but although they 
watched attentively, "there was 
never at any time the least evidence 
of elastic play; in short, there was 
never the least sign of their being of 
the smallest use. . . ." 

In a way, it was fortunate that 
the accumulators proved to be dis- 
pensable components of the towing 
gear, for a few days later, when the 
Oceana finally reached the deep- 
slope waters where the most serious 
investigations were to be per- 
formed, it was found that there 
wasn't enough wire rope on her 
drums to allow the townets to trail 
near- the bottom. Consequently, it 
was necessary to splice 500 fathoms 
of two-inch manda line onto the 
cable, but then it was discovered 
that the new line would not pass 
through the block attached to the 
accumulators. There was nothing 
for it but to stow the Admiraltys 
device, pass the lengthened line 




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79 



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(NATURAL HISTORY) 



Despite the many setbacks, 

botanist George Murray 

returned from the voyage with 

high— but false— hopes for 

a scientific discovery. 



over an "old man" block and pro- 
ceed with caution— but without ac- 
cumulators. 

Shortly before dawn the next 
morning, the men began to work on 
one of the expedition's longest, 
deepest, and most arduous stations. 
Murray was particularly anxious to 
set the townets at exactly the right 
depths, and to do this, both the 
depth of the water and the drift of 
any current that could affect the 
angle of the towing wire had to be 
ascertained. The Oceana was now 
well out over the continental slope; 
minute after minute the sounding 
wire ran down into the sea with a 
hum that could barely be heard 
above a rising wind. Bottom was 
found at 1,835 fathoms, a depth of 
more than two miles. 



Although this time they released 
the brake, still "it was a tough busi- 
ness getting all this wire in by 
hand. One hundred fathoms for 
each pair [of men] was hauling 
enough, and the combined muscle 
of the members of the expedition 
and the ship's company was not 
much more than sufficient for the 
work." 

The job wasn't made easier by 
the rolling that had begun, but de- 
spite the rough sea and the green 
water that poured over the rails at 
the least convenient moments, the 
sounding line was finally wound in 
at the cost of great exertion and one 
remarkably bent crank handle. The 
museum men, being collectors both 
by inclination and profession, con- 
sidered the twisted handle con- 
vincing testimony of the rigors of 
the cruise, and happily agreed to 
keep it as a memento. It was hastily 
packed away amid their gear, but 
the handle was never displayed, for 
"its appearance so outraged the 
best professional feehngs of an en- 
gineer of Oceana, that he surrepti- 
tiously straightened it again." 



80 



Meanwhile, work was procccilint; 
rapidly on deck, and sailors liad sta- 
tioned themselves lore and all to 
calculate the drill of the current. In 
do this, a sailor in the how threw a 
piece ot matchhoardiuK into the wa- 
ter, while another limed the wood 
as it drilled the lengjlh ol' the ship. 
On this occasion the malchhoardinii 
picked to measure the diil't was the 
same piece that had been sent dow n 
to 50() Fathoms on the previous day 
to illustrate the awesome effects oi 
deep-sea pressures. That demonstra- 
tion had failed dismally, for the 
wood had emerged looking exacllv 
as it had before. Now on a signal 
from the timer, the piece was 
dropped overboard. "It instantly 
sank," and the sailors stared in dis- 
belief. Murray happily explained 
that the previous day's experiment 
had compressed all the air spaces in 
the wood, making it as solid as a 
piece of metal. 

The current was finally measured 
with a more buoyant piece of 
matchboarding and the nets were 
attached to the line. The lowest net 
was set to tow only 10 fathoms off 
the bottom "with slender hopes 
... of ever seeing it again." 

The string of nets was let into the 
sea with extreme care and deliber- 
ation, for the sea was rough, the ac- 
cumulators were missing, and the 
organisms to be captured could be 
easily crushed into a paste by the 
bobbing and jerking of the nets. 
Hours passed while the nets drifted 
as much as two miles below the ship 
and it was 1:00 a.m. of the follow- 
ing day before the last of the nets 
came streaming back over the rail. 

"The operation entirely justified 
Mr. Murray's preference for haul- 
ing in by night," wrote Mr. Murray, 
"since the luminosity of the nets far 
below the surface [due to the bio- 
luminescent plankton that they 
were passing through] gave ample 
warning of their approach — a matter 
of importance when careful mea- 
sures for immediate preservation of 
the contents have to be made." 

An unexpected delight was the 
return of the deepest net with a 
small quantity of sediment in it. If 
it had hit bottom, the fine silk net 
would have burst, but if it had been 
more than a few fathoms off the sea 
floor, it would not have sampled 
some of the ooze stirred by the 60- 
pound weight at the end of the tow- 
ing cable. 



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City- 



:j 




Profile view 
of the Sigsbee 
sounding machine. 



Once the oozes and animals from 
all the nets had been sluiced into 
jars of preservatives, labeled, and 
stowed in the forehold, the weary 
naturalists wedged themselves into 
their narrow, rolling berths for a 
few hours' rest. 

Altliough the rough weather con- 
tinued, the crew nonetheless made 
an effort "to do justice to the claims 
of the Tanner [closing] net. It was 
sent down to 650 fathoms, every 
conceivable precaution having been 
taken to ensure a successful haul. 
The apparatus acted as required; 
the messenger . . . released the 
constricting cord." But to their in- 
tense disappointment, the net came 
up empty. "It was impossible to re- 
sist the conclusion that there is 
something amiss in the balance of 
the net, which so tilts it as to seri- 
ously interfere with its catching 
powers. . . . Experiments were also 
made with the Gray net [the other 
closing net on board] in which, 
most unfortunately, a delicate 
spring broke in the heavy sea . . . 
and it was impossible to do more 
than to satisfy the members of the 
expedition that in it, at all events, 
the right principle had been discov- 
ered for an instrument of this sort." 

Murray further reported that the 
"next day the wind slowly fell, but 
the sea still ran very high and the 
barometer continued to sink. 
Towards evening it began to blow 
from the north-east, and soon it 
blew a whole gale from that quar- 
ter." 

There was hope, especially 
among the less seaworthy who 



82 



clung miserably to their bunks, that 
the storm would abate, but bv 2:00 
A.M., as the wind continued to rip 
the tops olT the towering waves, it 
was decided to let the Oceana run 
before the gale and tlien work 
around to the sheltering harbor at 
Queenstown. The vessel rolled and 
pitched into port where she was 
confined by the weather for two 
more days (and where it was 
leai-ned that the gale had been so 
strong that it had blown a whole 
train ofl' its tracks). 

The vessel finally proceeded to 
Penarth in Wales. There she was di- 
vested of her scientific trappings 
and the foursome from the British 
Museum returned to London with 
their samples. 

"It will take several months to 
complete the analysis of the con- 
tents of the tow-nets," wrote Mur- 
ray, "and when this has been done, 
a report of the result will be com- 
municated to the [Royal Geographi- 
cal] Society. In the meantime there 
is full confidence that the material 
obtained will permit of a decisive 
answer." 

But unexpected incidents 
changed Murray's plans, and the re- 
sults of the Oceana s cruise were 
neither published in prominent sci- 
entific journals nor used to prove 
that plankton lives at all levels in 
the sea. As Murray and his col- 
leagues pored over their jars of 
plankton, official reports began to 
arrive from the largest, best- 
equipped oceanographic expedition 
that had ever set forth upon the 
seas. Scientists on the German 
Deep-Sea Expedition, working un- 
der admirable conditions aboard the 
320-foot Hamburg-American liner 
Valdivia, were making hundreds of 
successful plankton hauls. Using 
newer and more sophisticated clos- 
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lantic and Indian Oceans, from the 
surface to tremendous depths, and 
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The grand results were reported in 
scientific journals throughout Eu- 
rope and eclipsed the accounts of 
previous investigations of the 
middle depths. Not only did they 
prove that "no level of the sea is 
destitute of animal life"; they also 
showed, by comparison, that the 
days of the amateur oceanographer 
were over and that the road to sci- 
entific obscurity, like that to hell, is 
paved with good intentions. ■ 



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83 



Books in Revie^v 



by Robert Coles 



Where Humanity Ends 



The Mountain People, by Colin M. 
TurnbuU. Simon and Schuster, 
$7.95; 309 pp., illus. 

In the late spring of 1967 I went 
with five other physicians to Mis- 
sissippi's Delta, there to visit a 
nuniber of homes and examine a 
number of American children. They 
were black boys and girls; some of 
them I had known for a long time, 
almost a decade to be exact. Again 
and again T had described them as 
poor, as subject to discrimination, 
as destined for very little indeed so 
far as money, power, success go. 
Now I had the chance to show col- 
leagues of mine what I had been ob- 
serving: people out of work; people 
denied the vote, denied the right to 
associate in pubhc places with their 
fellow citizens; people continually 
scorned, insulted, humiliated; 
people often without money, living 
in the flimsiest of shacks without 
proper sanitation, sometimes even 
without electricity. 

Now, too, I could begin to point 
out for others what I had only 
slowly come to reahze myself: the 
hunger and malnutrition among 
those children and their parents, 
the various diseases they possessed 
(almost all of them untreated), and 
in some cases the near starvation 
that seemed to be observable. And 
in short time we were all agreed 
that, despite what each of us had 
learned in medical school, there 
were vitamin deficiency diseases in 
those children, as well as severe 
lethargy, bloated bellies, ankles 
swollen with edematous fluid, 
wasted limbs, even an instance or 




two of what seemed to be kwashior- 
kor, the last stages of malnutrition. 

So we went back to our homes 
and thought a while, wrote up our 
reports, and eventually decided to 
exercise our rights as American citi- 
zens. Off to Washington we went— 
earnest, angered, confused about 
what could be done, certain about 
what we knew should be done, and 
most of all, naive. By a stroke of 
good luck Robert Kennedy was a 
United States senator, and through 
friends we were able to present our 
findings to him. The rest is a foot- 
note in American history, and has 
been documented in a number of 
articles, perhaps best of all in Na- 
than Kotz's book Let Them Eat 
Promises. I myself wrote a book 
called Still Hungry in America, 
and in it are photographs that docu- 
ment, all too substantially and pre- 
cisely, what words simply fail to tell 
us at times: the sadness and pain a 
hungry child feels and somehow 
conveys— in his eyes or in the way 
he stands or holds on to someone or 
keeps his distance. 

As I went through Colin Turn- 
bull's extraordinary The Mountain 
People, I began to think of the fam- 
ilies I have worked with (or for that 
matter, now work with) as no 
longer poor and handicapped by all 
sorts of social and economic prob- 
lems, but as fortunate if not privi- 
leged. Indeed, words like hunger or 
malnutrition- (used by me so often 
to describe the children of migrants 
or of Mississippi tenant farmers or 
sharecroppers, or Appalachian chil- 
dren, and stiU on my mind as I 
presendy work with certain Indian 



Tune into 

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and Chicano children in our South- 
west), seem strangely inappropriate 
when they also turn out to be used 
by Mr. Turnbull to describe the Ik, 
a people who live in central Africa 
on land that belongs to, or is 
claimed by, Kenya, Uganda, and 
the Sudan. Only some two thousand 
in number, they appear to be a van- 
ishing people. 

Once they were knowing, 
energetic nomads— hunters who un- 
derstood the terrain they covered 
and obtained from it a fairly re- 
spectable living. Then came 
"progress," in the name of "rnod- 
ern Africa." A large national game 
preserve was created, and the Ik 
were denied the right to wander 
where they please, to kill animals as 
they were needed for food. Tlie re- 
sult is the Ik as they are today— and 
Turnbull describes them in a book 
of great narrative power, with a 
haunting, unsettling, provocative 
quality that is remarkable in this 
day of bloated, overindulged adjec- 
tives. 

In essence we are told how 
people, living in straits so severe as 
to defy our imagination, manage to 
cling tenaciously to what is a liter- 
ally exceptional kind of life. In so 
doing, they become in many ways 
unrecognizable to "us," people with 
plenty of food, comfortable homes, 
and a good degree of certainty 
about the future— tomorrow will 
also bring three meals, and on and 
on. They also become a challenge to 
us, as they most certainly were to 
our intermediary, the author. One 
can go through his book and follow 
the course of that challenge. It is 
one way to come to terms with his 
lucid, stimulating account, which is 
at once concrete and abstract- 
filled not only wdth rich direct ob- 
servations but also with a number 
of psychological, and at times philo- 
sophical, speculations. 

Initially we meet an anthropolo- 
gist deterred. Turnbull did not seek 
out the Ik as his first choice; he had 
other plans and interests (the Itusi 
of the Congo, the Onge of the An- 
daman Islands), but they could not 
be pursued. It is getting harder for 
anthropologists, however sensitive 
and tactful, and Turnbull is both, to 
do their work in a world full, as 
never before, of political disorder 
and social unrest. The Ik were thus 
an afterthought of sorts. For a while 
the author is very much the tradi- 



The 1972 index for 

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lidiial aiilhrnpolofiisl fi;oiiig about 
his UDi'k: makiiifi i-i>iilacls, cslah- 
lisliiug a ruutiiic, bt'jjiniiiiif;; to get a 
sense oC where he is and what he 
will do to make a success of his 
|)i(ijcit. Turnbull may write better 
than nianv who do similar work. He 
mav have a delightful and moving 
wav of involving his readers in the 
story he has to tell and the ideas he 
has to offer. But he set out to study 
a given people, and he has to make 
sure we know where they live, how 
he reached them, and moi'e impor- 
tant, how he established himself as 
a reasonably effective observer. 

In time he began to feel more 
than the usual dismay or regret or 
bewilderment any field worker is 
likely to experience as he goes 
about watching, listening, and tak- 
ing notes. He himself makes the 
comparison with Nazi concentration 
camps: he was face to face with 
people under a kind of stress he had 
never dreamed possible, let alone 
witnessed day after day. In contrast 
to the extremes of those camps, this 
situation seemed less finite, less the 
product of a specific moment (more 
than a decade, alas) of political 
madness. 

No one was out to exterminate 
the Ik. If anything, government of- 
ficials and others wanted to help 
them, offer them food, figure out a 
way to improve their desperate situ- 
ation—all to no avail. Their predica- 
ment was not one that a war could 
end. Cut off from a whole way of 
life, thev were helpless and often on 
the brink of starvation by virtue ot 
social change, rather than a despot's 
deliberate, mm"derous intent. More 
than (or less than) helpless, they 
were virtually inert. Their spirit was 
gone. They seemed interested only 
in survival. Children and the old 
were quickly and often sacrificed to 
that end. Suspicion was the rule, 
boredom or indifference the domi- 
nant psychological mood— when it 
was not deception or a degree of 
self-centeredness that makes our 
word narcissistic seem curiously in- 
adequate. 

All of that Turnbull had to com- 
prehend and also, make peace 
with— if I may put it that way. And 
to my mind, that is the most inter- 
esting and challenging aspect of this 
part of his career as a talented an- 
thropologist and writer: How to 
view the Ik, not only as they are, so 
to speak, but as fellow human 




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beings who may have something to 
teach the rest of us, especially, ol 
all ironies, Americans, generally so 
well fed and comfortable. 

For a while the author is Inm- 
bled, then saddened. Under- 
standably, he can also turn on his 
"subjects," be angered by them, 
judge them as mean, cruel, spiteful 
and vexing in dozens of small ways, 
let alone out of some larger (moral) 
perspective. Eventually, though, the 
Ik become teachers— in the best 
field work, that is what always hap- 
pens. Yet because the Ik live so 
close to death, because they face 
the most demanding and unnerving 
of trials, the lessons they offer are 
hard to grasp, and may be as am- 
biguous as those offered by the most 
subtle and gifted of playwrights or 
novehsts— one thinks of tragedians 
in this case— from Sophocles to 
Kafka. 

For the author, the Ik finally be- 
come an occasion to think about 
America, not with any great hope- 
fulness. They also serve to make 
him wonder exactly what man is, as 
other thoughtful observers have in 
the past and will in the future. He 
does not aim to be a theologian or a 
philosopher, and he is thankfully 
free of psychological pretensions. 
Nor is he interested in coming up 
with theories at any cost, the more 
the better, as is the case with so 
many of today's social scientists. He 
saw people who made him wonder 
what we basically are. Do our mo- 
ments of kindness and generosity 
amount to all that much? Are we 
really as decent and honorable as 
we seem or would like to think we 
are or are absolutely convinced we 
are? Or is there some awful "es- 
sence" in man that the Ik live out 
more openly, with less self-deceit? 
Is their behavior as aberrant, so far 
as "human nature" goes, as it is 
from the point of view of an anthro- 
pologist or sociologist? 

Needless to say, the reader does 
not obtain clear-cut answers to such 
questions. For one thing, the author 
has correctly cautioned us against 
making judgments, living as we do, 
so removed from the misery and 
desperation he has witnessed at 
such length. If we are appalled, we 
had best not turn on him and call 
him overinvolved, given to exagger- 
ation or inclined toward unwar- 
ranted melancholy. On the other 
hand, we do have the right to take 




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issue uitli liiiii uhcii. in llir lasl 
liiapter, lie draws comparisons bc- 
t\vt'(Mi the Ik and ourselves in a vva\ 
lliat sugfjesis that possibh we are 
also doomed. The Ik have lust all 
sense of familv. and we are said lo 
be headed stronijh in that direc- 
tion. The Ik are (iercelv seif-cen- 
lered, and Turnbull destribi's us as 
beiiij; similarlv individualistic to a 
dangerous extreme. 

The Ik seem to incline their ob- 
server to a Hobbesian view of man. 
and to a degree Hobbes's "natural 




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XI 



,3GALLERY 



Dept. 7742, Amsterdam, N.Y. 12010 



man" does indeed seem an earlier 
version of today's Ik. But Hoijbes 
was constructing a political theory, 
not claiming to know as a social ob- 
server what men were like before 
the dawn of recorded history. And 
Turnbull has observed with great 
care and dedication only certain 
men— in this instance, hard-pressed 
beyond any norm and perhaps be- 
yond anyone's comprehension but 
his. Nevertheless, those he de- 
scribes as aloof, shut off, thoroughly 
stingy, or cold, I have the right to 
see as hurt and almost infinitely 
damaged, but by no means a mea- 
sure of man's "basic nature." 

The author repeatedly saw and in 
this book gives us evidence of what 
one might think of as psychological 
embers, a glow of the former selves 
the Ik were. A gesture here, a re- 
mark there, a scene on one occa- 
sion, an incident on another: they 
may be few and far between, but 
they are moments in which kind- 
ness or affection or simply human 
anguish comes across. 

I am a psychiatrist, trained to be 
wary, if not downright suspicious, 
of people and their motives. Yet as 
I read this account of the Ik I saw 



them as people grimly, wretclicdly, 
devastatingly debased, not as rock- 
bottom examples of what we all are 
underneath, but as people cut off 
from what most of us are at least 
trying to be, our constant failures 
notwithstanding: affectionate toward 
others as well as self-regarding, gen- 
erous as well as greedy, reflective as 
well as driven or impulsive. The 
work of psychologists like Piaget 
shows how basic it is for children to 
explore and try to understand their 
world, to reach out knowingly as 
well as cravenly. Yes, children can 
be warped, maimed, turned into the 
"bands" of Ik boys and girls this 
book describes. But is that disaster— 
an ironic version of Conrad's "the 
horror, the horror"— evidence 
enough for the kind of psychological 
and sociological judgments the au- 
thor is understandably tempted to 
make in this fine book? Various 
readers will obviously have their dis- 
tinct answers to such a question and 
the many others prompted by this 
book. 

I can only say here that Colin 
Turnbull has earned every bit of 
discussion his book generates; in 
addition he has earned our grat- 



itude ibr an (exemplary stint of 
work, set down in such a way that 
one shudders, stops, and thinks 
about the most universal of issues, 
and at times looks at the whole 
world diflerciitly. 

Robert Coles is a child psychiatrist on 
the staff of Harvard University Health 
Services and the author of Children of 
Crisis. He is now in New Mexico work- 
ing with Indian and Chicano families. 



To Live on this Earth, by Estelle 
Fuchs and Robert J. Havighurst. 
Doubleday & Company, $8.95; 
390 pp. 

To attempt to describe the edu- 
cational situation of all Ameri- 
can Indian peoples— from the Ever- 
glades of Florida to the tundra of 
Alaska, from the isolation of the 
southwestern deserts to the polyeth- 
nic densities of Los Angeles, from 
the highly assimilated to the cultur- 
ally conservative, from the impover- 
ished many to the wealthy few, and 
on and on— is to beggai" the hyper- 



Three billion years of Red Rock Gonntry 



At the convergence of the states 
of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and 
New Mexico lies the red rock 
country of the Colorado Plateau. 
Relentlessly through the ages the 
rivers have carved these magni- 
ficent Canyonlands, exposing to 
our view the records of departed 
deserts and seas. Algal flats and 
small sea creatures rendered into 
stone are overlain by rock layers 
containing Crustacea and fish, 
and the stony casts of dinosaur 
foot prints. Man himself is not 
neglected by the preserving 
stone ; his drawings and pottery, 



the ruined houses of vanished 
Indians and the scratched names 
of John Wesley Powell and other 
explorers remain behind. 

Red Rock Country is a 
detailed and exciting portrait of 
this extraordinary region. Aided 
visually by twenty-five photo- 
graphs and thirty-four line 
drawings and maps, the 
reader is guided through 
Canyonland geologic his- 
tory from the earliest 
times to present day de- ,fc v-"^ 
velopments, which in- ^^ '«J 
elude the damage %==" 



wrought by damming and the 
ever-constant search for oil. 

For anyone planning to 
visit the Grand Canyon area, 
this geologic history is important 
and fascinating reading. 



To your bookseller or to 

Doubleday & Company, Inc., Dept. 3-NH-3 

Garden City, New York 11530 

Please send me copies of Red Rock Country 



I 



Enclosed is my check or money order. I understand you will pay 
shipping and handling charges, and that I may return the book(s) 
within two weeks for a full refund if not completely satisfied. 



City 



L Offer available only in the U.S.A. and Canada. 




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90 



IkiIi- of llic keynote speaker at a pt>- 
litiral convention. Even within 
what purports to be a single tribe, 
the diversitv and heterogeneih 
must be experieneed to be believed: 
thus, the oflieialU recognized Osage 
Tribe contains wealthy people vviio 
are mostly or entirely white, wliile 
numerous persons of unimpeach- 
able Osage heredity aiT excluded; 
the official chief of the Oklahoma 
Cherokee is an oil magnate, while 
most of the Cherokee who use the 
language and continue the rituals 
£ire impoverished. To encompass the 
diversitv of educational experiences 
of all Indian chiklren. a large and 
complex project was initiated several 
years ago. Included on its staff and 
administration were both Indian and 
white personnel. Now the findings of 
their investigations are set forth in 
this volume, which of necessity has 
much of the character of a minia- 
ture encvclopedia. 

Fuchs and Havighurst describe 
and document the complex facts oi 
Indian education in straightforward 
prose. Thev cut away some aca- 
demic underbrush and decisively 
refute certain theories about the 
poor mental health of Indians (John 
Bryde). They expose the exagger- 
ations of Indian suicide rates. Test 
data are reanalyzed; new and differ- 
ent tests administered; suicide rates 
are assembled by age and sex. The 
situation of Indians remains bad, 
but their children are coping. 

With its abundant, relevant ta- 
bles and forthright descriptions, 
this book should be most useful for 
the planner and for general refer- 
ence. Some sections are extraordi- 
nary in their evocative detail. Tliree 
pages on Indians in Chicago (ex- 
cerpted from the project report by 
Fuchs, George D. Scott, et al.) 
present their problems with a clar- 
ity and simple pathos rare in the lit- 
erature on urban Indians. At the 
opposite ecological pole, the de- 
scription of the remote Alaskan vil- 
lages given bv John Collier, Jr., is 
equally disturbing because the situ- 
ation described is so clearly colo- 
nial. 

Fuchs and Havighurst's investi- 
gations confirm that most of the 
educators who confront Indian chil- 
dren are ignorant of, and indiffer- 
ent to, their distinctive cultural and 
linguistic heritage. One possible 
remedy would be via Indian repre- 
sentation on school boards, but in 



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91 



It's true that sky- viewing conditions are 

not ideal in New York City every night 

of the year. Or even many nights of 

the year. But when it happens! 

Some Sunday night when New 

Jersey's factories have been 

turned off for two days. And 

a storm front moves down 

from Canada, with rains 

washing out the air, rinsing ' i 

off the trees and build- J 

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the sidewalks and gutters. 

And behind it comes the 

crisp, fresh air of a polar ^^ . . 

high. And the sun goes r • 

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they are...a heavenful of stars * 

and planets hanging out, ready 

to grab. But will you be ready for them. 

New Yorker? If you subscribe to Natural 

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But be careful. A lady from Georgia stepped 

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flashlight and tried to find Mar